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INDUCTION MOTORS AND ITS MANUFACTURING STAGES: INDUCTION MOTORS: As a general rule, conversion of electrical power onto mechanical

power takes place in the rotating part of electric motor. In AC motors the rotor does not receive electric power by conduction but by induction in exactly the same way as a secondary of a 2-win ding transformer receive its power from the primary. That is why such motors are known as Induction motors. Advantages: 1. It has very simple and extremely rugged, almost unbreakable construction (especially squirrel cage type motors). 2. Its cost is low and it is very reliable. 3. It has sufficiently high efficiency. In normal running condition, no brushes are needed hence frictional losses are reduce. It has a reasonable good power factor. 4. It requires minimum of maintenance. 5. It start up from rest and needs no extra starting motor and hence not to be synchronised. It starting arrangement is simple especially for squirrel cage motor.

Disadvantages: 1. Its speed cannot be varied without sacrificing some of its efficiency. 2. Just like a DC shunt motor, its speed decrease with increase in load. 3. Its starting torque is some what inferior to that of DC shunt motor.

APPLICATION OF INDUCTION MOTORS

INDUCTION MOTORS IN ABB Basically 4 types of motors are manufactured in ABB, these are as follows: 1) Standard Totally Enclosed Fan Cooled (TEFC) Squirrel cage motors. 2) M2000 Energy Efficient motors. 3) Standard Screen Protection Drip Proof Squirrel Cage motors- Type Q. 4) Totally Enclosed Fan Cooled (TEFC) Squirrel Cage Flame Proof motors.

EXPLATIONATION OF TYPES OF MOTORS:

1. Standard Totally Enclosed Fan Cooled (TEFC) Squirrel cage motors: In such motors, cooling air is drawn into the motor by a fan mounted on the shaft .This air is forced through the motor between the inner fully enclosed frame and an outer shell, over the end balls and the stator laminations and is then discharged through openings in the opposite side. An internal fan carries the generated heat to the totally enclosing frame, from where it is conducted to the outside. Because of totally enclosing frame, all working parts are protected against corrosive or abrasive effects of fumes, dust and moisture. 2. M2000 Energy efficient motors: The M2000 series is latest in the family of ABB motors. These are very popular in market as M2BA Motors. The M2000 series is approved by EIL.Increased safety and Non sparking motors in M2000 series are certified by CMRI, Dhanbad and CCE, Nagpur. Silent Features of M2000 Motors a) High efficiency motors b) Standard 50 deg C ambient c) Low temperature rise d) Low vibration e) Low noise f) Flexible terminal box position g) HT grease h) Dual mounting holes

3. Standard Screen Protection Drip Proof Squirrel Cage motors-Type Q: The frames of such motors are so constructed that liquid drops or dust particles, falling on the machine at any angle greater than 15 degree from the vertical, cannot enter the motor, either directly or by striking and running along a horizontal or inwardly inclined smooth surface. 4. Totally Enclosed Fan Cooled (TEFC) Squirrel Cage Flame Proof motors: These motors are similar to the totally enclosed fan cooled squirrel (TEFC) cage motors but in addition to that they are flame proof.

ASSEMBLED VIEW OF MOTOR:

Fan cover Terminal box

Fan

End shield

End shield Outer bearing cover

Inner bearing cover Bearing Inner bearing cover Outer bearing cover Bearing

Frame Shaft

1. Frame: Made of close grained alloy cast iron. 2. Stator and Rotor core: Built from high quality low loss silicon steel lamination and flashed enameled on both sides.

3. Stator and Rotor winding: Have moisture proof tropical insulation embodying mica and high quality varnishes. Are actually spaced for most effective air circulation and rigidly braced to withstand centrifugal forces and any short circuit stresses. 4. Air Gap: The stator rabbets and bore are machined carefully to ensure uniformity of air gap. 5. Shaft and Bearing: Ball and roller bearings are used to suit heavy duty, trouble free running and for enhanced service life. 5. Fans: Light aluminium fans are used for adequate circulation of cooling air and are securely keyed onto the rotor shaft. 6. Slip ring and slip ring enclosure: Slip rings are made of high quality phosphor bronze and are of modulated construction.

The manufacturing departments are: 1. machine shop (a) (b) housing & component shell shafting & rotor line

2. die casting shop 3. main assembly line (a) (b) (c) BU-1(motor of frame size 71 to 160 are assembled here) BU-2 (motor of frame size 160 to 355 are here) Final testing & dispatching

1.

ACTIVITY IN MACHINE SHOP As for a motor its housing and rotor is big and heavier parts and it requires mechanical works so I started my first movement from machine shop.in m/c shop two departs are works called 1. housing & component cell 2. Shafting and rotor body. In housing and component cell following mfg. process is done 1. 2. 3. 4. work on housing as per frame size work on enshield both NDS&DS as per housing frame size work on bearing cover inside and outside work on terminal box

In shafting and rotor body deptt.mfg process is done. 1. 2. 3. work on different m/c to make a complete motor shaft pressing of shaft in die casted and fabricated rotor Work for rotor turning and then balancing the rotor.

2. ACTIVITIES IN DIECASTING SHOP: The rotor used in the motor is Die-casted. For this purpose factory has a separate die-casting Shop.

Silicon steel stampings supplied by the vendors are used for Die-casting of different rotor body. For this purpose company has two die-casting machines of HMT made

3. ACTIVITY IN ASSEMBLY LINE: Assembly line is the main motor production line of the factory. Production line is divided into two lines called BU-1 and BU-2. BU here stands for business unit. In both units inrange motors are produced. (Only three phase sq. cage induction motor) BU-1: Here three-phase induction motor from frame size 71 to 160 is assembled. BU-2: Here three-phase induction motor from frame size 180 to 355 is assembled.

The working process of BU-1 can be easily understand by process flow chart given below: -

Cleated stack issued from store stack turning

MANUAL WINDING SECTION Stator Pressing in housing STATOMAT

AUTO WINDING SECTION Stator winding done with CNC m/c Lead making Paper cutting & Insertion in stator Coil making of Cu wire According to Connection

Manual winding, connection Shaping & pasting requirement of

Pressed Wound stator , stator shaping & pasting


Testing

Dipping to oven for Varnishing Complete stator send to post assembly (Here rotor fitted with bearing NDS& DS both, enshields DS & NDS & other accessories are fitted & complete motor is produced) Final testing, painting and dispatch. For line BU-2 the same working process like as BU-1 is done.

Testing High Voltage test:- the basic formula for calculating the value of voltage for h.v test is 2U+1000 (u is the supply voltage ) High voltage test is performed to check the leakage resistance between phase to phase &phase to earth. Surge test:- basically surge test is the impedance comparison tester. The basic rule is this in 3 phase motor three phases should be balanced either by resistance or by inductance. It means their impedance should be matched. Surge tester consist of a cathode ray tube with vertical & horizontal settings.at every check point or in every test two phases are compared. The applied voltage to test is 5KV peak to peak.

Assembly In assembly all the parts from every process department comes to assembly.there is some special item like space heaters (if req. by the customer) and thermisters are added. The arrangement of terminal box is specified by the customer.after assembly of the motor ,the motor is offered for final inspection.

Various types of testing As the motor is finally assembled in the assembly dept. and after this some tests are become essential to do on the motor which is very useful to

show various aspects which is expected by the manufacturer. In order to fulfil the customer requirements. As company do many types of tests which are summaries as follows. The standard test programmes are divided in to four parts 1. 2. 3. 4. Routine test Type test Optional test Special test

The routine test is done to every machine .type test is performed in addition to routine test.optional tests are additional type tests subjected to mutual agreement between purchaser and the manufacturer,special test are needed if the machine has to run in special conditions.

Contents of test programmes 1. Routine tests (This test includes) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. insulation resistance test measurement of resistance of stator locked rotor test no load test reduced running voltage test high voltage test

2.

Type test (This includes) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. dimensions measurement of resistance of stator locked rotor test temp. rise test full load test no load test at rated voltage reduced voltage running test momentary overload test insulation resistance test high voltage test optional test (This includes) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. vibration severity test sound level measurement degree protection test temp. rise test at limiting values of voltage and freq. Variation over speed test test on insulation system

2.

4.

Special test (This includes) 1. 2. 3. acceleration const.test(b value test, for roller table motors) to time test(for increased safety motors) suitability to pwm supply

Final Testing. There is two type of inspection. Type test Routine test Type test is only done under customers req. and inspected by inspecting authority or for prototype motors. Each and every motor is routine tested, routine test consist of following tests 1. High voltage test 2. d.c resistance test 3. megger test 4. Lock rotor test 5 .No load test High voltage test is performed at 2 kV. For phase to phase & phase to earth. D.C. resistance is also compared here with the design values.