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Fabrication Procedure

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Fabrication Procedure

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The purpose of this procedure is to provide documented guidance for manufacturing of Pre-Engineering Building structures at PEB STEEL BUILDINGS CO., LTD. in accordance with the Customer requirements 2. SCOPE This procedure is applied to the manufacturing, painting, marking, and delivery of Pre-Engineering Building structures for customers. 3. 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.10 4. 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 4.10 REFERENCES ISO 9001:2008 AWS D1.1 Edition 2006 AISC. 2005 American Institute of Steel Constructions MBMA. 2002.- Metal Building System Manual IBC. 2006.- International Building Code Quality Manual Process Control Procedure Inspection and Testing Procedure Non-Conforming Product Control Procedure Corrective and Preventive Action Procedure DEFINITION NDT RT UT MPI DPT DFT WFT QC QA SSPC Non-Destructive Testing Radiography Test Ultrasonic Testing Magnetic Particle Inspection Dye Penetrant Testing Dry Film Thickness Wet Film Thickness Quality Control Quality Assurance Steel Structure Painting Council clause 8.2.4

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4.11 4.12 4.13


Welding Procedure Specification Procedure Qualification Record Non-Conformance Report

5. 5.1

RESPONSIBILITY The Planning Engineer is responsible for the preparation of Master Schedule of production process, issuance of appropriate specification, drawing, materials and monitoring of the production progress in accordance with the agreed delivery schedule. Shop Manager shall be responsible for co-ordinating and monitoring that all the process are carried out under the controlled conditions and in accordance with the master schedule. Quality Control Engineer is responsible for verify the production process compliance with specification, reference standards/codes, shop drawings and quality plan. Quality Control Supervisor is responsible for monitoring and control of suitable parameters and product characteristics by way of Inspection and Testing in accordance with the documented Inspection and Test Plan. The Fitter Foreman/Supervisor shall be responsible for inspection of marking, material identification and transfer of identification number during marking and cutting process. The Welding Supervisor shall be responsible for selection of appropriate welding consumables, compliance of welding procedure specification (WPS), welding procedure qualification record (PQR) and to ensure that only qualified welders are used for welding work. PROCEDURE Fabrication procedure is classified into the following stages of manufacturing process. Marking, Cutting, Drilling Build up of beam Fitting Final Welding







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Finishing Blasting & Painting

Marking/ and Cutting

6.1.1. Marking of Plates: Prior to marking, bends or deformations of the plate materials shall be corrected by mechanical method. Prior to start marking, the cutting plan of particular items showing allotment of the duct plate size on the ordered materials shall be made to minimize the losses and surpluses. The marking shall be carried out with a hard tipped sharp marking pin or thin white crayon. During marking the base reference line, center line and checking points shall be provided on marking to avoid any mistakes. 6..1.5. A surplus length and width shall be provided in addition to the cutting allowance for the 1items on which large welding shrinkage will be predicted. Application to the center punch in the marking shall be minimized in plate except for those, areas where marking can be completely erased afterwards by means which of drilling Marking shall not be used for the outer face to be bent or the parts which become easily defective As much as possible original plate number which is stamped by mill must be retained and marking should be avoid on the identification numbers shall be transfer by means of hard punch at unusable corner of the plate. Drawing number, mark number, submark number, shall be clearly marked by paint or by means of hard stamps.

6.1.2. Cutting The Material shall be placed on the skirt in a fully flattened position and shall be verified the heat number, thickness and size prior to start cutting.

Fabrication Procedure

Page 5/17 Cutting operator shall ensure the markings on the Materials are very clear and easy to identify after the marking. operator shall select an appropriate cutting tip for cutting the particular Material thickness and use the cutting gas to the working pressure recommended for the tip size selected. Cutting tip shall be kept perpendicular to the surface for Material thickness 10 mm or more. For less than 10 mm thickness the tip can be titled in the direction of cut. Titling increases cutting speed and helps prevent slag from freezing across the kerf. The cut face of each member shall be perpendicular to the axis line unless otherwise specified on the drawing. Cut face shall be free from remarkable uneven notch or slag attachment. In case of occurrence of notch, such part shall be welded and finished to flatness by means of grinder. 6.2 Drilling and Punching

6.2.1. Prior to start drilling, the hole diameter and number of holes shall be verified and ensure the hole centre punch visible and deep enough to penetrate the drill point. 6.2.2 Drilling of bolt holes shall be carried out by a radial drilling, CNC Drilling machine or portable magnetic bottom drilling machine where applicable. 6.2.3. For angle thickness less than 12mm, hydraulic punching machine shall be used 6.2.4. Post drilled areas shall be cleared enough around thoroughly by grinder 6.2.5 After punch, the hole and angle shall be flattened


Fitting and Built up

6.3.1. Fitter shall inspect the items visually for any surface damages, bends and deformations, if so it shall be properly corrected in accordance with shop detail drawings prior to start building and fitting up the items.

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6.3.2. Fitter shall check the dimension of hole spacing, location, diameter of holes and quantity as per the drawing. If any non-conformity observed, it shall be corrected by the assembly fitter when necessary. 6.3.3. Upon receiving of Material, the fitter shall verify them against the drawing and ensure the mart number and sub-mark number written in the Materials matching with shop drawing. 6.3.4. It is the responsibility of fitter /QC Supervisor to verify the size, thickness, hole details, hole diameter, spacing and number of holes. The contact surfaces of the components shall be free of burs and foreign materials that would prevent solid seating of the parts. 6.3.5. Center line and working points reference lines on the members shall be drawn and fitter shall mark the fitting locations in the main member and he re-check again prior to start fitting in accordance with shop drawing. 6.3.6. All the edge preparation and site assembly profile on both main members and components shall be carried out prior to start fitting and in accordance with shop drawing. 6.3.7. Assembly work shall be carried out with suitable tools and equipment, such as surface material positioners, jacks, lever blocks, chain blocks and strong backs. 6.3.8. For all full penetration weld joints of fitting shall have minimum root gap of 3 mm and the edge preparation strictly in accordance with shop drawing. 6.3.9. The fitter performing the tack welding shall be qualified for the process in accordance with the applicable welding procedure specification. 6.3.10. The tack welding shall be performed in accordance with the table below and a short bead is to be avoided. Thickness of Parent Metal t < 6 mm 8 mm < t < 22 mm Length of Bead (minimum) 30 mm over 40 mm over

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t > 25 mm

50 mm over

6.3.11. Tack welding shall not be used at the end of the welding line or at the corners. The slag of the welding beads shall be completely removed with suitable tools and arc strike on the parent metal shall not be permitted. 6.3.12. Where stitch welding is specified the seam shall be marked prior to fitting and the tack welding shall be done on the location such that they are covered by full welding. 6.3.13. Electrode for tack welding shall be in accordance with the specification and as per the approved welding procedure. Tack weld shall be carried out by qualified fitters. 6.3.14. The fitter shall write down the applicable welding symbol on all the parts that would be welded in the shop, in accordance with shop drawing. 6.4. Welding

6.4.1. Welding process shall be in accordance with the approved welding procedure specification (WPS) and procedure qualification record (PQR). Appropriate WPS and PQR document reference shall be clearly stated in the project quality plan or in the inspection and test plan. 6.4.2. WPS and PQR shall be in accordance with AWS D1.1 .WPS shall be approved by third party inspection agency. PQR shall be in accordance with the appropriate Code and Standard. 6.4.3. All the welders shall have approved welder performance qualification test record prior to engage on the welding process. Before starting the welding, welder shall measure the output current and voltage. Appropriate and calibrated measuring instrument shall be used for such measurement. 6.4.4 The welding work piece shall be placed in a skid into stabilized position, and the position shall be ideally either flat or horizontal as much as possible. 6.4.5. All the joint to be welded shall be cleaned and dry condition. Prior to the welding cleared of all the scale, rust, dust, paint, grease, or any other foreign matters, by mechanically using wire brush or grinding.

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6.4.6. Welder shall select the appropriate electrode travel speed, the proper travel speeds is the one which produces a proper weld bead contour and appearance. The travel speed may be influenced by the following factors: a) Type of welding current, amperage and polarity b) Position of welding c) Melting rate of the electrode d) Thickness of material e) Surface condition of the base metal f) Type of joint g) Joint Fit-up 6.4.7. The stable arc shall be maintained during welding, a better arc stability is important to procedure high quality welds and also it will avoid defects such as inconsistent fusion, entrapped slag, blow holes and porosity. Keep in mind the following are important factors influencing arc stability. a) The open circuit voltage of the power source. b) Transient voltage recovery characteristics of the power source. c) Size of the molten drops of filler metal and slag in the arc. d) Ionization of the arc path from the electrode to the work. 6.4.8 The arc blow during welding shall be controlled and eliminate. Arc blow is encountered principally with DC welding. Back blow is encountered when welding toward the work piece connection near the end of joint or into a corner. Forward blow is encountered when welding away from the lead at the start of the joint. 6.4.9 Welding shall be done in flat position if Steel Material of thickness 4 mm or more this position permits easiest manipulation of the electrode and allows use of high-deposition. 6.4.10 Welding gaps or bevels must be accurately controlled over the entire joint during welding operation. Sufficient bevel is required for good bead shape and adequate penetration. 6.4.11. Root face of the fillet weld should touch steadily to the base metal. Shape of joint shall be in accordance with the drawing and any discrepancy of the location shall be eliminated

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for the sake of minimizing the deformation, pre-strain method may be applied, if applicable. 64..12. For butt weld and fillet weld, the start and end points of the welded parts shall be installed with end tab which is in possession of the same edge preparation shape as that member. End tab should be gas-cut and finished by grinder after completion of welding. 6.4.13. In case of fillet weld of unequal leg has assigned, care should be taken in order to secure the specified dimension and also to keep the weld surface as smooth as possible 6.4.14. In case of any crack shall occur in the part where tack welding has been applied, it should be gouged/ grind up to the bottom of deposit metal and re-welded. 6.4.15. The following steps shall be taken to control the excessive spatter during welding: a) Lower the current and ensure the current is within the recommended range for the type and size of electrode. b) Be sure the polarity is correct for the electrode type. c) Try to maintain shorter arc length. d) If the molten metal running in front of the arc. Change the electrode angle. e) Watch for any arc blow. f) Be sure the electrode is baked and should not be wet.. 6.4.16. The following action shall be taken to minimize the under cut during welding: a) Reduce current, travel speed or electrode size until the weld puddle is manageable. b) Change electrode angle so the metal in corners. Use a uniform travel speed and avoid excessive weaving. 6.417. To minimize the porosity in the welding: a) Remove scale, rust, paint, moisture or dirt from the joint.. b) Keep the puddle molten for a long time, so that gases may boil out before the metal freezes.

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c) Steel very low in carbon or manganese or these high in sulfur or phosphorus should be welded with low-hydrogen electrode. d) Minimize the admixture of base metal with weld metal by using low current and fast travel speed for less penetration. 6.4.18. Lack of fusion shall be avoided for sound weld. To avoid poor fusion: a) Must use higher current and string-bead technique. b) Edges of the joint must clean properly. c) If gap is excessive, try to get refit or use a weave technique to fill the gap. 6.4.19. The following steps shall be taken to overcome lack of penetration a) Must use higher current or slower travel speed. b) Use small diameter electrodes to reach into deep, narrow groves. c) Maintain some gap (free space) at the bottom of the joint. 6.4.20. Control prior to welding a) Check the drawings in respect of weld details, dimensional tolerance, process specifications, etc. b) Examine the specifications given by the customer applicable to the class of work, quality required, end use of the product, etc. c) Select a suitable welding process to obtain welds of the desire quality d) Only the tested and defect-free materials and as per the approved specification or drawing should be used for the structure to be welded. e) Consumables such as welding electrodes, flux, etc., to be used shall be as per standards. Deteriorated or spoilt consumables should not be used. f) Welding Procedure should be laid down preferably; it should conform to standard, (e.g. AWS D1.1). The procedure should give preparations and tolerances to be achieved during production work. g) Welding equipment should be in satisfactory working condition and be able to product right quality welds.

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h) Welders and operators employed for the work shall be trained, tested and certified to the appropriate standards. i) Weld Testing Equipment should be in good operating condition and be handled by the well-trained staff. j) Equipment for cutting, straightening, heat-treatment, material handling, etc., should be available depending upon the type of work. Adequate storage facilities should exist for storage of consumables and materials. 6.4.21. Control during Welding a) The weld groove should be free from dirt, rust, oil, slag or any other foreign matter which affect the quality of the weld. b) Job edge preparation should be as per approved welding procedure. c) The fit-up, gap, orientation, welding position, method and sequence of assembly all should be as per approved welding procedure. d) Tack welds should be of adequate size, length and pitch. e) Fittings, clamps, fixtures, etc., should not interfere with welding. f) Method s should be adopted to minimize distortion. g) If during welding certain consumables are found defective, they should be replaced by another brand of identical type. h) Welding procedure may be modified if it is found during welding that welds of acceptable quantity are not being produced. i) Slag should be thoroughly removed from each pass in multipass are welds and spot welding electrodes should be dressed periodically. j) Welds which would become inaccessible or more difficult to inspect at a later stage shall be inspected at stage. k) Inspection if carried out during welding will help identify potential sources of defects and thus eliminate them at the early stage. l) Inspection during welding will help finding any deviation from approved procedures consumables, etc. which if goes unnoticed may deteriorate weld quality. m) Visual inspection during welding will reduce the chances of rejecting the weldment at final stage

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6.4.22. Control After Welding Cleaning and Visual Inspection of welding after completion includes: a) Final Weld appearance b) Final Weld size c) Extent of welding d) Dimensional of accuracy e) Amount of distortion f) Surface cracks g) Under cut h) Overlap i) Exposed porosity j) Unacceptable weld profile k) Roughness of the weld faces 6.5. Finishing

6.5.1. A finishing process that would bring the fabricated product into the acceptable level in accordance with the drawing and standard workmanship. Final dimensional inspection, general appearance, final visual inspection, revision and any modification and final repair activities are carried out in this process, includes final identification and traceability of the product. 6.5.2. Q.C Inspector shall inspect the product visually and identify the area that would be required to carry out finishing work and mark by means of crayons. 6.5.3. Concern fitter shall select the appropriate tools and equipment depending on the nature of work to be carried out such as grinder, wire brush, chisel, hammers, and heating torches and reformer machine etc. 6.5.4. Welding slag and spatter shall be clean properly and wire brush or power brush shall be used as post cleaning operation.

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6.5.5. If any under cutting or porosity found during cleaning fitter/QC inspector shall mark the spot by means of crayons and report to welding supervisor for repair has been done in accordance with the standard and acceptable level. 6.5.6. If any crater observed the QC inspector shall note down the welder identification number which is written near the welding and call the same welder for repair. 6.5.7. All the bolt holes must be clean and trimming by means of grinder, round file and reamer if it is necessary. 6.5.8. All the cutting edges must be grind smooth and all the sharp edges must be radius and smooth. 6.5.9. All the Gas notches must be rebuilt by (touch up) qualified welders and grind smooth. 6.5.10. Shop fitting supervisor shall arrange the finished product systematically that would facilitate the QC. Inspector can inspect the product without any difficulty. 6.5.11. Rejected or defective items must be separated immediately and sent for corrective action to the process concern.

6.6. Blasting and Painting process Prior to start painting blasted surface shall be cleaned by dry compressed air and ensure the surface is dust free. The following area shall be covered by masking tape to avoid painting: a) The parts to be metal to metal contact b) Embedded steel in contact with concrete c) The parts where field welding is to be applied

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Each container of paint shall be clearly marked or labeled to show paint identification date of manufacture, batch number, analysis of contents, identification of all toxic substance and special instruction. All ingredients in any container of paint shall be thoroughly mixed before use and shall be agitated often enough during application to keep the paint uniform. The type of thinner shall comply with paint manufacturers instructions. Correct amount of thinner to be added to particular application when the use of thinner is permissible, thinner shall be added slowly to paint during mixing process. The equipment used for painting application shall be suitable for the appropriate purpose and coating system and shall be capable of properly atomizing the paint to be applied. All the paint pot shall be equipped with suitable pressure regulators and gauges. Paint shall be applied in a uniform layer with overlapping at the edges of the pattern. During application, the painting spray gun shall be hold perpendicular to the surface which will ensure that a wet layer of paint is deposited on the surface. The trigger of the gun should be released at the end of each stroke. The air caps, nozzles and needles shall be those recommended by the paint manufacturers of material being sprayed and equipment being used. Traps or separators shall be provided to remove oil and condensed water from air. The traps or separators must be of adequate size and must be drained periodically during operations. The pressure on the material in the pot and of the air at the gun shall be adjusted for optimum spraying effectiveness. The pressure on the material in the pot shall be adjusted when necessary for changes in elevation of the gun above the pot. The atomizing air pressure at the gun shall be high enough to properly atomize the paint.

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When spraying with conventional (air atomized) equipment, the spray gun should be held from 150 mm - 200 mm from the surface and maintained perpendicular to the surface throughout the stroke. For airless application, the distance should be from 250 mm to 350 mm. At the end of each pass, the gun trigger should be released. Each spray pass should overlap the previous one by 50%, and where possible, a cross hatch technique should be used. This requires a duplicate series of pass at 90o to the first to ensure complete and uniform coverage. Paint shall not be applied when the temperature of steel or the paint is below 4o C. Paint shall not be in rain, wind, fog, mist or when the steel surface temperature is less than 3o C above the dew point. Paint shall not be applied when the relative humidity is above 85%. The manufacturers instructions shall be followed regarding the acceptable humidity range for the particular paint. Paint thickness shall be in accordance with the customer requirements. SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES: All the changes from this procedure and matters not contained in this procedure should be settled upon the consultation with customer engineer or client authorized agent including any third party inspection agency. Any special type of material or alloy material an appropriate welding procedure should be prepared in accordance with applicable code of practice, type of material and classification of electrode used. The same must get approval from client prior to start fabrication Any discrepancy regarding the workmanship standard and criteria with respect to the acceptable level has to have customer consent. Any discrepancy observed in the client required specification; need to refer to international code of practice and standard for final conclusion. 7. FLOW CHART

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Received of Materials at.shop

Cutting & edge preparation



Build up &Welding


Fitting of end & gusset plate


Final Welding








Correction of Distortion & Finishing

QC3 &4

Surface Treatment for Paint Work


Painting/ MarkingStenciling





DOCUMENTATION NIL. APPENDICES General responsibility structure for inspection and testing. All the sample records

9. 9.1 9.2

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