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2D PRIMITIVES 1. Define Computer graphics. Computer graphics remains one of the most existing and rapidly growing computer fields. Computer graphics may be defined as a pictorial representation or graphi cal representation of objects in a computer. 2. Name any four input devices. Four input devices are keyboard, mouse, image scanners, and trackball. 3. What is resolution? The maximum number of points that can be displayed without overlap on a CRT is referred to as the resolution. 4. Write the types of clipping? Point clipping, line clipping, area clipping, text clipping and curve clipping. 5. Define pixel? Pixel is shortened forms of picture element. Each screen point is referred to as pixel or pel. 6. What is frame buffer? Picture definition is stored in a memory area called frame buffer or refresh buf fer.

7. What is point in the computer graphics system? The point is a most basic graphical element & is completely defined by a pair of user coordinates (x, y). 8. Write short notes on lines? A line is of infinite extent can be defined by an angle of slope q and one point on the line P=P(x,y). This can also be defined as y=mx+C where C is the Yintercept. 9. Define Circle? Circle is defined by its center xc, yc and its radius in user coordinate units. The equation of the circle is (x-xc) + (y-yc) = r2. 10. What are the various attributes of a line? The line type, width and color are the attributes of the line. The line type inc ludes solid line, dashed lines, and dotted lines. 11. What is Transformation? Transformation is the process of introducing changes in the shape size and orientation of the object using scaling rotation reflection shearing & translati on etc. 12. What is translation? Translation is the process of changing the position of an object in a straight-l ine path from one coordinate location to another. Every point (x , y) in the object must under go a displacement to (x|,y|). the transformation is: x = x + tx ; y = y+ty 13. What is rotation? A 2-D rotation is done by repositioning the coordinates along a circular path, i n the x-y plane by making an angle with the axes. The transformation is given by: X = r cos (q + f) and Y 14. What is scaling? = r sin (q + f).

A 2-D rotation is done by repositioning the coordinates along a circular path, i n the x-y plane by making an angle with the axes. The transformation is given by: X = r cos (q + f) and Y| = r sin (q + f). 15. What is shearing? The shearing transformation actually slants the object along the X direction or the Y direction as required. ie; this transformation slants the shape of an object a long a required plane. 16. What is reflection? The reflection is actually the transformation that produces a mirror image of an object. For this use some angles and lines of reflection. 17. Distinguish between window port & view port? A portion of a picture that is to be displayed by a window is known as window port. The display area of the part selected or the form in which the selected pa rt is viewed is known as view port. 18. Define clipping? Clipping is the method of cutting a graphics display to neatly fit a predefined graphics region or the view port 19. What is the need of homogeneous coordinates? To perform more than one transformation at a time, use homogeneous coordinates or matrixes. They reduce unwanted calculations intermediate steps saves time and memory and produce a sequence of transformations. 20. Distinguish between uniform scaling and differential scaling? When the scaling factors sx and sy are assigned to the same value, a uniform scaling is produced that maintains relative object proportions. Unequal values f or sx and sy result in a differential scaling that is often used in design applicat ion 21. What is fixed point scaling?

The location of a scaled object can be controlled by a position called the fixed point that is to remain unchanged after the scaling transformation. 22. What is Zooming? Zooming means enlarging a digital image to see it more clearly or make it easier to alter. It allows the user to see more detail for a specific area of the image. 23. What is Rubber Banding? Rubber Banding is another form of zooming. The user can use a mouse to define two corners of a rectangle. The selected area can be copied to a clipboar d, cut, moved or zoomed. 24. What is an output primitive?

Graphics programming packages provide function to describe a scene in terms of these basic geometric structures, referred to as output primitives. 25. List out the graphics applications

. paint programs : Allow you to create rough freehand drawings. The images are stored as bit maps and can easily be edited. . illustration/design programs: Supports more advanced features than paint programs, particularly for drawing curved lines. The images are usually stored in vector-based formats. Illustration/design programs are often called draw programs. . presentation graphics software : Lets you create bar charts, pie charts, graphic s, and other types of images for slide shows and reports. The charts can be based on data imported from spreadsheet applications. . animation software: Enables you to chain and sequence a series of images to simulate movement. Each image is like a frame in a movie. . CAD software: Enables architects and engineers to draft designs.

. desktop publishing : Provides a full set of word-processing features as well as fine control over placement of text and graphics, so that you can create newsletters, advertisements, books, and other types of documents.

UNIT II 3D CONCEPTS 1. Define Projection? The process of converting the description of objects from world coordinates to viewing coordinates is known as projection. The process of displaying 3D into a 2D display unit is known as projection. The projection transforms 3D objects int o a 2D projection plane 2. What are the steps involved in 3D transformation? Modeling Transformation Viewing Transformation Projection Transformation Workstation Transformation 3. What do you mean by view plane? A view plane is nothing but the film plane in camera which is positioned and oriented for a particular shot of the scene. 4. List out the 3D Issues? . More Complicated Objects than 2D . More involved geometric transformations

. Viewing transformations much more complicated . Projection onto a two dimensional output display (usually) . Identification of Visible Surfaces 5. What you mean by parallel projection? Parallel projection is one in which z coordinates is discarded and parallel lines from each vertex on the object are extended until they intersect the view plane. 6. What do you mean by Perspective projection? Perspective projection is one in which the lines of projection are not parallel. Instead, they all converge at a single point called the center of projection. 7. What is Projection reference point? In Perspective projection, the lines of projection are not parallel. Instead, they all converge at a single point called Projection reference point. 8. Define computer graphics animation? Computer graphics animation is the use of computer graphics equipment where the graphics output presentation dynamically changes in real time. This is often also called real time animation. 9. What is two lining? It is the process, which is applicable to animation objects defined by a sequence of points, and that change shape from frame to frame. 10. Define frame? One of the shape photographs that a film or video is made of is known as frame. 11. What is key frame? One of the shape photographs that a film or video is made of the shape of an object is known initially and for a small no of other frames called keyframe

12. Define Random scan/Raster scan displays? Random scan is a method in which the display is made by the electronic beam which is directed only to the points or part of the screen where the pictur e is to be drawn. The Raster scan system is a scanning technique in which the electrons sweep from top to bottom and from left to right. The intensity is turned on or off to light and unlight the pixel. 13. What is bit map? A bit map (often spelled "bitmap") defines a display space and the color for each pixel or "bit" in the display space. A Graphics Interchange Format and a JP EG are examples of graphic image file types that contain bit maps. A bit map does not need to contain a bit of color-coded information for each pixel on every row. It only needs to contain information indicating a new color as the display scans al ong a row. Thus, an image with much solid color will tend to require a small bit map . Because a bit map uses a fixed or raster graphics method of specifying an image, the image cannot be immediately rescaled by a user without losing definition. A vector graphics graphic image, however, is designed to be quickly rescaled. Typically, an image is created using vector graphics and then, when th e artist is satisfied with the image, it is converted to (or saved as) a raster gr aphic file or bit map. 14. What is Pixel? The pixel (a word invented from "picture element") is the basic unit of programmable color on a computer display or in a computer image. Think of it as a logical - rather than a physical - unit. The physical size of a pixel depends on how you've set the resolution for the display screen. If you've set the display to i ts maximum resolution, the physical size of a pixel will equal the physical size of the dot pitch (let's just call it the dot size) of the display. If, however, you've set the resolution to something less than the maximum resolution, a pixel will be larger than the physical size of the screen's dot (that is, a pixel will use more than one dot). The specific color that a pixel describes is some blend of three component s of the color spectrum - RGB.

15. What is RGB? RGB (red, green, and blue) refers to a system for representing the colors to be used on a computer display. Red, green, and blue can be combined in various proportions to obtain any color in the visible spectrum. Levels of R, G, and B c an each range from 0 to 100 percent of full intensity. Each level is represented by the range of decimal numbers from 0 to 255 (256 levels for each color), equivalent t o the range of binary numbers from 00000000 to 11111111, or hexadecimal 00 to FF. The total number of available colors is 256 x 256 x 256, or 16,777,216 possible colors. 16. What is cathode ray tube (CRT)? A cathode ray tube (CRT) is a specialized vacuumtube in which images are produced when an electron beam strikes aphosphorescent surface. Most desktop computer displays make useof CRTs. The CRT in a computer display is similar to the"picture tube" in a television receiver. A cathode ray tube consists of several basiccomponents, as illustrated below. Th e electron gun generates anarrow beam of electrons. The anodes accelerate the electrons.Deflecting coils produce an extremely low frequency electromagnetic fi eld that allowsfor constant adjustment of the direction of the electron beam.There a re two sets of deflecting coils: horizontal and vertical.(In the illustration, only one set of coils is shown forsimplicity.) The intensity of the beam can be varied. 17. List out the methods used for smoothly joining two line segments?

. Mitter join- by extending the outer boundaries of each of the two lines until they meet. . Round join by capping the connection between the two segments with a

circular boundary whose diameter is equal to the line width. . Bevel join by displaying the line segments with butt caps and filling in

the triangular gap where the segment meet. 18. Define bundled attributes?

Individual attribute commands provide a simple and direct method for specifying

attributes when a single output device is used. When several kinds of output dev ice

are available at a graphics installation, it is convenient to set up a table for each output device that lists set of attribute values that are to be used on that dev ice to display each primitive type. Attribute specified in this manner is known as bund led attribute.

19. What is scan line algorithm?

One way to fill the polygon is to apply the inside test. i.e to check whether th e pixel is inside the polygon or outside the polygon and then highlight the pixel which lie inside the polygon. This approach is known as scan-line algorithm. . 20. What is a Line cap? Line caps can be used to adjust the shape of the line ends to give a better appearance. There are three types of line caps. Butt cap which has a square end, round cap which has a semi circle end, projecting square cap which has one half of the line width beyond the specified end points

UNIT III GRAPHICS PROGRAMMING 1. State the properties of Holographic images? Holographic images are . not clear diagrams . 3-dimensional . can also be recorded on materials other than photographic plates . records intensity of light and phase . created by coherent light using a laser beam 2. Define Fractals? Fractals are regular objects with a high degree of irregular shapes. It is a los sy compression technique but it doesn t change the shape of the image. Fractals are decompressed images that result from a compression format 3. Explain Fractal Compression? Fractal Compression is based on image content i.e., it is based on similarity of patterns within an image. The steps in Fractal compression are . a digitized image is broken into segments . the individual segments are checked against a library of fractals . the library contains a compact set of numbers called iterated function . these system codes will reproduce the corresponding fractal 4. State the applications of Document Imaging? Document Imaging is used in organizations such as . Insurance agencies

. Law offices . Country and State Governments . Federal Government . Department of Defence (DOD) 5. Define Compression Efficiency? Compression Efficiency is defined as the ratio in bytes of an uncompressed image to the same image after compression. 6. What is Image Processing? Image Processing refers to processing a digital image using a digital computer. An image processing system will alter the contents of the image. It involves Image Recognition, Image Enhancement, Image Synthesis and Image Reconstruction. 7. Explain Image Calibration? The overall image density is calibrated. In Image calibration the image pixels a re adjusted to a predefined level. 8. What is Grayscale Normalization? The overall grayscale of an image or picture is evaluated to determine if it is skewed in one direction and if it needs correction. 9. What is Frame Averaging? The intensity level of the frame is averaged to overcome the effects of very dar k or very light areas by adjusting the middle tones. 10. What is Image Animation? Images are displayed sequentially at controlled display speeds to provide image animation. Image Animation is the basic concept of displaying successive images at short intervals to give the perception of motion. Image Animation is a technology developed by Walt Disney and brought to every home in the form of cartoons.

11. How Image Annotation is done? Image Annotation can be performed in two ways . as a text file stored along the image. . as a small image stored with the original image.

12. State the resolution of Facsimile, Document Images and Photographic Images? . Facsimile 100 to 200 dpi . Document images 300 dpi (dots/pixels per inch) . Photographic images 600 dpi

13. What is the compression technique used in Facsimile and Document Images? . Facsimile - CCITT Group3 . Document Images - CCITT Group4

14. What are the applications of Photographic Images? Photographic images are used in Imaging Systems that are used for identification such as . Security Badges . Fingerprint Cards . Photo Identification Systems

15. What is Raster graphics? Raster graphics are digital images created or captured (for example, by scanning in a photo) as a set of samples of a given space. A raster is a grid of x and y coo

rdinates on a display space. (And for three-dimensional images, a z coordinate.) A raster image file identifies which of these coordinates to illuminate in monochrome or color values. The raster file is sometimes referred to as a bitmap because it co ntains information that is directly mapped to the display grid.

A raster file is usually larger than a vector graphics image file. A raster file is usually difficult to modify without loss of information, although there are software too ls that can convert a raster file into a vector file for refinement and changes. Examples of raster image file types are: BMP, TIFF, GIF, and JPEG files.

16. Define computer graphics animation?

Computer graphics animation is the use of computer graphics equipment where the graphics output presentation dynamically changes in real time. This is often als o called real time animation.

17. What is key frame?

One of the shape photographs that a film or video is made of the shape of an obj ect is known initially and for a small no of other frames called keyframe

18. What is pseudo animation?

Pseudo animation is creating a sequence of stills, photographing or video graphi ng each still as one frame, and then later playing back the frames at a faster spee d.

19. What is the normal speed of a visual animation? Visual animation requires a playback of at least 25 frames per second 20. What is an intuitive interface?

The intuitive interface is one, which simulates the way a person would perform a corresponding operation on real object rather than have menu command.

21. What is Sprite?

A Sprite is graphics shape in animation and games programs. Each sprite provided in the system has its own memory area similar to but smaller than pixel RAM.

22. What is computer graphics realism?

The creation of realistic picture in computer graphics is known as realism. It i s important in fields such as simulation, design, entertainments, advertising, research, education, command, and control.

UNIT IV RENDERING 1. What is meant by Rendering? In 3D graphics rendering means the calculation of the final image from the scene that includes models, textures, lights, special effects and cameras. The final i mage will be 2D image made of pixels. Utilizing materials, lighting techniques, and renderer s settings one can render multitude of different images from a single 3D scene. 2. Types of Rendering? . Realistic rendering . Clay Rendering . Wire Rendering 3. Purpose of Wire Rendering. The purpose of wire rendering is to reveal the polygon structure of the model. W ire rendering displays only edges of the polygons. Wire render and clay render are often combined. 4. Write the syntax of smooth shading. Syntax: glshadeModel(GL_smooth); It calculates the color at each vertex. It produces much better image.

It computes during scan conversion. 5. List out the drawbacks of shadow mapping. Aliasing especially when using small shadow maps. The scene geometry must be rendered once per light inorder to generate the shadow map for a spot light. 6. What are the two types of textures. Two types of textures are: Bitmap Procedural 7. What are the stages of rendering? Loading the shadow buffer Rendering the scene 8. Write the function of bitmap textures. The function texture (s,t) accesses in the code: color3 texture(Float s,Float t) { return txtr[(int)(s*c)][(int)(t*R)] } where colr3 holds an RGB tuple. 9. List the advantages of phong shading.

. In Phong shading the direction of normal vector varies smoothly from point to point and more closely approximates that of an underlying smooth surface. . More realistic rendering are produced. . The production of specular highlights is much more faithful than with Gouraud shding. 10.Define Texture mapping? One of the most important tool in computer graphics is texture mapping.Texture mapping applies an image to a surface.It allows a simple polygon to appear to ha ve a complex surface texture. 11. List the advantages of flat shading? . inexpensive to compute . Appropriate for objects with flat surface . Less pleasant for smooth surfaces. 12. What are the methods of shading? . Circulism . Blended Circulism . Dark Blacks . Loose cross Hatching . Tight cross Hatching . Powder Shading 13. What is the UDC technique

UDC stands for User Defined Character set.It is graphics animation trick which used in early microcomputer system. 14. List the advantages of shadow mapping? . No knowledge or processing of the scene geometry is required. . Only a single texture is required to hold shadowing information for each light. . Avoids the high fill requirement of shadow volume. 15. What is computer graphics realism The creation of realistic picture in computer graphics is known as realism.It is important in fields such as simulation,design,entertainments,advertising,research,education,command and control. 16. Define shadow volume. . The stencil buffer is used to find the interaction between the polygons in the scene and the shadow volume. . This technique treat the shadows cast by objects as polygonal volumes.

17.What are the steps in rendering 3D texture. . Create the 3D texture . Create Texture Coordinates . Enable Texturing 18.What is the purpose of stencil buffer in shadowing? The stencil buffer is used to compute which parts of the objects in the scene are in the shadow volume.It uses a non zero winding rule technique.For every

pixel in the scene, the stencil value is incremented as it crosses a shadow boun dary going into the shadow volume and decrement as it crosses a boundary going out. 19.What is texturing? A texture image is a rectangular array of pixel data.Applying textures a graphical object to achieve a more interesting image or add information to the image without computing additional geometry.The key idea is to apply additional information to your image is computed and displayed. 20. What is shadow mapping? Shadow mapping is just one of many different ways of producing shadows in your graphics applications each with its own advantages and disadvantages

UNIT V FRACTALS 1. What is Fractals? A Fractal is an object whose shape is irregular at all scales. 2. What is a Fractal Dimension?

Fractal has infinite detail and fractal dimension. A fractal imbedded in n dimensional space could have any fractional dimension between 0 and n.

The Fractal Dimension D= LogN / Log S

Where N is the No of Pieces and S is the Scaling Factor.

3. What is marble texture?

Marble shows veins of dark and light material that have some regularity but that also exhibit strongly chaotic irregularities..

4. What is solid texture?

Solid texture is sometimes called as 3D texture.We view an object as being carve d out of the texture material such as marble or wood.The texture is represented by a fuction texture(x,y,z)that produces an (r,g,h) color value at every point in spa ce.

5. What is Koch curve?

The Koch curve can be drawn by dividing line into 4 equal segments with scaling factor 1/3. and middle 2 segments are so adjusted that they form adjustment side s of an equilateral triangle.

6. What is turtle graphics program?

The turtle program is a Robert that can move in 2 dimensions and it has a pencil for drawing. The turtle is defined by the following parameters. g. Position of t he turtle (x, y) h. Heading of the turtle 0 the angle from the x axis.

7. What is graftals?

Graftals are applicable to represent realistic rendering plants and trees. A tre e is represented by a String of symbols 0, 1, [, ]

8. What is a Particle system?

A particle system is a method for modeling natural objects, or other irregularly shaped objects, that exhibit fluid-like properties. Particle systems are suitable for realistic rendering of fuzzy objects, smoke, sea and grass.

9. Give some examples for computer graphics standards?


The Core graphics standard

GKS -- The Graphics Kernel system PHIGS GSX The Programmers Hierarchical Interactive Graphics System. The Graphics system extension m. The North American presentation level protocol syntax.


10. What is geometric fractal? Geometric fractal is a fractal that repeats self similar patterns over all scale s. 11. What is random fractal? The patterns in the random fractals are no longer perfect and the random defects at all scale. 12. Write about drawing scenes using OPENGL. . OpenGL draws scenes by combining the ambient ,diffuse and specular components of light that illuminate a vertex of an object. . It uses the phong model to calculate the specular light component. 13. Give the types of textures. There are two principle kinds of textures used. . With a image texture a 2D image is pasted onto each surface of the object. . With a solid texture the object is considered to be carved out of a block of solid material that itself has texturing.The ray traces reveals the color of the texture at each point on the surface of the object. 14. What is the purpose of scene class? The scene class can read a file in the SDL language and build a list of objects in a scene.This class can be used for ray tracing as well as to build scenes using th e following code: Scene scn; read( myScene.dat ); 15. Define a Peano curve. A curve can in fact fill the plane and therefore have a dimension of 2 such curv es are called Peano curve.

16.Define Random Factrals? The term fractal usually refers to sets which, in some sense, have a self-simila r structure. Indeed, some form of self-similarity is common in random sets, in particular those arising from stochastic processes. Therefore studying fractal aspects is an important feature of modern stochastic geometry. Early progress in fractal geometry often referred to sets with obvious selfsimilarity, like the _x ed pointsofiteratedfunctionsystems. 17. What is Multitexturing? Multitexturing is the use of more than one texture at a time on a polygon. For instance, a light map texture may be used to light a surface as an alternative t o recalculating that lighting every time the surface is rendered. 18.What is turbulence. Turbulence is a noise generating method where several noise components are mixed and they fluctates slowly as we move slightly through the space.The more rapidly varying componts are given smaller strengths. ... Define Ray class. Class Ray { public: Point3 start; vector3 dir; void setstart(point3 &p){start.x=p.x;...} void setDir(Vector &v){dir.x=v.x;...} }

... What do you meant by self similar. Self similarity means that two curves appear the same at any scale.No matter how much one enlarges a picture of the curve.