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Math Analysis Semester 2 Study

Guide
Roots/ Polynomials:

If f(x) is a polynomial of degree n where n>0, then f has at least one zero in the
complex # system.

Know Rational Root Theorem: (factors of last co-efficient/factors of 1st co-efficient)

Know Polynomial Division:

Ex. fx= x3+11x2+39x+29

Use Rational Root Theorem… to get: ±29, ±1 as factors

-1 1 11 39 29
-1 -10 -29
1 10 29 0

(x2+10x+29)(x+1)

Then use the quadratic formula

Rational Functions and Asymptotes:


Vertical Asymptotes: where denominator = 0 (only after factoring and canceling)

Holes (deleted pts): are what cancels out

Horizontal Asymptotes: the # you approach as |x| ∞ (only look @ the


dominant term then cancel)

Steps: 1.factor numerator + denominator

2. Write restrictions (what makes denominator = 0)

3. Cancel (the holes)

4. Denominator = 0 after canceling are the vertical asymptotes.

Ex. fx= x2+2x2x2-x = xx+2x2x-1 x≠0,12 fx= x+22x-1 hole:x=0 Vertical


Asymptote:x=12

Horixontal Asymptote:y=12

***BE ABLE TO GRAPH BY HAND AND STATE THE DOMAIN***

© 2009 Math Analysis Semester 2: Maya Balakrishnan and Tara Balakrishnan


Slant Asymptotes: only occur when power in numerator is ONE larger than power
in denominator

To Find: use Long Division

fx= x3+x2-2x-2x2+ 3

Y= x+1 +-5X-4x2+3
x2+3 x3+x2-2x-1
x3 3x
x2-5x-1
x2 3
-5x-4

Slant:

Sequences
A sequence is a function whose domain is the set of positive integers
Ex. An=3n-2 sequence is 1,4,7,10…
Factorials review: n! = 1·2·3...n
0!=1
5!3!=5×4=20
Summation notation:
i=1nai=a1+a2…+an
Example:
i=372i-1=5+7+9+11+13=45
Arithmetic Sequences
A1,A2,A3…,An
A2 – A1 =d A3 – A2 =d you get the idea
d is the common difference
1, 4, 7, 10 d=3 an=a1+(n-1)d
Sum of finite arithmetic sequence: Sn= n2(a1+an)=n(a1+an2)
Geometric Sequences:
A2/ A1 = A3/ A2=r
An=a1rn-1
Sum of a Finite Geometric Sequence
Sn=1-rn1-r= a1-arn1-r

Sum of an infinite geometric sequence


S∞=a11-r Where |r|<1

Study Guide of Examples for Sequences and Functions:


Linear:

lim 3x+1 = 3(2)+1 = 7

© 2009 Math Analysis Semester 2: Maya Balakrishnan and Tara Balakrishnan


x 2 Proof:
7-ϵ<3x+1<7+ϵ Choose δ = E/3 since all steps are reversible
6-ϵ<3x<6+ϵ
whenever x E <2-δ, 2+δ> and x 2 then 3x+1
2-ϵ3<x<2+ϵ3
E <7-E, 7+E> and the limit is 7
δ=ϵ3

Quadratics:
Lim x2+5 = (2)2 +5 = 9

x2
Proof:

|( x2 +5)-(9)|<E Let ≤1 then |x-2|<1 and |x+2|<5. If we also let |x-2|<E/5 then
| x2 – 4|<E the product:
|x+2| |x-2|<E |x+2| |x-2|<E
let ≤ 1 |x2 – 4|<E
|x-2| <1 |( x2 +5)-(9)|<E
-1<x-2<1 so choose =1 or E/5 whichever is smaller than whenever x E
3<x+2<5 <2-δ, 2+ > and x 2 then x2+5 E <9-E, 9+E> and the limit is 9
|x+2|<5
|x+2| |x-2|<E
|x-2|(5)<E
|x-2|<E/5
δ<E/5
Rationals:
Proof:
Lim (x+4)/(x-2) = (3+4)/(3-2) = 7
Let ≤ ½ then |x-3|<1/2 and |1/(x-2)|<2. If we also let |x-3|
x 3 <E/12 then the product:

|( x+4)/(x-2) – 7|<E |x-3| |1/(x-2)|<E/6


|[x+4-7(x-2)]/(x-2)|<E |-6| |x-3| |1/(x-2)| <E
|(x+4-7x+14)/(x-2)|<E |(18-6x)/(x-2)|<E
|(18-6x)/(x-2)|<E |(x+4-7x+14)/(x-2)|<E
|-6| |x-3| |1/(x-2)| <E |[x+4-7(x-2)]/(x-2)|<E
|x-3| |1/(x-2)|<E/6 |( x+4)/(x-2) – 7|<E
let ≤ ½
|x-3|<1/2 so choose δ=1/2 or E/12 whichever is smaller then whenever
-1/2 < x-3 < 1/2 x E <3- , 3+δ> and x 3 then (x+4)/(x-2) E <7-E, 7+E> and
½ < x-2 < 3/2 the limit is 7
2 > 1/(x-2) > 2/3
|1/(x-2)|<2
|x-3| |1/(x-2)|<E/6
|x-3| (2) <E/6
|x-3|<E/12

X ∞
Lim (x+1)/(x-1) = 1
© 2009 Math Analysis Semester 2: Maya Balakrishnan and Tara Balakrishnan
x ∞
Lim (x+1)/(x-1) = 1
x+∞ ***notice the positive sign
1-E< (x+1)/(x-1) < 1+E
(x-1)(1-E)<x+1
1-xE-1+E<x+1
-2/E + 1<x
true

x+1< (1+E)(x-1)
x+1<x-1+Ex-E
2/E + E/E < E/E –x
2/E +1 <x

Lim (x+1)/(x-1) = 1
x-∞ ***notice the negative sign

1-E< (x+1)/(x-1) < 1+E


(1-E)(x-1)>x+1 ** here x is a negative so you flip the sign**
x-1-Ex+E>x+1
-1-Ex+E>1
-Ex>2-E
x<-2/E +1

x+1>(1+E)(x-1)
x+1>x-1+Ex-E
1>1+Ex-E
2+E>Ex
x<2/E +1
true since x-∞ so x is a negative
Proof:

Choose |x0| = |2/E +1| **choose the value farther from zero if there are 2 different answers** then for all |
x|>|x0| (x+1)/(x-1) E <1-E, 1+E> and the limit is 1.

5.3 Properties of Logs

y = loga x
if
x = ay

remember e is just the natural log, and can be used like any other number

so
loge x = ln x

© 2009 Math Analysis Semester 2: Maya Balakrishnan and Tara Balakrishnan


logb x logx ln x
loga x = = =
change of base logb a loga ln a

loga (uv) = loga u + loga v

u
loga = loga u − loga v
v

loga u n = n loga u

ln(uv) = ln(u) + ln(v)

u
ln( ) = ln(u) − ln(v)
v

lnu n = n lnu

and the log of 1 is 0

***remember to use these rules to solve logarithmic equations

3.1 Exponential Functions

P is the initial investment and r is the interest rate (write % as

A = Pe rt
decimal)

this formula is used for continuous compounding which means that the investment
is compounded an infinite amount of times per year (t). A is the ending amount

For n compoundings per year:

t is the number of years and n is the number of times per year the
r
A = P(1+ ) nt
n
amount P is compounded. R is the rate of interest (write 3% as .03)

Annuities: some payment over a length of time

PV= Present value

© 2009 Math Analysis Semester 2: Maya Balakrishnan and Tara Balakrishnan


© 2009 Math Analysis Semester 2: Maya Balakrishnan and Tara Balakrishnan