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# Other Physical Examples of FirstOrder System

CHE 516

MERCURY THERMOMETER
A = surface area of bulb for heat transfer, ft2 C = heat capacity of mercury, Btu/(lbm0F) m = mass of mercury in bulb, lbm t = time, h h = film coefficient of heat transfer, Btu/(ft2 - h- 0F)

## Cross-sectional view of thermometer

Energy Balance: Input Rate Output Rate = Rate of Accumulation hA (x-y) 0 = mCdy/dt equation 1 equation 2 At steady state: hA (xs ys) = mCdys/dt Subtracting: hA[(x-xs) (y-ys)] = mCd(y-ys)/dt In deviation variables: hA (X Y) =mCdY/dt note: mC/hA = lbm * Btu/(lbm-0F) = hour = [Btu/(ft2-h-0F)]*ft2 Thus, X-Y = mCdY/hAdt X-Y = dY/dt Transforming: X(s) Y(s) = sY(s) Rearranging to std. form: Y(s) = 1 X(s) s + 1

## Mixing Process Assume: Density is constant.

q = constant volumetric flow rate V = constant holdup volume x = concentration of salt in the entering stream, mass of salt/volume y = outlet concentration

Mass Balance:
Flow rate of salt in Flow rate of salt out = Rate of accumulation of salt in the tank

qx qy = Vdy/dt At steady state: qxs qys = Vdys/dt Subtracting: q[(x-xs) (y-ys)] = Vd(y-ys)/dt Deviation Variables: q(X-Y) = VdY/dt Note: V/q = Thus, X-Y = dy/dt Transforming: X(s) Y(s) = sY(s) Rearranging to std. form: Y(s) = 1 X(s) s + 1

Heating Process

Ti = inlet stream temperature T = temperature of the exiting stream w = constant flowrate, lb/hour Tref = reference temperature C = heat capacity of the fluid

Energy Balance:
Rate of energy - Rate of energy + Rate of energy flow in = Rate of flow into tank flow out of tank from heater accumulation of energy in tank

wC(Ti -Tref) - wC(T-Tref) + q = VCdT/dt At steady state: wC(Tis - Ts ) + qs = VCdTs/dt Subtracting: wC(Ti - Tis ) - wC(T - Ts ) + (q-qs) = VCd(T-Ts)/dt Assume Ti is constant (Ti=Tis) Deviation Variables: -wCT + Q = VCdT/dt Transforming: -wCT (s) + Q(s) = VCsT(s) Rearranging to std. form: T(s) = 1/wC = Kp Q(s) (V/w)s + 1 s + 1

A thermometer having a time constant of 0.2 min is placed in a temperature bath, and after the thermometer comes to equilibrium with the bath, the temperature of the bath is increased linearly with time at a rate of 1/min. Find the difference between the indicated temperature and the bath temperature. ( a ) 0.1 min after the change in temperature begins ( b ) 1.0 min after the change in temperature begins ( c ) What is the maximum deviation between indicated temperature and bath temperature, and when does it occur?

A thermometer having a time constant of 1 min is initially at 50C. It is immersed in a bath maintained at 100C at t = 0. Determine the temperature reading at t = 1.2 min.

Consider the stirred-tank reactor shown. The reaction occurring is AB and it proceeds at a rate r = kCo. where r = (moles A reacting)/(volume)(time) k = reaction rate constant C o(t) = concentration of A in reactor at any time t (mol A /volume) V = volume of mixture in reactor F = constant feed rate ,volume/time Ci(t) = concentration of A in feed stream, moles/volume

Assuming constant density and constant volume V, derive the transfer function relating the concentration in the reactor to the feed-stream concentration. Sketch the response of the reactor to a unit-step change in Ci .

The two-tank mixing process shown in contains a recirculation loop that transfers solution from tank 2 to tank 1 at a flow rate of qo . (a) Develop a transfer function that relates the concentration c2 in tank 2 to the concentration x in the feed, that is, C2(s)/X(s) where C2 and X are deviation variables. For convenience, assume that the initial concentration c2 = 0. (b) If a unit-step change in X occurs, determine the time needed for c2 to reach 0.60 for the case where =0.

Consider the mixed tank heater shown. Develop a transfer function relating the tank outlet temperature to changes in the inlet temperature. Determine the response of the outlet temperature of the tank to a step change in the inlet temperature from 60 to 700C. Before we proceed, intuitively what would we expect to happen? If the inlet temperature rises by 100C, we expect the outlet temperature to eventually rise by 100C if nothing else changes (q =qs).