Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 2

Tank and Cover The material for fabricating the tank side walls and bottom shall be corrosion

resistant. Rustpreventive finishing shall be strongly recommended for units with more than 20 years of service life. The paint coat shall depend on utilities requirement in preferred colours. Core It is necessary to mention the quality of the core material, such as high permeability silicon steel, because no-load loss is mainly caused by the core material. The core construction shall be firmly fixed in the tank and designed to avoid the occurrence of loosened core strips due to vibration from road traffic. Adequate cooling facilities shall also be provided at the oil ducts. The magnetic circuit shall be grounded in accordance with practices mentioned in the specification. The different maximum flux density is designed to meet 1.55 to 1.65 Tesla to prevent harmonic behaviour. Windings The winding or coil shall be made of copper for better performance based on technical and economic comparisons. To cater to the physical characteristic, the winding shall be designed to withstand thermal and mechanical effects caused by external short circuits. The coil clamping arrangement and clamping rings shall be designed to withstand force due to short circuit. To cater to the electrical characteristic, the winding shall be designed and assembled to handle temperature increase specified in the tender specification. The insulation of winding and connections shall not be likely to soften, loose, shrink or collapse during service. Insulating Oil As mineral oil is used as the insulation and cooling mechanism; it should be well filtered and tested to meet the dielectric strength (which is not less than 30kV) before filling in the transformer tank. The insulating oil dielectric taken from a new transformer shall not be less than 26 kV as tested by the method specified by ASTM D877. 4 Bushings and Terminals The requirements for bushings and terminals should be specified for different applications such as platform transformer or pole mounted transformer to facilitate installation, monitoring and maintenance. To maintain the current integrity throughout the equipments useful lifecycle, the connectors shall be made with solderless tin-plated copper; two belleville spring washer, coneddisk types shall be supplied to provide adequate pressure on the conductor during thermalcycling. The size of the terminals or connectors, both high voltage and low voltage, shall be subjected to the transformer capacity. The bushing cover shall be made of ultra-violet radiation resistant and track resistant plastic or rubber to protect equipment from impairments caused by animals such as birds, squirrels and snakes, etc. Accessory Equipment The transformers will be equipped with standard accessories, at least with lifting lugs, tap changer, manual pressure relief fitting, nameplate, tank grounding pad or stud, etc. Other accessories will be also specified depending on the size and application. 3.1. Transformer Evaluated Cost Typically, the transformer price depends on core and winding loss i.e. high loss transformers have a lower cost, and the low loss transformer a higher one. Thus, Utilities work out an evaluation formula which takes into consideration many factors such as: transformer service life, load factor, operation and maintenance cost, interest rate and inflation rate, etc. Each utility should compute the cost estimate based on updated data. This shall eventually be used in the bid comparison for the evaluation of unit costs and losses. The following is an example of cost evaluation. A = B + XC + YD Where A = Evaluated cost of transformer in any currency B = Unit cost of transformer converted into US Dollars according to the evaluation clause specified in the bid condition C = No-load loss at room temperature not more than 30C in kW D = Load loss in kW X = Constant value for No-load condition

Y = Constant value for Loading condition Excess Losses and Penalty The excess loss and penalty will concentrate on transformer losses which are higher than guaranteed no-load and load losses including allowable tolerances stated in the reference standards. It will be divided into the following two cases: 5