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THE RELIGIOUS ORDERS


OF

ISLAM
The rev. CANON '^ELL,
d.d., m.r.a.s.

FELLOW OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MADRAS

AUTHOR OF "the FAITH OF ISlAm," "THE HISTOEICAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE QUR'aN," "ESSAYS ON ISLAM,"
'islam:
ITS EISE

AND PROGRESS"

-k-4-

LONDON
SiMPKiN, Marshall, Hamilton,
4,

"^

V5

'

Kent &

Co. (LiSiited)

Stationers'

Hall Court,

E.C.

MADRAS
5. P. C.

K. Depository, Vepbry
1908

FEINTED AT THE
B.

'

P. C.

K. PRESS,

VEPEEY, MADRAS

1908

PREFACE

The main
chapter in
in

portion of

this

book formed

my
I

"

Essays on Islam," published

1901.

have made

many
I

additions to

it

and have added information more recent than

any
this

then possessed.
form,
in

have published
that

it

in

separate

order

attention

may

be more directly drawn to an important


in A.frica.

movement
terest
is

Although increased
is

inI

being taken in African Missions,


there
yet

doubt whether

any

adequate

conception of the seriousness of the position,


or any true realization of the extreme urgency
for

immediate

action.

trust

this

simple

account of a little-known movement


a

may

be

means

of

developing
all

still

more

interest in
in

the affairs of

Societies

engaged

mission

work

in Africa.

THE

RELIGIOUS ORDERS
OF ISLAM.
The two most
active elements in

Muslim lands

in the opposition to social, political, and religious reforms and to the advance of modern civilization

are the 'Ulama, the men who may be said to form the lawyers and the clergy of Islam, and the various Orders of Darweshes. The 'Ulama speak
in the
able.

of the sacred Law, eternal, unchangeThe Darweshes look upon Islam as a vast theocracy, in which their spiritual leaders are the It
is

name

true guides.

conceivable that the

Ulama

might be brought to see that, if some concessions would save a Muslim State from ruin or extinction, it might be to their advantage to make them. The Darwesh treats with scorn any attempt at compromise, and looks upon a Muslim government, which in the least departs from the laws and practices of the early Khallfate, as disloyal to the great principle that Islam is a theocracy.

THE RELIGIOUS ORDERS OF ISLAM


:

were neither kings nor princes were they preachers, Khah'fas, or vice-regents of In the opinion of the Darwesh, as the Prophet. Muslims should it was then so it should be now. be governed by an Imam, who is both a religious and a political leader, M'hose chief business it is to maintain the laws of Islam intact, to
Its first rulers

execute justice according to their standard, to guard the frontiers, and to raise armies for the

He should be so manifestly defence of the Faith. a ruler that the words of the sacred Tradition

He who dies namely, that without recognizing the authority of the Imam of the age, is accounted dead and is an infidel."
would be
realized,
It is the special function of the great Eeligious Orders to keep this principle active and to teach

"

The most relithe people its vast importance. see that the civilizaof the Muslim people gious
tion of Europe, now finding its way into Muslim lands, is a very great danger, and they seek to meet and to counteract it by a large development of the Eeligious Orders. Throughout the

East these confraternities,


ences the religious
life

like

all

which

influ-

of Islam, are conservative

and hostile
influence.

to

modern

civilization

and European
of

In Africa and

in parts

Asia this

has resulted in a great pan-Islamic movement, still actively going on, and having for its object not merely " resistance to the advance of Chris-

THE DARWESHES
tianity
;

modern

but also opposition to the progress of all civilization." ^ Since the beginning of the nineteenth century, this same movement has

grown with great

rapidity.

Under various

pre-

texts, innumerable agents of the Eeligious Orders have gone throughout the Muslim world. They have adopted many disguises. Sometimes they are students, preachers, doctors; sometimes artibut they are everywhere sans, beggars, quacks received by the people and protected by them
;

when they are suspected by the ruling powers. A French writer, one of the best living authorities on the subject, says that the reform movement
in

Islam during the nineteenth century has led

to a great increase in the Eeligious Orders.

The

movement has not depended on

the orthodox ex-

pounders and authorized keepers of the canon law, but, on the contrary, has relied on the leaders of the mystical sects, such as the Bab, the Mahdi

and the great Darwesh leaders. The most active element in Islam is now to be found amongst these Darweshes, and from them has proceeded
an active propaganda, especially in Africa. This author sums up a long review of the whole posi" all this constitutes a tion by saying that grave the to civilized world." ^ danger

1
2

Count

Castries,

" L'

IsMm,"

p. 220.

Chatelier,

"Islam au

xix. Siecle," p. 187.

THE RELIGIOUS ORDERS OF ISLAM

It was not until the nineteenth century that Islam suffered any very grave reverses. It had had to retire a little in Europe, but in Africa it was still strong. So its religious element

Now the position is changed. gone, Morocco is in danger, the English dominate India and Egypt, Austria controls
became
Algiers
slack.
is

Eussia has enTurkish Empire, has also absorbed the Central Asian Khanates, and
free.

croached

Bosnia and Bulgaria is largely on the

threatens Persia.
is

Muslim

rule in Central Africa

danger, and it is not likely will now extend further south for on
in
;

that
all

it

sides

the Christian Powers are encroaching, and some


of the best tribes, not yet wholly won to Islam, are within their respective spheres of influence,

and the still independent Muslim States have to submit to a good deal of outward control. The destruction of separate States as political powers has strengthened the pan-Islamic movement, the object of which is to unite under one political head, the Khalifa, all good Muslims and so to
create
of

a great

world-power.

commerce and the wider

influence of

The development modern


and
science, are

and learning, its art also disturbing elements in the Its contemptuous isolation, its
civilization

Muslim world.
absolute

sway,

are becoming things of the past. This is very to of the Muslims old orthodox distressing pious

CONTKOL OF RELIGIOUS ORDERS


school.
It

has provoked a great reaction.

The

religious spirit has been stirred up on its most fanatical side, and the Eeligious Orders have, in

consequence, grov^rn in extent and influence. The existence of secret societies is not congenial
to the spirit of Oriental despotism, for the power of the religious leader is apt to exceed that of the temporal one, and so, at various times, attempts

have been made to curtail their influence. sixteenth century, Sultan Mauli Isma'fl suppress the Darwesh Orders and failed.

In the
tried to

In the

seventeenth century, Kouprouli Muhammad Pasha, the able Vizier of Sultan Muhammad IV, tried
his best to ruin the

Maulawiyya, the Khilwatiyya,

the Jalwatiyya and the Shamsiyya Orders, but In fact, he only showed the did not succeed.

ultimate weakness of the Sultan's rule and largely increased the importance and power of the Orders

A still stronger he tried in vain to suppress. man, Sultan Mahmiid, in 1826, after suppressing the Janissaries, tried to break up the Order of the The head of the Order Baktashiyya but failed.^
connexion between the Janissaries Sultan Orkhan in 1328 created the Yenicherees (Janissaries), or New Troops, he sought some The Shaikh of the religious sanction for his action. Baktishiyyas blessed the troops by putting the sleeve of his robe on the head of one of the soldiers, in such a way that it hung down behind his back, and said : "The militia which you have just created shall be called
close
1 There was a and this Order.

When

THE RELIGIOUS ORDERS OF ISLAM

chief officers were pubUcly executed, the abolition of the Order was proclaimed, many of its monasteries were demolished, and even the

and his two

Darweshes connected with


change
their

distinctive
is

survived and

it were compelled to costume, but the Order powerful still. These men were

One of them stopped not lacking in courage. Sultan Mahmud at the gate of Galata and seizing
Giaour Padishah, thou not yet content with abominations ? Thou wilt answer to God for all thy godlessThou art destroying the institutions of thy ness. brethren, thou revilest Isldm, and drawest the vengeance of the Prophet on thyself and on us."
the bridle of his horse said
art
:

"

The Sultan

called

away. "la and thy worthless counsellors who have lost their " This Darwesh Muslims to the rescue senses. was executed the next day, and it is said that the following night a soft light was seen over
!

fool his guard to put this "it is thou the said Darwesh, fool,"

on

'

'

his tomb.

He

is

now venerated

as a saint.

In

more

Algiers, the work of the Darweshes has been The Emir 'Abdu'lmanifest since 1830.

its figures shall be fair and shining, its arm redoubtable, its sword sharp. It shall be victorious in all In memory of this, battles and ever return triumphant." the Janissaries wore a white felt cap, having a piece of the same material pendant on their backs. These troops -were very closely attached to this Order, and this may have excited the animosity of Sultan Mahmud against it.

Yenicheree,

ACTIVITY OF THE DARWSSHES


<Jadir owed much of his popularity to the intrigues and support of the

and success

members

of

the Qadiriyya Order. The insurrections in 1864, 1871, 1881 were due in great part to the action In the last the members of these Darweshes.
of

stirred

Eahmaniyya Order also took part and up the Kabyles to active opposition. They work in secret and influence the masses of the
the
It
is

people.

very

difficult

to

counteract

their

influence, for whenever, after a local insurrection,

the French

have destroyed the Zawiyahs,^ or monasteries, of the Keligious Orders, whose members helped to stir up strife, it has been found to be invariably the case that it has had no effect

whatever in lessening either the number, or even the influence of the Darweshes but lias rather
;

increased both.^

In Egypt the Darweshes are very numerous and are regarded with respect. In Turkey the people believe in them, for, on the whole, the sympathy of the Darweshes is with the masses.

The upper classes fear them. Some of the Darwesh leaders are broad-minded men, in spite of
1 These are called Takyas in Turkey. They are often erected near or over the grave of a Shaikh renowned for Great care is taken of these tombs, costly his piety. cloths cover, and lamps burn before them. Visitors make vows and present offerings with a view of obtaining

temporal and spiritual relief. " jMarabouts et 2Rinn, Khouan,"

p. 109.

THE RELIGIOUS ORDERS OP ISLAM


about them that seems intolerant.

much

On

the'

other hand, the system affords opportunity for much that is low in morals, especially when the

higher degrees are reached and the restraints of law are set aside when creed and formulas are
:

looked upon as fetters to the inspired and exalted


soul.

Orders.

The temporal power has some hold on the In Egypt the person who exercises on

the part of the State that authority is called the Shaikhu'l-Bakri, and is always a descendant The Khah'fa 'Umar of the Khalifa Abu Bakr.
also has a representative

who

is

the head of the

Enaniyya Darweshes. The Khalifa 'Uthman has The Khalifa 'All has none, as he left no issue.
one
pant
called

Sayyids.
of

Each
the

Shaikhu's-Sadat, or Shaikh of the " occuof these is said to be the


sajjcida,

or the
of

prayer carpet,

of

an Order is also called the occupant of the sajjada which belonged to This sajjada is looked upon the founder of it. In Turkey the Shaikhu'l-Islam exeras a throne. cises a certain amount of control over the heads of a Monastery, though he has probably little power with the actual head of the Order. As a rule, the attitude of the Darweshes to the firmans of the Sultan and to the fatwas of the Muftis is one of resistance. Many of the Orders add to their prestige in the sight of the masses by the
his ancestor."

The head

THE 'ULAMA AND THE DARWESHES


nobility of the origin of their founders,

who were

Sharifs, or lineal descendants of the Prophet. The great enemies of the Orders are the 'IJlama

and the
like

official clergy. The feeling is not unthat between the secular and the monastic

clergy in the middle ages.


to

The 'Ulama,

in order

oppose the Darweshes and appeal to the orthodox standards of but the Darweshes do the same. the Faith maintain their
prestige,
;

own

The

latter

reproach the former with being mere


to

time-servers,

which the
are

retort

is

made

that

the Darweshes

heretical

in

doctrine

and

scandalous in practice. The mass of the Mvislims, who do not care for theological disputations, are
attracted
to

the side of the

Darweshes.

They
;

are not shocked at the dancing and the music they look upon the Darweshes as the chosen of

God, the favourites

of

heaven.

Others

again,

who

look

upon some

of tlieir practices as border-

ing on the profane, yet, on the whole, respect

them.
he

The ignorant man


it

also sees that,

though

destitute of the education needed for an 'Ulama,

may without

status and

more

acquire in an Order a religious power equal to that attained to by his orthodox and learned brother.^

1 " A man who does not belong to the 'Ulama sees with a sense of surprise that, thanks to the support of the Order to which he belongs, he can without instruction and in spite of the obscurity of his birth acquire a religious power

10

THE RELIGIOUS ORDERS OP ISLAM

With this general introduction we can now pass on to consider the constitution of the Orders in more detail. The organization of each is practiThe head of an Order is the cally the same. spiritual heir of its founder, and is called the Shaikh. In some Orders he is a direct descendant
of

the founder

in others he
is

is

cliosen

by the

brotlierhood.

He

the Grand Master, and has


is also,

unlimited power.

He

as a rule, a

man

of

considerable diplomatic skill whose influence often extends beyond the Hmits of his Order. His counsels and

correspondence are transmitted to

"The great distance with a marvellous rapidity voice of the Shaikh influences also all the tribes
in Algeria. Mystical in form it is difficult for outsiders to understand, but, known as it is by
orientals,
it

preaches

obstinate resistance to

all

^ The Shaikh resides progress, to all civilization." in one or other of the Zawiyahs belonging to the

Order. As a rule, the Shaikh is the husband of one wife and only marries a second, when the first is childless and when his office is herediThe Shaikh is supposed to have a perfect tary. knowledge of the sacred law and to possess skill in dealing with those who place themselves under his guidance. He is looked up to with the
equal, and sometimes superior, to that of the Marabouts." Hanoteau et Letourneux, " Les Kabyles," Vol. ii, p. 104. " 1 Oomte de 224.
Castries,

L'Ismm,"

p.

THE

TMUQADDIIMS

11

greatest veneration; in fact, absolute obedience to the Shaikh is the very essence of the system.

"

O my
God

are

master, you have taught me that you and that all is God," says one disciple.
of
!

The
"

founder

the

Bastamiyya

Order said

I am above all things." The Glory be to me adoration of the Master too often takes the place of the worship of God, and the ideal life of a

Darwesh

is

one which
of the

is

in absolute conformity

to the will

Shaikh.

in every act the disciple present to his mind.

In every word and must keep the Master

who

Subordinate to the Shaikh are the Muqaddims, act under his orders and have certain funcallotted to

tions

them.

A Muqaddim

is

placed

In a diploma conZawiyah. ferred by the Shaikh of the Qadiriyya Order on a

in charge of each

Muqaddim, the instructions given


of the

to the

members

Order are that they should yield implicit obedience to the Muqaddim, who has the confidence of the chief of the Order that they must not enter upon any enterprise without his knowObedience duly rendered to him is as ledge.
;

obedience to the Shaikh, who is descended from the saint of saints, 'Abdu'l-Qadiri'l-Jilani. The is a called Pir. spiritual guide

From amongst

the Ikhwan,^ or brethren of the

Order, certain persons are selected as assistants 1 A modem form of this is Khouan.

12

THE RELIGIOUS ORDERS OP ISLAM

Muqaddim. These are known as the Wakil, has charge of the property and funds of the Zawiyah, and the Eaqqab, who is employed as a courier to carry despatches. In connexion with the assemblies of the members, the Muqaddim
to the

who

has the following officials under his charge. The the Maddah, or precentor Cha'ush, or leader i the Qassad, or chanters of the the elegies
; ; ;

AUam or standard bearers and the Suqah, or water carriers. All these employments are sought after by the Brethren, and the occupations attached
to

them

are performed seriously and as a grave


of

religious duty.

Then comes the general body members of the Order. They


:

are

the simple called the


;

IkhWcin, or brothers Ashab,^ or companions whilst the generic term Darwesh covers all. Murfd, disciple, is a common term and the one

frequently in use. Outside of all these are what


the

may

be

termed

Associates or

the

live

are the lay members in the Zawiyahs, though they


1

ordinary members, who of the Order. They do not


are

open to

An

elegy

is

called

is^ qaslda.
into

They

are

subdivided

^y^ai\
;

^r-W-o^ AshAbu'l-

tV..H v-->Ie>-o\ Fatwa, or companions of the decree J>^^^ v>U5-o\ Ashabu'l-Bisat, companions of the carpet AsMbu'l-Ashad, companions of zeal vW^^ '^\ Ashabu'1-Yad, companions of the hand.

THE MARABOUTS
them.
Still

13

and words, by the use

they are in possession of secret signs of which they can always of the community. They do not get the protection of the make use dhikr, or peculiar religious cereTheir of the Order, but use its rosary. mony,
is

allegiance

often

more

political

than

religious.

his habitually Order is looked upon as a Murabit,^ or Marabout. about the Their origin is said to be as follows
:

He who

performs the rites of

year a.h. 427


al-Kedali,

a.d. 1049 Shaikh Yahya bin Braham

a chief of one of the Berber tribes, the pilgrimage to Mecca stayed at from returning Qairwan with Abu Amran, a very learned man, to

he made known the ignorance of the people the Sahara and the willingness of a chief to At last he found in 'Abdu'llah receive instruction.
of

whom

ibn Yassi'n, a pious and austere man, a person fit Some of the people had been for this purpose. converted a good while before, but 'Abdu'llah ibn
1 This word from " rabata," he bound, is said to come from which also comes Muribitun, the name of one of the Morocco dynasties, corrupted by foreigners into Almoravides (cf. Mealiiu, " The Moors," p. 331). Another " who habitually explanation is that a IMurabit is one

lives in a ribat, or a frontier

guard-house.

Such buildings

by troops, but pious individuals wishing to join in a war (jihdd) against unbelievers joined them. The word Murdbit, therefore, got the exclusively religious devotee or saint, which appears in the signification of modern form of Marabout." (Nicholson, "A Literary History of the Arabs," p. 430.)
were occupied
' '

14

THE RELIGIOUS ORDERS OF ISLAM

stern discipline

Yassfn found them lax in their rehgious life. His was not acceptable to them and he almost gave up the work in despair but Yahya re" You came here monstrated with him and said
;

derequest, let us go to a secluded place and rest of for the of God vote ourselves to the service
at

my

our days."

Accompanied by nine

faithful Kedalis,

they retired to an island in the river Senegal where they built a ribat and gave themselves up to a life

As a punishand as a preventive of sin, they punished The news soon themselves by bodily torture. obtain Paradise to done that was all this spread
of

devotion and austere practices.


for

ment

and a number

Thus bound

of people flocked to the ribat. nucleus was formed of a brotherhood,

penance and of strict obabout one thousand ibn persons had joined the community, 'Abdullah " Is it not your Yassin addressed them thus duty to fight those who refuse to submit to your " " " Command what ever you please doctrines ? " Eeturn to your own said his disciples. Then, If they converted. be to people and urge them shall till God them on make war refuse, we will
to severe rules of

ligation to obedience.

When

judge between us.


tribes

He

is

the best of

judges."

were still obstinate and so force was The in the end the people were by and employed this persuasive argument soon converted. Yahya was the spiritual and temporal head of these

THE MARABOUTS

15

converts,^ and the Marabouts, as his disciples were now called, made an expedition into the Sahara,

subjugated the King of Sigilmasa and ravaged the country far and wide. They thus became a powerful

body and under Yusuf ibn Tashfin extended conquests, founded the city of Marrakesh in A.D. 1062 and captured Fez in a.d. 1069, which
their
city, successfully

five

hundred years
a

besieged eight times in the first of its existence, has only once

known

foreign
it

master,

when

the

Turks took

possession of

in

1554 without a
qviickly

siege.

The name Marabout

became synony-

mous with

that of Wall, or saint, to whom prayers and offerings made. be addressed might The credulous believe that the Marabout can

cure

all

evils

and bless every enterprise.

If

he

produces catastrophes, brings epidemics and condemns the sinful to eternal fire, he can also assist
the weak, protect the great and strengthen the faith of the humble. They believe that from his

sanctuary the Marabout


things, and brings
to

sees,

hears,

knows

all

who
by

nought the plans of those All this he does are careless about religion.

marvellous supernatural power, as a true saint, as an intermediary between God and man, as the depository of the Qur'anic lore.
a
1 'Abdu']lah died in a.d. 1059, but the work he began continued to grow and great numbers of the Berbers became Muslims,

16

THE RELIGIOUS ORDERS OP ISLAM


The growing power
:

of the

Marabouts marked a

distinct phase in the evolution of Islam in Africa, M. Albert Eeville says " If humanity at a certain

moment

of religious

development needs

human

gods, it is perhaps in idea draws most of evident.

Muhammadanism

that this

and

still

its force and appears most In any case the Marabouts have played play marvellously well the part of human

gods.

Their

success

depends

entirely

on the

fundamental idea

man

is

From

religion that to the find powerless right waj^ the truth. that to Mahdiism and again to the Mar-

of the

Musalman

aboutic worship the distance is quickly crossed. "^ The early Marabouts took care to ensure that
their

successors
as

should

enjoy the
of

material as
the power

well

the

spiritual advantages

gained over the masses of the people.^ The superstition of all classes brings to the descendant of
their special

saint

gifts for

their advice.

Their
their

amulets and talismans are used by, and


1

" Quoted by Depout et Coppolani, Les Confreries Reli148. Musulmanes," p. gieuses " 2 The late Bishop Crowther in the C.M.S. Intelligencer"
for 1880, pp. 253-4, gave a very graphic description of the work of these men, of the lucrative profession of writing charms and of some of their methods of propagating IsMm. " One way is childless women, or those who have
:

When

lost their children in infancy,

apply for these charms, the (Muslim) priest always imposes it as a condition of success that the future children must be Muhammadans."

THE MARABOUTS
supposed miracles are worked on behalf
supplicants. power of the
of

17

their

Many

saintly legends arose and the


is
is

awe.

viewed with mysterious supposed to still possess the means of protecting those who venerate his

Marabout

In his grave he

memory, and

of punishing the forgetful and the ungrateful, who neither obey his teaching nor aid his successors.

There are two stages

in this religious develop-

Marabouts propagated amongst the Berbers the idea of the sanctity of the saint and of the divine grace transmitted to the descendants of the Prophet, and finally moulded
in Africa.
First, the

ment

the thoughts of those thus influenced by them. In political life, therefore, the power of the Marabout plays a distinct part. Secondly, comes the religious Brotherhood. Though apparently re-

specting the positions conquered by the Marabouts, the Brotherhood goes on, little by little, to gain

ground by the practices of asceticism, contemplation, hysterical mysticism and the force of a combined association. The founders of the Orders were strictly orthodox that is, they not only followed the Qur'an.,
;

but also accepted the Sunna, the record

now

pre-

served in the Traditions of the Prophet's words and deeds, as a divine rule of faith and practice.

Certain sayings of the Prophet himself on this point were accepted by them as authoritative,

18

THE RELIGIOUS ORDERS OP ISLAM


" Conform to my Sunna. He who follows shows that he loves me, he who does not not a Muslim." The founders of the more
as,

such
that
is

modern Orders follow the special teaching of some famous theologian, who can show that his particular instruction was based on that of men
of

the earhest days


is,

of

Islam.

Their declared
practices, to

object

by their

efforts

and pious

bring the faithful to the eternal blessing promised " to all who walk in the " good way revealed by
Gabriel to

Muhammad, who
Orders

has also given to


all

the founders of the

knowledge con-

The Shaikhs, therefore, can now cerning it. lead the disciple on, step by step, to a pure and
moral
tion,
state, abounding in that which draws the creature

spiritual perfecto the Creator.

Thus they maintain that their object in founding these Orders is the glory of God, the extension of Islam, and the salvation of men. They claim to be able to lead their disciples on by successive
stages to
least

such a state that they attain, or at approximate to, spiritual perfection. Then a supernatural origin is also claimed for

of these Orders. The members glory in of the the masses this, people freely admit it. this is often connected with the legends Very

many

about al-Khidr (Ehas), who is said to have been the greatest saint of his age and to be still the intermediary between God and the founder of a

THE ORIGIN OF AN ORDER

19

Eeligious Order. As he did not die, he is supposed to be still actively employed and to give power to the religious devotee vv^ho attains to

the dignity of Quth, a term to be explained later


on.

Owing

to his miraculous translation, to his

being transported
spirit of

from
his

God,

to

place to place by the investiture of Elisha with


said that al-Khidr
still

the prophetic
retains and

office, it is

great influence with men order of saintship. To them a who rise to high the of confers the he unveils future, gifts blessing
exercises (baraka), and gives supernatural powers (tasarruf). It is this supposed supernatural character of the

inception of
influence.
this blessing,

an Order which gives


the

All

members
in the

of

it

great participate in
of

it

its

and

abundance

spiritual

the founder of the Order, good, transmitted from who entered into secret and direct communication with al-Khidr and with the Prophet. The Shaikh of an Order almost always nominates his successor.

He summons
of the

many

together,

the chief Muqaddims and as Murids as he can conveniently gather and states tliat, after seeking the guid-

ance of the Prophet, he has chosen a man who will maintain the traditions of their founder and " the purity of their Order. Some, however, on
the ground that the Prophet made no regulation on the subject of succession to supreme power, In some leave the election to the Muqaddims.

20

THE RELIGIOUS ORDERS OF

ISLAlil

must belong to the family of Order." i In Constantinople certain Orders require the Sultan, or the Shaikhu'lIslam, to confirm the appointment thus made.
cases the candidate

the founder of the

The Muqaddims

are persons of
is

tance, and great care As a rule only such


oflfice

much importaken in their selection.


are appointed to this

men

who are One is Order.


is

acceptable to the brethren of the placed in charge of each Zawiyah

and

these, other

a sort of Abbot of a monastery. Besides Muqaddims are placed in charge of the various missionary enterprizes, or are engaged

in

diplomatic business in the interests of the Order. In Turkey the ^Jufti at Constantinople

has the right to confirm the appointment of these men, and the Shaikhul-Islam the power
to

remove one from his local charge. Once or twice a year the Muqaddims meet

in

conference and consider questions relating to the The state of each well-being of the Order.

gone into, its financial condition is all matters of business are attended and examined, the conference The issues from Shaikh to. to the brethren. Amulets and letters pastoral charms blessed by him are sold.^ New members

Zawiyah

is

1 2

Rinn, "Marabouts et Khouao,"

p. 60.

Chatelier writing of the Muslims in Western Africa says that they retain and use many of the pagan supei-stitions,

charms and incantations.

Hypnotism

is

also practised

by

THE MUQADDIMS
are
ailniitted

81
all
is

into

the

Order,

and when

done the members disperse,

receiving Tiiis meeting is called blessing of the Shaikh. the Hadrat, a word which means the Presence.

after

the

On

his

retm'n

homo each

Muqaddin\

holds a
lie enter-

synod of the brethren of his Ziiwiyah. tains them at a feast, and then gives
of

an account

the proceedings of the conference and reads the pastoral letter. After this is over, the brethren,
salute

deposit

one after another, an ottering them. This synod

the

Muqaddim

and

placed before is called Jalal, the Glorious. I have already stated that tiiese Religious Orders claim to be strictly orthodox. Innovation in the
tray

on fho

sphere of the worst

dogma
kind.

is

considered

to

be

heresy of
belief

They can
These

trace

their

back through a long succession of holy


to primitive times.

men up
of

men
to

are honoured by

distinctive titles,
saintliness.

according

their standard

the religious teachers. Thus the practice of IslAm, though not its doctrines, has been largely intluencod by its ouviroumeut. He adds, "In any case the only question is one of ritu;il. Tsltim which owes its success especially to its adaptability, has yielded in some measure to the customs of the country. But fetish beliefs have not been able to influence its doctrine, for they only exist as forms of ritual
or
as
traditions,

and

character."
tale," p. 313.)

(Chatolicr,

"

ha\e nothing of a philosophic L'lshim dans IWfriquo occideu-

22

THE RELIGIOUS ORDERS OP ISLAM


The highest rank
of all
is

that of Ghauth.i a

the superabundance of his of his merits, is able influence the and sanctity to be the sin-bearer of the faithful, without in
to

man who, owing

the least endangering his

own
or

salvation.

He
of

is

very
or
'

often, therefore, called the Ghauthu'l-'Alam,

Eefuge

of

the World,'

'

Defender

the
are

World.'

Then come the men

of the next

rank

who

The title seems to called Qutb,2 or Axis. that this saint is a centre of influence
which
all

imply round

the greatness and the real grandeur He has attained to such of the world revolve.

a degree of sanctity that he reflects to the general body of believers the heart of the Prophet himself. The one most pre-eminent in his day is called the Qutbu'1-Waqt 'the Axis of the Age. He is the recipient of the special favour of God, by whom all the affairs of the lower and higher worlds are entrusted to him. All the Aiiliya',

or

It is said that saints, are subject to him. the founders of the Eifci'iyya, the Qadiriyya, the Ahmadiyya, and the Barahim Orders held this

office,

and that each one was the Qutb of the age in which he lived. It is alleged that the Qutb often appears in the world, but that men do not know

him

as such.
1

He
)ij i>

has certain

favoured stations
2

^^

QUTB AND AUTAD

23

where he appears, such as the roof of the Ka'ba in Mecca, one of the gates of old Cairo and other On his right and left there are two persons, places.
Umana',^ the faithful ones. When the Qutb the Amin on the left hand side succeeds him dies, the Amin on the right passes over to the left, and
called
his place is
is
;

believed

that the

then taken by one of the Autad. Qutb can in a moment


;

It of

time transfer himself from place to place but he usually wanders about the world, awarding good
or
evil,

as the destiny of

the recipient

may

be,

through the agency


nate to himself.2

of Walls, or saints, subordi-

The Autad

is

the

name given

to holy

men

of

influence in a country, or is applied in a mystical sense to those who have attained to the stage of
ma'rifat, the

knowledge

of

God.

The term has


of the State.

somewhat

of the

meaning

the phrase Arkan-i-Daulat They are four in number.

Pillars

of arkan, or pillars, in

There are

five

other persons called the Anwar,''

or lights, who succeed to vacant places the Autad.


1

amongst

Plural of c:>*'*^ amiu, a faithful one. A good account of the superstitious notions which have " Modern gathered round the Qutiib is given in Lane's
2

Egyptians,"
3
*

vol. I, pp.
jjj".

Plural of Plural of

watd, a

2904.
pillar.

,ynur,

light.

24

THE RELIGIOUS ORDERS OF ISLAM


The next

of

in order are the Shuhada',i or martyrs there are forty. They are sometimes called the rijalu'l-ghaib, or absent ones. Each day

whom

in the montli they

wander over a
it

fixed portion of

the earth, going over


It is believed that,
if

all

once in each month.

a person can on any day of


is,

the

month

ascertain where one of the Shuhada'


spiritual aid.

he can obtain from him


cellent

Then come the Akhyar,^ a term signifying men. They are seven in number and

ex-

are

ever on the move, spreading the light of Islam. Another class are the Abdal,-^ the changeable.
in

Their hearts are so purified that no vice dwells " changed." |hem, and so they are said to be It is supposed that, in consideration of the merit

these men have acquired, God still preserves and blesses the world. They are seventy in number,
of

whom

forty

reside in Syria and thirty else-

one dies God appoints a successor, but no one can recognize these Abdal and no one knows the exact place where they reside. This is
where.*

When

known to God alone. On the day of judgment God will summon them to himself. It is said
1

Plural of J,^^ Plural of

shahid, a martyr.

j^ khaiyir, a good man.

3 Plural of Ji-^
*

badil, a substitute.

authorities give the number as forty, of whom twenty-two reside in Syria and eighteen in 'IrAq (Cambon, " Les Confreries Religieuse," p. 81).

Some

THE WALI, OR SAINT

25

that every morning they go to Mecca and report to the Qutb the result of their wanderings.
follow the Najib, who is an assistant to the Muqaddim, and the Naqib or chamberlain

Then

but these are ordinary

human

beings and need no

description. Wall, or saint, is a title given to a holy man These saints are highly veneafter his death.
rated,

and

this reverence
^
:

the Qur'an

"

is based on a verse of on the favourites of God Verily

no fear shall come, neither shall they grieve." The word for favourites is Auliya', the plural form
of Wali. of

They

working miracles. are very common.


exist to

are supposed to possess the Pilgrimages to their

power tombs

These various classes of holy men are said to demonstrate now the authenticity of the

Qur'an and the veracity of the Prophet. They are })opularly supposed to have great influence
over the course of events in the
world.
It is

said to be by their blessing that fruitful seasons come round, that the earth yields its increase,

that

Muslims are

victorious over their foes.

This

great power they gain by they observe the Sunna, or the traditions of the

the care with which

Prophet's words and deeds, and by the absolute abnegation of their own will and wishes.
1

Siiratu'l-Yuaus (X) 63.

26

THE RELIGIOUS ORDERS OF ISLAM


The Shaikhs,
or

Grand Masters

of the Orders,

with new converts, and show great discernment in adapting their instruction to the various classes of men with whom they have to deal. On some general points
very skilful in dealing
there
is

are

much

strictness and sameness.

All

must

absolutely obey the Shaikh, keep secret the affairs of the Order, and be but beyond that loyal to it the teaching and discipline varies. A reli;

very

gious-minded disciple

is

directed to observe the

most minute

details of the ritual acts of worship,

one has talismans and charms given to him. The mystic finds satisfaction in the religious ecstasy to which his devotions lead the learned and philosophical are charmed with the
;

a superstitious

religious speculations opened

up to them whilst the weak and oppressed find, as members of an Order, the support of a powerful association. The
;

neophyte gains admission to and promotion in an Order very slowly, and only after a long ascetic At first he is only a Talmidh, a disciple; training. then a Murid, an aspirant; then a Faqlr, poor in the mystical sense. At this stage he learns that he possesses nothing, even his existence is as if it were not.^ He now enters upon the tariq,
or path,
1

and

sees

visions and has

supernatural

A Tradition recorded on the avithority of Islklik states that the Prophet said, " the poor will enter Paradise before the rich."

THE TRAINING OF A NOVICE


revelations.

27

Thus he becomes
road,

on
still

the

mystical higher stages of

but

many

a Salik, a traveller pass on to

they are powerfully drawn by God to Himself and are illuminated and inThe life of such an one is wholly spirispired.
the attracted
is,

that

life

and become Majdhub,

and not material, and the outward rites of He is so absorbed religion are no longer needed. in the contemplation of God that he passes on to the state of tauhid (unity), and is identified
tual

with the Supreme and so loses


existence. 1

all

Not
;

all

Darweshes attain

sense of separate to these

higher degrees

From
of

all

this
is

they are reserved for the few alone. it will be seen that the initiation
a

a novice

matter

of

great

importance.*

There arc thus four stages through which a Muriel


:

may

Tlie Shari'at, or Law, in obedience to which he must live and the rules of which he must observe. (2) The Tariqat, or path. He may now abandon forms and cere-

pass

(1)

monies and enter on the mystical life. (3) Ma'rifat or knowledge. He now gains supernatural knowledge and is believed to be inspired. (4) Haqfqat or Truth. He has now reached the stage of unity and becomes one with God. Pew pass beyond the second stage. " The following is given as a direction by the Shaikh Sanusi. When the adept is a common man, he ought only
2

gradually to be initiated in the precept thus only the easy prayers should be taught him, until his soul is gradually fortified and strengthened. Then the instruction is increased by the addition of the invocations by the Prophet .... When the results of the practice of the dhikr and of profound faith have removed the impurity of the soul, and
;

28

THE RELIGIOUS ORDERS OF ISLAM


differs slightly in some of the Orders chief ceremonies and the main principles
;

The method
but
tlie

underlying them have much in common. The aspirant for the honour must prepare himself by prayer and alms-giving. he has been instructed for some days in the general nature of the obligations he will have
a
fast, a spiritual retreat,

After

to bear, the novice


of the

is

brought into the assembly

Darweshes by two of their number and is introduced to the Muqaddim, or to the Shaikh if he is He then swears that he will present. be loyal to the Order and will yield absolute
obedience to
his
spiritual
of

superior.

He
of

next

makes

a full profession

the

creed

Islam

and repeats the names of the seven attributes of God. He is then admitted into the Order, and is taught the dhikr, or special form of prayer used by it. The whole assembly then recites
the Fatiha, or opening chapter of the Qur'an, and the newly admitted brother receives from and gives to each of his brethren the kiss of In some Orders the ceremony is soon peace.
over
^
;

in

others

it

is

spread over a long period

when with the

eyes of the heart one sees nothing in this world and the next but the Only Being, then one may " Marabouts et Khouan," begin the full prayer." (Rinn,
p. 90.)
1 " The ordinary initiation remember is learnt, an oath

is

soon over.

dhikr easy to

of the

abnegation

of obedience to the Shaikh and of all things for the benefit of the Order

THE TRAINING OP A NOVICE


of time.

29

In the Maulawiyya and the Baktasha and few others, the novitiate extends to a iyya thousand and one days, during which time the novice has to perform the humblest domestic duties, and is put to severe proofs to test his capacity for obedience and his spirit of humility.
sary.

Absolute surrender of the individual will is neces" thou shalt be in the hands of Thus, thy Shaikh as a corpse is in the hands of those who prepare it for burial.' God speaks to thee through him. Thou art his slave and thou canst do nothing

without his order. He is a man chosen of God. Banish from thy heart any thought to which God Another famous or the Shaikh might object." " In the same way as a sick person teacher says ought not to hide anything from his doctor, so thou mayst not conceal from the Shaikh thy
:

" The thoughts or words or actions." image of the Shaikh must be ever present to the disciple." Amongst other means for destroying the sense of

individuality the following is given in the details "The of the ritual of the Naqshbandiyya Order
;

being absorbed in the spirit of the Shaikh is profitable only to him to whom the ecstatic state comes
is

taken.

The novice

is

henceforth bound to loyalty to the

his sole guide in things temporal and spiritual, his intercessor with God, the controller of all his affairs." (Depont et Coppolani, p. 199.)

master,

who becomes

J-UJ^

<^Ji>

^*>

Ju-.*J^

J^*-^ ^Xs-^ (^^

(^ O)^

30

THE RELIGIOUS ORDERS OF ISLAM


To
attain that object,

naturally.

one must en-

own spirit the image of his Shaikh and look upon it as on his right shoulder. Then
grave in his

from the shoulder to the heart, he will draw a line along which the spirit of the Shaikh can come and take possession of his heart." Sometimes as part of the initiation the Shaikh touches the head of the novice and breathes into his ear the words la ilaha illa'lldh, which he has then to repeat one hundred and one, one hundred and fifty-one, or three hundred and one times. This is called the talqin. The novice then retires, spends much time in meditation alone, and falls
into a

dreamy

:condition.

This

is

called khilwat.

He has to report his dreams to the Shaikh, who then breathes a second time into his ear the words,
ya Allah, O God, and the other names of God. This goes on for forty days or so, when the novice becomes a Murid, or disciple. " In the Egyptian

branch
as

of

the Khilwatiyya, a

woman

is

looked

an impure being. The Shaikh does not upon touch her, but holds one end of a cloth, the other In another end of which the woman holds." " The Order, a simultaneous ablution is made. Shaikh or Muqaddim and the sister place their hands in a vessel of water and clasp their hands The face of the woman must be seen together.
1

Rinn,

" Marabouts et Khouan,"

p. 28G.

RELIGIOUS DUTIES
only

31

by

its

reflection

in

the water.

In the

Kahmaniyya Order the hand of the woman is not touched. It is sufficient if she recites after the
Shaikh certain prayers of initiation. Sometimes the ends of a rosary are held by each." ^ In addition to the duties involved in renunciation of the world, retreats, watchings

and

fasting,

the Ikhwan^
for

must observe the ziarat, the hadya and the dhikr. A ziarat is a religious visitation

the purpose of collecting funds \vhen the A regular revenue of the Order falls short. assessment is made which the Muqaddim collects

through the agency of the Cha'ush. The poorer persons suffer from this, often without a murmur, saying, "It is to God and not to man" we give. In Algiers the impost has been, with good results, but in regulated by the French Government Morocco, where there are no such restrictions, the Muqaddim lays heavy burdens on the people.
;

"

The rapacity

of the religious chiefs are a principal

cause of the misery which permanently exists in most of the Muslim States. This is especially so in Morocco, where the representatives of the
religious Orders abound."
1
'

'<

Depont et Coppolani, p. 199. In Northern Africa they arc

East, Darweshes.

Faqir (poor one). called AsMb (companions)." (Ibid, " Marabouts et 3 Khouan, Rinn,

called Khouan. In the The Qadiriyya Order keep the name In the Tijaniyya Order the members are
p. 195.) p. 91.

32

THE RELIGIOUS ORDERS OF ISLAM

The hadya is an expiatory offering made by the Ikhwan for the infraction of some rule, or the It is also a kind of tribute neglect of some duty. which the Muqaddim exacts from the chiefs of the
and which few, owing to their fear of assassination or other injury, are bold enough to
local tribes

refuse.

The dhikr
daily
of
is
life

is a most important part of the Darwesh. There are various forms it. It may be recited aloud, in which case it or mentally or in a very low called dhikru'1-jali
^

of a

which case it is called dhikru'l-khafi. The Naqshbandiyya Darweshes adopt the former, the Chishtiyya and Qadiriyya Orders the latter.
voice,

in

dhikru'1-jali is as follows.

The worshipper

sit;

ting

down

in the usual

way

shouts out Allah

then, sitting as if for prayers, again in a louder then folding his legs under voice says Allah
;

* The origin of this frequent act of worship is to be found Believers remember God in Suratu'l-Ahzab (xxxiii) 40. "
!

with frequent remembrance and praise

evening"

Him morning and

The commentator 'Abdu'llah bin 'Abbds

means
is

"

Remember with tongue and heart


namiz."

says that \jj^S\ " and that

S^a-*-.

equivalent to ":Say the


>

The Darweshes say that


repetition of the dhiiir.

frequent,

means the frequent

THE DHIKR

33

Mm

he shouts yet louder Allah. Then sitting again in the attitude for prayer he shuts his eyes and shouts la, drawing the sound from then he says ilaha as from the head his navel and lastly illa'llah from the left side. All this and is repeated hundreds of is called a darb, times on each occasion.
; ;

The Darwesh, who makes


his eyes,

dhikru'l-khafi, closes

and then inwardly and slowly says, as God the if from his stomach, AUahu Sami'un hearer; from his breast, Allahu Basirun God who sees from his head, Allahu 'Alimun God the knower. He keeps on going over these names backwards and forwards, not audibly but mentally, saying them to himself in an ascending and descending scale. Then in a very low tone of voice, as if from his right knee and left side, he says Allah : then he exhales breath and says, whilst so doing, la ilaha, and then inhales breath saying illa'llah. This darb is repeated hundreds of times and is most exhausting. By long practice a Darwesh attains great control over his breathing, and it is said of one man that, exhaling his breath, he used to say la ilaha there is no god at the midday prayer, and inhaling his breath, say

illa'llah

but
3

God

at

the

afternoon
for,

prayer.
at
least,

Thus he breathed out continuously


three hours.

34

THE RELIGIOUS ORDERS OF ISLAM


Sometimes there
is also

a meditation on certain

verses of the Qur'an, as, " The Manifest: is the Last.


is

He

is

the First.
"
^

The Hidden
"
^

He "He

We (God) you go are closer to him (man) than the veins of his " neck ^ " Whichever way ye turn, there is the
with you

wherever

"

face of

God

"

"

God encompasseth

all

things."

The dhikr is said to produce union of the heart and the tongue in the act of saying the name of God, to cause the soul to recover its calm in
the

presence of

the

Shaikh.

The mysterious

virtue attached to the rite vanquishes evil desires. A Murid ought to say a dhikr three times in

one breath and so impress


is

it

on his heart, which

thus kept constantly occupied with the thought of God. Similar exercises to the dhikr are the
holiness to God tasbih, or saying subhanu'llah or al-hamdu'llah the tahmid, praise be to God ; or Allahu Akbar God is great. the and takbir, is reported to have said that he who
;

Muhammad

repeats the tasbih one hundred

times morning and evening will have all his sins forgiven. It is by the use of dhikr, by khilwat, or retiring from men for devotional purposes, by tawajjuh, or turning the face towards God devoutly in
prayer,

by

the

muraqabbah,
(Ivii.) 3.

or

contemplating
(Ivii.) 4.

Suratu'l-Mujddilali, 3Suratu'l-Qaf, (1.) 15. ^Suratu'l-Baqarah, 5Suratu'ii-Nis^', (iv.) 125.

Suratu'l-IMujadilah,

(ii.)

109.

THE DHIKR
God with
ualism,
fear,

35

by the
the

tasarruf, or mystical spirit-

that

fervent

spiritual internal powers, which It subdue the will of others.

Darwesh gains the enable him to is said of two


this,

Shaikhs, in

illustration

of

that

one

they saw some wrestlers equally matched, they determined to will that one particular

day and

man

He did so and then should gain the victory. they willed that the defeated man should conThe mechanical quer, and in turn he did so.
repetition, consecutive and prolonged, of the few words in the dhikr naturally weakens the personal
will of the
It
is

Darwesh, and deadens his intellect. produces a morbid state of mind in which he easily and blindly led by the stronger will of

It maintains the habit of his religious superiors. In fact, the whole of submission. and discipline

system is now so developed that individuality is crushed out and the Order is exalted. The will of the Shaikh is absolute and all venerate him

and implicitly obey his commands. There are now altogether eighty-eight Eeligious The first came into existence in the first Orders.^ year of the Hijra and the last was founded in
A.H.

1293 A.D.

1876.

It is said that the Khalifa

Abu Bakr
life.
1

first called

men

to a sort of

common
of a

short

account will

now be given
Khouan,"
pp. 26

The names

are given

by Rinn in

of the founders of these Orders, " Marabouts et

with dates,

51.

36

THE RELIGIOUS ORDERS OF ISLAM


of the

few
ties

most important Darwesh Confraterni-

in their historical order.

The Siddiqiyya Order talies its name from the the righteous a title given to Abii word Siddiq to this day in Yemen, in Egypt, it exists and Bakr, aind in small numbers in Algiers. Its chief prin^

ciple is said to be the

profound contemplation of the person and virtues of the Prophet. The result is that they say the Prophet appears to a Dar-

wesh

of this

Order in times

of difficulty,

and

The joy of this is so in his hours of ecstasy. great that it can be known only by experience. The religious exercises are continued by the pious

members to them

until the

soul of

Muhammad

appears

and in their waking hours, to nourish them and to lead them on to heights
in

sleep

of spiritual perfection.

The Uwaishiyya Order arose thus


seventh
year of the
the
life

in the thirty-

Hijra, Uwaisu'l-Karani,

who

had

lived

of

a recluse, announced that

1 The BlsUmiyya, the Naqshbandiyya, and the Baktdshiyya Orders claim to have descended from the Siddfqiyya community founded by Abu Bakr. The Uwaisiyya, the Adhamiyya, the Qddiriyya, and the Sanusiyya Orders connected themselves with the Khalifa 'Umar and also with the Khalifa 'Ali, to whom all the other Orders look up as their original head. Each Order has its silsilah, or chain of succession, up to one of these Khalifas.

the

An Order name of

is

always called by the adjective formed from


founder.

its

THE ALWANIYYA OKDER


Gabriel

37

revealed to

had appeared to him in a dream, and him the constitution of an Order to

be started on strictly ascetic principles. Uwais carried his veneration for the Prophet so far as to extract his teeth, because Muhammad had lost

two

at the battle of

Uhud.

his followers to do the same.

Uwais then required The Prophet had

Uwais and commanded that his It was own mantle should be given to him. made of wool with a collar and long sleeves reacha great regard for

ing to the knee.

It is said to

be

still

preserved in

Constantinople by a descendant of Uwais. Once a year it is carried in procession to the Old The mantles of the Darwesh Orders are Seraglio.

made
Sharif.

after

the

fashion

of

this

the

Khirqa-i-

The Uwaishiyya Order has not spread

special rules and distinctive is the Alwaniyya, founded by exercises religious He was Shaikh Alwan in a.h. 149 a.d. 766.

beyond Arabia. The first Order with

the

first

to

make formal

rules

for

the

initia-

and to regulate the duties of the The whole spiritual directors and the Murids. system in its present form may be said to date from the time of this Shaikh. The Bistamiyya Order was founded by a PerA.D. 874 and traces its consian about A.H. 261
tion of a novice

nexion up to the Khalifa taught in


it.

'Ali.

Sufi doctrines are


its

Abu Bayazid

Bistami,

founder,

38
is

THE RELIGIOUS ORDERS OP ISLAM


looked up to as a saint by the of the most famous Orders.
died
in
a.h. 561

Shaikhs

of

many
who

The Qadiriyya, founded by

'Abdu'l-Qadiri'l-Jilani,
is

a.d. 1165,

one of the

Other Orders largest and most respected Orders.^ have arisen out of it. The banner and the turbans
Order are white. A rose is worn in the found in the northern parts of India cap. on the one side and in Algiers on the other. As
of this
It is

early as the fifteenth century it was introduced into Western Africa, by emigrants from Tuat A
.

settlement

Walata, being driven from that place the Order moved on to The great revival of religion at the Timbuktu.

was

formed

at

but

beginning
to the

of the

nineteenth century, probably due


Arabia, stirred
to

Wahhabi movement in the members of this Order


Shaikh Si
tation,

up

great

activity*

Ahmad

ibn Idris, a
chief

man
of

was then the

of great reputhe Order. He

in 1835 one of his disciples, Muhammad 'Uthmanu'1-Amir Ghani, to the Nile region where he enrolled many Muslims in the Order and proceeded to Dongola and then to Kordofan. In the latter country he stayed until his death in 1853 and gathered many pagan tribes into the fold of Islam. These he formed into a new

sent

Order, called the Amirghaniyya.


1 An excellent account of the founder is given by S. D. Margoliouth in the R. A. S. J. for April, 1907, pp. 267306.

THE QADIRIYYA ORDER

39

In their innumerable Zawiyahs the brethren of


the Order place much trust in their mystical ceremonies and seek in the hallucinations of the This ecstatic state to realize all their aspirations.
has been thus described
:

" at

each

moment

of

the day and night their thought strives to cross Their lips Unknown. space, to perceive the
repeat
the dhikr revealed to 'Abdu'l-Qadir

and,

with half shut eyes and the rosary slowly moving between the thumb and forefinger, they invoke
the

Supreme Being, and


if

listen to the beating of

their hearts, as

lation of the Divine


beatific vision.

they expected an inward reve^the beginning of the spirit-

Softly they rise and

bow and make

their ablutions, take a frugal meal and return to crouch in the same spot, still with the same ten-

when

sion of mind, awaiting the psychological the divine breath will visit their
i

moment
purified

Friday they gather together in silence and concentrate their faculties on a single Seated in a half circle idea, the majesty of God. or the before Shaikh Muqaddim, with legs crossed and the fingers of the open hand spread on the
minds."
knee,

On

they recite in unison many hundreds of times the dhikr compiled by their great founder. The dhikr of this Order is a very long one. The
novice, however,
1

on admission has only to add to


et Coppolani, p. 156.

Depont

40

THE RELIGIOUS OEDERS OF ISLAM

the namaz, or five obligatory prayers, the repetition one hundred and sixty-five times of the creeds

One form used by the most members is to recite the advanced spiritually Fatiha witli the intention that the reward for it shall go to the Prophet and to 'Abdu'l-Qadir to repeat one hundred and twenty-one times the words, "0 God, bless our Lord Muhammad and his " then one hundred and twenty-one times family " Glory be to God. Praise be to God. There is
la ilaha illa'llahu.
;
;

no god but He.

God
the

power

except

in

There is great. " Lord Most High


"

is
;

no

then

O Shaikh something for God"; then one then hundred times Suratu Ya Sin (xxxvi) then one Suratu'1-Jinn (Ixxii) forty-one times hundred and twenty-one times Suratu'n-Nasr then eight times Suratu'l-Fatiha then (ex) once Suratvi'l-Ikhlas (cxii) and finally three times
one hundred and twenty-one times
'Abdu'l-Qadir,
;

the words, "


All

God

bless the Prophet. "^

this must be done with great precision. The Shaikh gives the signal for prayer, controls and corrects the movements. Then slowly all

turn their faces to the right and, with an admirable


^

To each dhikr the


jaAx^\ ^gU^ " IMarabouts et
special

follovviug

words are added


J^-^*.'*

&U^
Jlo

&1!\

and

e?*^^

<_s^-^5^

\>s^^

Rinn,

Khouan,"

p. 184.
is

attitude in prayer
Ibid, p. 135.

adopted by members of

this Order.

THE QADIRIYYA ORDER

41

cadence, say Allah, then they turn to the left and say Allahu, then they bow their heads and say Allahi. They go on repeating this again and again, each

time increasing the pace of their utterances, until wearied and exhausted the words die on their lips, they become almost senseless and feel a delirious
vision filling their minds.

glimpse of Paradise

They seem to catch a and beside the throne of the


great

Almighty appears

their

Master,

'Abdu'l-

Qadir, in saintly glory. This goes on year in year out until they think they reacli the highest stage
of absorption in the Divine.

To the multitude

gifted with supernatural powers,^ exorcists, visionaries, miracle workers, though in reality they are either self-deceived mystics with

they are as

men

minds unbalanced, or pretended saints of doubtful These ecstatic practices were introduced into the Order by its founder. They are denounced by the 'Ulama as contrary to the Quran and the Sunna and are looked upon as
character.

profane.
of the

dispersed and is one endeavours to get on with rulers and with men in high positions it
is

This

Order

widely

most

tolerant.

It

charity and seeks their aid. The authority exercised by the Shaikh is very complete. At the time of the initiation of a

stimulates

their

novice, the Shaikh taking his

hand and placing


the

it

between

his arms, says

: " In

name

of

God

42

THE RELIGIOUS ORDERS OP ISLAM

most merciful, most clement. I believe in God, in His angels, in His book, in His Prophet, in the day of judgment, in His decrees, in His favours, in His punishments, and in the resurrection from
" I am the novice replies a Muslim, and I am confirmed in my worship and in my faith. I purify myself by a sincere

the dead."

To

this

repentance,
heresy.

mad

is

I repudiate all from all my sins. There is no god but God, and MuhamHis servant and apostle. It is from him

I receive admission into this

Order.
all

I take

the

oath of

fidelity.
all

engage to obey

the divine

laws, to do

things as in the sight of God, to

accept what
to thank

He may be pleased to send me and Him for troubles which may oppress

Other ceremonies follow and a long list when they have been satisfactorily answered, the novice is admitted into the Order. All throughout the Western Sudan, a hundred

me."

of questions is pvit,^ after which,

years ago, small and scattered communities of the Qadiriyya were to be found. Then stirred up by a missionary spirit, they became active amongst
iheir

heathen neighbours and since that time have made great progress by their pacific propaganda. In fact, this Order and that of a more modern and a warlike one, the Tijaniyya, have been the principal agents in the extraordinary
1

Rinn, "Marabouts

et

Khouan,"

pp. 190-196.

THE QADIRIYYA ORDER

43

advance of Islam in the Western and Central Sudans in modern times.'^ As-Sanusi was once one
'Abdu'l-Qadir, its as founder, being a man of large represented heart and charitable feelings, and his Order was
of
is

of the

members

this Order.

founded

not only to improve by its mystical the corrupt morals of Muslims, but also teaching to relieve the miseries of men, to comfort the
afflicted

"

of the

Muqaddims
not sent

and to aid the very poor by alms." One of the Order has said that " if

Muhammad to be the seal of the would have sent 'Abdu'l-Qadir, for He prophets, Tie, by his virtues and charity, most of all men
God had
1 This is confirmed by the latest writer on the subject, " vfho writing in 1899 says By the instruction which they the their colonies they found on every to disciples, by give side, the Darweshes multiply in the Sudans their centres of " L'Islam dans action." (Chatelier, I'Afriqiie Occidentalle," The Rt. Rev. Bishop Johnson writing in Decemp. 254.) " A ber 1902 of the city of Benin, says ilosque has been erected there and the ]\Iuhammadan call to prayer is heard and both there and at Warri and at Sapele proselytizing
:

is going on. Already some Benin young men have be" come Muhammadans (C.M.S. Intelligencer, February 1903, The Synod of Western Equatorial Africa met on p. 115.) May 4 to 7, 1908 and amongst others passed the following

work

resolution,

" That the rapid growth of

Muhammadanism

iu

the Yoruba country calls for serious and prompt action on the part of the Church." Speal^ing of the success of the QAdiriyya Darweshes in parts of Algiers, the French Sudiln and Senegal, a French authority says of the converts : " The apostles (Darwesh missionaries) become their masters spiritual and temporal, veritable princes and at the same iime priests and warriors" (Depont et Coppolani, p. 311).

44

THE EELIGIOUS ORDERS OP ISLAM

resembles Jesus Christ." He is called the Saint of Saints, the Qutbu'l-Qutub, and the Ghauthu'l-

A'zam
that

the greatest defender.


now between

It is said that his

soul hovers

earth and heaven,


his

God always answers

behalf of others.

No

saint

and made on prayer him in the equals

working miracles, nor are such marvellous The oflfice of Shaikh is any other. If the is a minor when his father son hereditary. dies, the Ikhwan appoint one of their number to act for him until he reaches the age of twenty.

power

of

stories told of

The Eifa'iyya, often called the howling Darweshes, belong to an Order founded by Ahmad ar-Eifa'i of Baghdad who died in a.h. 578 a.d. 1182 and was buried in the principal Zawiyyah

of

the Order, situated in a town in 'Iraq.

He
is

was a
repute.

nephew

of

'Abdu'l-Qadiri'l-Jflani

and

considered to have been a

theologian of

great

tliey extinguish by rolling on the burning coals, and they even eat live coals and glass, and swallow serpents, or appear to do
so. In Mecca their agents are active, and they are very hostile to Europeans. Lane describes a scene he witnessed in Cairo thus: "A Darwesh

Order are black. make fires which

The banners, robes and turbans of this The members of the Order
^

took a large piece of live coal, plaK^ed

it

between

" The 1 For the special prayers used by this Order, see Darweshes," by Brown, pp. 114-124.

THE

RIFA'IYYA
it

ORDER
then drew
it

45

Ms
his

teeth,

and kept

there;

on

tongue, and, keeping his mouth wide open for two minutes, violently inhaled and exhaled,

showing the inside of his mouth like a furnace and breathing out sparks. Having chewed and swallowed the coal he sat down, without ap^ parently having suffered any pain." In the course of years these Darweshes have been scattered about in the East, and have formed distinct groups. In recent years the chief matter

of interest connected with

them is that there is a movement towards union amongst the scattered


branches.

This has been mainly brought about

by the influence of Abii'l-Hauda, a great friend of the present Sultan of Turkey, 'Abdu'l-Hamid II.

who

the grand Sharif

members of this Order and Mecca agents in the recent " movement. Under the powerful pan-Islamic
has
the
of

made

direction of Abii'l-Hauda the Eifd'iyya Darweshes seem to recover their spiritual homogeneity and

become, at the same time, the sworn enemies of progress and civilization, the unscrupulous executors of the designs of the Ottoman Porte." ^ This gives the Order a political importance.

The Chistiyya Order was founded by Mu'inu'd1

Lane,

"Modern Egyptians,"

vol.

ii,

p.

190,

see also

vol. 1, pp. 305-7.


2 Depont et Coppolani, p. 327. On the other hand, C. Snouck Hurgronje, whilst admitting that the centre of the

46

THE RELIGIOUS ORDERS OP ISLAM


who was born
in
a.h,

537 a.d. 1142. His tomb is a Ajmir of favourite He was a place very pilgrimage. of The members 'Abdu'l-Qadiri'l-Jilani. disciple

din Chisti,

He

died

in

India.

of this
of

Order are mostly Shi'ahs. They are fond music and perform the dhikru'1-jali. The Suharwardiyya Order was founded by

Shahabu'd-din as-Suharwardi, who died in Persia about A.H. 623 a.d. 1226. The majority of its followers are still found in Persia, but its inThe teaching of fluence has been felt elsewhere.

as-Suharwardi was highly mystical and dealt with


the deeper aspects of Sufiism. Now, it is not so much an Order as a school of mystic philosophy which has had a great influence on the teaching
of

many

of the

African Orders and fosters the


in

growth

656 A.D.

amongst them. The Shadhiliyya Order was founded


of fatalism

a.h.

1258,
It

and
It

Muslim

lands.

spread through most flourishes in Egypt and in


is

has given rise to many branches Algiers. which now form separate Orders. Its doctrines are held by almost all the modern Orders. The

Sanusiyya are

afiSliated to

Abu Madian

al-Andalusia,

it. A famous teacher who was born in Seville

Pan-Islamic movement is in Mecca, does not think that the Grand Sharif and his assistants play any great part in He also thinks that the influence of the Religious it. Orders in this matter is over-rated (" Revue de I'Histoire des Religions" tome, quarante-quatritoe, p. 281.)

THE SHADHILIYYA ORDER


in A.D.

4T

1127, a disciple of 'Abdu'l-Qadiri'l-Jilani, brought the mystical teaching of his master into Northern Africa, whilst his disciple, 'Abdu's-Salam

taught

it

in

Western

Africa.

He

too

had an

earnest follower, Sidi Abu Hasanu'sh-Shadhil who, carried on the propaganda both in Northern and

Eastern Africa and in Egypt. Abu Madian added to his great knowledge of mysticism, a modesty of manner and a ready eloquence which helped to make him one of the most influential men of
his age.
in

The

early chiefs of the Order,

worthy
interest

disciples of their great master,

took

little

teaching and were

diligently disseminated his really the heads of a mystical One of the instructions of philosophical school. Shaikh before was "

worldly

affairs,

obey your sovereign." temporal your


dhil,

Shadhil
a

you obey

Abu Hasanu'sh-Shatheologian
as a mystic, gave his
a.h. 593.

man

of

great

reputation

moralist,

jurisconsult

and
of a

name

to the Order.

He was

born in

Muslim mystic and He was a good example were looked his followers upon as excellent Sufis.

He

said to

his

"

disciples,

You

will

not smell

the odour of sanctity until you are detached from the world and from men. He who desires glory in this world and in the next should accept my

Then he will reject from his heart teaching. all that is not God, will seek nothing, will love nothing but God. Hear him who calls you to

48

THE RELIGIOUS ORDERS OP ISLAM

God has you to battle. which my companions and their disciples are enrolled and will be shelHe was known in Morocco tered from hell-fire.'' and his popularity so influenced the 'Ulama of the University of al-x\zhar in Cairo that he was
looked upon as the spiritual Master of confraterMecca, and wise men and philosophers of both these cities highly regarded him as an
nities in

peace, not liim who calls given me a register in

eloquent doctor, an im comparable master. When he died he left no heir. He appointed no successor, but the brethren retained his name

soon occupied the front rank of the existing Orders. In the course of time it gave rise to many other Orders which form distinct groups, tinged, however, with the mysticism of the older one. Some of them have made practical changes, and devote less time to mystical studies and more to practical ones but they now form a very great social and religious
;

and the Shadhiliyya

power.

The Maulawiyya, often called the dancing Darweshes, are the most popular Order in the Turkish Empire where they are known as the
There are no Zawiyahs of These men are famous Algiers. for their music and their mystic dance, which consist chiefly of whirling round and round. This is said to represent the revolution of the
this Order in

Mevlevi Darweshes.

THE NAQSHBANDIYYA ORDER

49

spheres and also the circling movement of the caused by the vibrations of its love to soul,

God. They say their prayers in silence, standing up and turning round from east to west. Their religious performances are to be seen in

The Order was Constantinople and in Cairo. founded by Maulana Jalalu'd-dfn Rumi who died It is a very wealthy A.D. 1273. in A.H. 672 is in it a There Order. singular union of austere

practices, political obsequiousness to the Sultan, The Shaikh of the and frivolous ceremonies. ^

office

Order must be a descendant of its founder. The is hereditary and so the marriage of the

Shaikh

is

obligatory.

The Naqshbandiyya Order was founded by Muhammad Beha'u'd-din Naqshbandi who died in He was a man Persia in a.h. 719 ad. 1319.

and piety and a Sufi. At first he did not wish so much to form an Order as to gather together an association of religious people, who might meet for prayer without much outward
of learning

show

or

terior is

special rites. for the world

He
;

held that

"

The

ex"
;

the interior for

God

but the association grew into a very large and


tral

important Order which is found chiefly in CenAsia and in Turkey, but is little known in
1 For a full account of the dauces, see Brown, Darweshes," pp. 199-201. 2

"

The

^i^U

^^U\ ^ji^
4

^&UiJ\

50

THE EELIGIOUS ORDEES OP ISLAM


It attracts

high social position learning. They generally perform the dhikru'l-khafi, or silent devotions, and are moderate in their mysticism. In addition to this each

Africa.

men

of

and

of

member must

for forgiveness,

daily recite the istighfar, or prayer once the salamat, or prayer for
;

the Fatiha seven times peace, seven times Suratu'l-Inshirah (xciv) nine times Suratu'l; ;
;

Ikhlas (cxii) once, and then the appointed dhikr an indefinite number of times. The conformity of its teaching to that of the Khalifa Abu Bakr, the dignity of its outward ceremonial, the high
class of 'persons affiliated to it are amongst the causes which give this Order a very high place in the esteem and regard with which other Darweshes look upon it.

The important Orders, the Qadiriyya, the Eifa'iyya, the Maulawiyya and the Shadhiliyya, were
when, through the influence of won for itself a secure and a in the Muhammadan Church. recognized position was forced to Orthodoxy accept the popular saintand to admit the miracles of the auliya', worship Muslim although many puritans raised their
Ghazali, Sufiism had
voices against the superstitious veneration which to the tombs of holy men, and against tlie prayers, sacrifices, and oblations offered by

formed

at a

time

"

was paid

the pilgrims
1

Nicholson,

who assembled." "A Literary History

of the

Arabs," p. 93.

THE QALANDAEIYYA ORDER

51

The Qalandariyya,* or wandering Darweshes, were founded as an Order by 'Ali Yusuf Qalandari,
a native of Spain,'^ who died in a.h. 724 a.d. 1323. He was a disciple of Jalalu'd-din Eiimi and of a memHaji Baktash and was also, for a while, afterwards he which Order of the ber Chistiyya
left

velled

He traand founded an Order of his own. much and finally settled down at Panipat, The where pilgrimages are made to his tomb.
statutes of the Order oblige its members to live on charity, to be always on the move, and not

to

cally Sufis.

amass wealth for themselves. They are practiThe Order exists in India, Persia and

Turkey. Their dhikr contains a prayer for the founder and certain passages from the Qur'an,^ repeated many times, and concludes with the

on Muhammad and The Qalandar twice. said which is his family, character in Eastern well known is a Darwesh
duriid, a prayer for blessing
tales.
1 The word Qalandar is also used for a man who need He may be a sort of not be connected with an Order. unattached wandering friar. Suharwardi says that they

are persons possessed of an intoxication^ peace of heart and that they are men
2

which they

call

who

totally dis-

regard the ordinary rules and customs of society.


3

Some authors say he was born at Panipat in Hindustan. The FAtiha, or the opening chapter, of the Qur'^n
;

Suratu

Ali

(Ixxxiii),

'Imran, three times


for

ii.
:

three times Suratu't-Tatfif, Suratu Yusuf (xii), ten times then the
('25G),
; :

durud (prayer

Muhammad and

his descendants) twice-

52

THE RELIGIOUS ORDERS OF ISLAM


The Baktashiyya Order was founded by Haji

Baktash,

who

died in a.h.

738 a.d.
to
its

1337, and

is

connexion with the Janissaries.i It is very popular with the The symbol of the Order is the army still. mystic girdle which is put on and off seven

famous

in

Turkey owing

times.

The Darwesh

in

so doing,

says
;

: I

tie

up greediness and unbind generosity I tie up avarice and unbind piety I tie up anger and unbind meekness I tie up ignorance and unbind the fear of God; I tie up passion and unbind the love of God I tie up hunger and unbind I tie up the influence of (spiritual) contentment Satan and unbind the influence of the Divine.
; ;
; ;

The symbolical number


and so each
of its

of the Order is twelve, communities contains twelve

elders, to The special duties are assigned. esoteric doctrines held by these Darweshes are a

whom

curious mixture of pantheism and materialism and are thus described, "Each human soul is a portion of divinity which exists only in man.

by perishable mediums, constantly changes its dwelling without quitting the earth. Morality consists in enjoying the good of earth without injury to any one, whatthings
ever causes no
ill

The

eternal soul, served

to

wise
joy

man
is

is

he

who
1

a person is lawful. regulates his pleasures,

The
for

a science

which has degrees, made known


Ante,
p.
5.

THE BAKTASHIYYA OEDER


little

53
is

by
^

little to
all

the initiated.

Contemplation
to

the best of
vision."

joys, for it belongs

the celestial

favour on this

Orthodox Muslims now look with disOrder. This has been attributed to the influence of the Hurufi sect^ amongst In 1871-2 some the Baktashiyya Darweshes. Baktashis published a Hurufi work which was

condemned by the orthodox 'Ulama. Gibb says that the Huriifis were antinomians who, believing themselves to be identical with God, looked upon the moral law as not binding " upon them. He adds, such beliefs may lead to no practical evils so long as they are confined to but when they are proclaimed saints and sages to all of society, and when, in adclasses openly dition, the promised Paradise is declared to be here in this present world and the Houri-brides to be none other than the beauties of earth, the flood gates of social anarchy have been flung
severely
;

open.

Here we have the

real explanation of the


^

relentless hostility shown towards the Huruf is." This sect originally Persian is now unknown in

Persia.

It

exists
it

in
is

Albania, where,
1 2

Turkey and is strong in said, the Baktashiyya Order

Rinn, "Marabouts et Khouan," p. 37. For an account of this curious sect, see articles by Professor Browne, R. A. S. J., January 1898, pp. 6194 R. A. S. J., July 1907, pp. 53340; also Gibb, 'Ottoman Poetry," \ol. I, pp. 83842 353-5 373. " Ottoman 3 Gibb, Poetry," vol. I, p. 387.
; ;

54

THE RELIGIOUS ORDERS OP ISLAM

has also eighty thousand lay members, supposed to be more or less connected with the political
disturbances in that region.

The

initiation of a

Baktashiyya Darwesh
of
all

is

made

nearly deprived ing to show that he makes a voluntary sacrifice of the world and its wealth. With a rope round his neck, he is led into the assembly and, as a

in secret.

He

is

his cloth-

He slave, begs the Shaikh to pardon his sin. then goes through the ritual of initiation. The Shaikh whispers in his ear the secrets of the Order which he is charged most solemnly never to
divulge.

special

sign

is

by which

all

the

members

made known to him of his own Zawiyah,


is

or Takya, can recognize him. The origin of the Khilwatiyya Order


to Brahimu'z-Zahid,

traced

who

lived about the

middle of

the fourteenth century


into notice

by

Si

a.d., but it was brought Muhammadu'l-Khilwati and still

more especially by 'Umaru'l-Khilwati, who died in A.H. 800 A.D. 1397. In Turkey and in Egypt iie

is looked up as the practical founder of the Order. Influenced by the ascetic practices and the doc-

trines of the Qadariyya Order, he fasted long and The practice lived in strict retirement (khilwat).
" of holding " retreats is still kept

up

as a

custom

derived from the

Shaikh.

In the Zawiyahs of

where the

the Khihvatis there are a great number of cells l^rethren shut themselves up for stated

THE KHILWATIYYA ORDER

55

periods, often for forty days, in solitary secluThe sense of sion for contemplation and prayer.

hunger, thirst and isolation disappears


of

the idea

souls existence vanishes, and they say ]n are rapt in the contemplation of the Divine. hear the and see voice of God imagination they
their

the angels who are near to him. The ultimate to be desired is the annihilation of individgoal

by the absorption of the individual into the essence of God. They pray for the welfare
uality
of all

Muslim people and


State that
it

in

Turkey and in Egypt


be preserved from
all

for the

may

temporal evils. In the eleventh century


of

of the Hijra, a

number

Khilwatiyya Darweshes went forth from their Zawiyah in Egypt and built many monasteries amongst the ruined ones of Christian monks.
the
Arabia, Khurdistan, Turand Northern Africa. Many other Orders have branched out from this one. The initiation of a neophyte is long and to him

They

settled in Persia,

key,

Syria

is

It the great merit of solitude is highly extolled. said that the Prophet in speaking to 'All laid

great stress on this habit and that, through a long


line
of men, this teaching of Muhammad was handed down to the Founder of the Order. Tlie Tradition is that one day 'All said to the Prophet, " which is the shortest way to the knowledge of

God?"

He

replied,

"repeat

daily

the

name

66 of
"

THE RELIGIOUS ORDERS OF ISLAM


God
in

solitary

places,
shall I

such

is

the
of

virtue

attached to the invocation of the

name
'

God."
"

In what position
'

make the invocation ?

There is your eyes and say after me 'Ali did this no god but God three times." and thus the sanctity of the idea of solitude
" Close

came dov^n
to the

to

the

Khilvs-'atiyya

leaders,

who

present day have maintained intact the doctrines and practices of the Founders of their

Order.
rigours,

They observe

this solitude with

all

its

they keep long and exhausting fasts, they repeat the dhikr unceasingly in solitude with a special posture of the body and head.

The
veil

old Persian
of

pantheism appears under the

Sufiism.
is

The oath

of

allegiance to the

one and is rigidly observed. is crushed out, the mind Intellectual freedom is enslaved. Such is the inward condition. OutShaikh
a
strict

wardly there is systematic opposition to political and social progress, persecution of those who
or endanger, the temporal power of the Order which, from its wide-spread influence and the sanctity which has gathered round it, owing to its prolonged periods of meditation in the

touch,

darkness

of

seclusion,

is

a great

antagonistic

element to the cause of civilization and enlight" The very secrecy with which much enment. of their worship is done tends to produce in men animated by the same passionate sentiments

THE BAKAYIYYA ORDER


this retrograde political spirit.

57

They have

stirred

up trouble in Egypt and many of them joined It is largely rethe Mahdi in the Sudan." ^
cruited

from

who come

to live

pilgrims of an ascetic tendency in the sacred cities of Mecca

and Madina. The Orders more recently formed are to be found in Timbuktu, Algiers and Morocco. They are, generally speaking, offshoots from the older I give ones, especially from the Shadhiliyya.

some account of the more important ones. The Bakayiyya Order has its centre in Timbuktu. It was founded by Ahmad Bakkay, who
died in the year a.h. 960 A.d. 1552. offshoot from the Shadhiliyya Order

It is an and has

It is entirely the Marabout family of Bakkay. In former years its members extended the religion of Islcim to bhe extreme south of the Sahara and

much

influence south of Morocco.

in the

hands

of

now

the Bakkayis are in

many

tribes

the real

political

and

spiritual rulers.

The Shaikhiyya Order was founded in a.h. 1013 It is named after Sid 'Abdu'l-Qadir A.D. 1604. Muhammad, known as Sidi Shaikh. He was a

descendant of the Khalifa Abii Bakr. not so distinctly an Order as others are,
lineal

It is

but

rather a confederation of individuals, often disagreeing among themselves, but united in one
1

Chatelier,

" Les confreries

Mnsnimanes du Hedjaz,

p. 74.

68

THE RELIGIOUS ORDERS OF ISLAM


of regard for the Sidi Shaikh,

common bond

and

for the spiritual teaching of Hasan ash-Sliadhil. It is powerful in the southern part of Algeria and
its

influence

ous.

than religiis now more political The distinguished lineage of its Founder,

and the character of many of its leaders, who as Marabouts died in the odour of sanitity, have greatly increased and maintained the reputation At present the aims of its leaders of the Shaikhis.

seem
their

to be directed less to the religious

good of

followers,

than

to

tlie
all

temporal and

political ends, notions and practices of the Marabouts.

maintaining, for the superstitious

The Karzaziyya Order was founded in a.h. 1607. The founder, a member of the royal family of Morocco, had been a Muqaddim

1016 A.D.

Shadhihyya Confraternity. He tauglit his followers to reject reason as it was a guide to error, to place absolute confidence in the Shaikh,
of the

meet death boldly and to be ever ready to The leaders adopted fight in the cause of God. an ascetic life and assumed a voluntary poverty. This caused them to be held in great esteem.
to

The Muqaddims
the Order.
of
It is

are chosen by the members of spread over the east and south
TNIulai

Morocco.
Ilis

Shaikh

was

a patron of the Berbers

Karzaz, the founder, and of the nomadic

tribes.

for the poor

Zawiyah and for

at

tliose

Karzaz was an asylum who were oppressed

THE TAIBIYYA ORDER


by the warlike Tuwariq Tribes.

59

His successors

follow his kindly example and so tliis Order is highly esteemed by the common people. It has kept the favour of the Sultans of Morocco and

has also maintained friendly relations witli the Its members are scattered over the French. and the Order, if hostile, could from its Sahara

head Zawiyah, situated near to Tuat, give


trouble.

much
Mulai

The

Taibiyya

Order was founded

l)y

1090 a.d. 1679. The 'Abdu'llah, first Zawiyah erected was at Wazzan where the chiefs of the Order are buried and which is now
who
died in a.h.

The Sultan of Morocco of pilgrimage. this founded that Order, by a member of hoped the royal family would be a great support to liis
a place

dynasty. The Order is named after its second Shaikh, Mulai Taib, a man of austere life, devoted Converts to the interests of liis Confraternity.

were numerous from the negroes, who became


henceforth free from the danger of slavery. Order is inclined to be political in its aims.
dhikr
as,
is

The The
J

long and complicated.


of

Such sentences
!

"I implore the mercy

God, the Almighty


;

I celebrate the praises of

blessing to our Lord

O God Muhammad, his


God
no god
))ut

give tliy

wives and

descendants

There

is

God and Mu-

the apostle of dreds of times in a day.


is

hammad

God"

are repeated hun-

The very pious members

60
of

THE RELIGIOUS ORDERS OF ISLAM


the

Order

make

over four thousand recita-

The leaders are careful not to offend tions daily. men in authority. It is said that some Sultans
have heen
affiliated to
it.

The neophytes swear

that they will

render implicit obedience to the Shaikh and obey all the rules laid down for their

guidance.

Every year inspectors go


to

forth

from

Wazzan

look into the affairs of the different

Zdwiyahs,
zeal of all

to strengthen the weak, to stir up the and to collect money. The Order has cultivated friendship with the

French, whilst still remaining devoted to the cause The Shaikh 'Abdu's-Salnn in 1876 of Morocco. wished to be declared to be a citizen of France

and

was an admirer
married an
family
of

of

European

civilization.

He
the

English
a

lady, a governess in gentleman in the diplomatic


to

service, and sent his sons

be educated in a

took no part in the opposiLycee at Algiers. tion to the entrance of the French into Tuat,
or to their occupation of the surrounding country. Still, the interests of the Order with Morocco

He

We very strong and a French writer says enorof of the to not lose possibility sight ought
is

"

mous

difficulties to our interest from the Taibiyya Order in Algiers, Senegal and Morocco, should its Shaikh become hostile to our authorities."

They
in

are said to

appearance, with some

be rather unfriendly, at least of tlie other Orders,

THE HANSALIYYA ORDER


such as the Qadiriyya,

61

the Tijaniyya and the Darqawiyya, though this does not prevent their working with them when an occasion calls for it.
ibn

The Hansaliyya Order was founded by Sayyid Yusufu'l-Hansali, a native of Morocco who

died in the year a.h. 1114 a.d. 1702. It is another olfshoot of the Shadhiliyya confraternity.

The founder was connected with


After

a Berber family. the pilgrimage to Mecca, he studied for awhile at the al-Azhar University in Cairo but
;

undergo in his long journey home made him forget all he had learnt. So he led an ascetic life, and spent a long time
the
toil

and fatigue he had

to

in

constant

devotion
his

at

a shrine

of

a famous

saint,

with the result that his

memory

returned
to

to

him and

vocation was revealed


are

him
the

by God.

There

many

legends

about

marvellous things that happened to him on his The influence of this Order is very journey. great amongst the Berbers of the Atlas Mountains, a people of an independent spirit, fanatical and In addition to the dhikr, the Ikhwan warlike.
recite

some portions of a famous poem on the ninety-nine names of God. It is said that, if the Darwesh who recites any one of these verses
not in a state of complete moral purity, he On exposes himself to the divine displeasure. the next page I give a translation of a few verses on ten of the names.
is

G2

THE RELIGIOUS ORDERS OF ISLAM


Pardoning God,
I cry to Thee,

Thy pardon

to implore.

Sovereign Lord, subdue thro' Whoe'er subverts Thy law.

me

Thy

glory, Glorious Being,

doth

JNIy feeble

strength increase.

Thou who humblest in the dust. Cause lying tongues to cease.


Knowledge and understanding 0, Giver of all, to me.
Sustainer, for my sustenance I look for ease from Thee.
give,

The

souls of all Thine enemies,

Seizor of spirits, seize.

Scatterer of

gifts,

increase desire

In beauty's devotees. Of

Humbler, humble Thou the power all who Thee oppose.

Thou who
In spite

of these

raisest, raise foes.

me up

my

^6
iUa^j

'

J'

e-^

^^))

^-

^)^
V.

^j<>j

U*.i5^

-V?

'Xi

^^^ ^t^

J^^ ^^;^

e^^;

^?.

THE HANSALIYYA ORDER


The
of the

63

doctrines of the Order are similar to those

ShadhiUyya, but Hansali introduced

many

austere practices and exacted rigorous penances.

The mystery which surrounds their teaching made these Darweshes a dangerous secret assoTurks until French occupied Algiers. Since then, they have been loyal to French rule but there are only The prestige of the five Zawiyahs in Algeria. Order is high and its leaders have a renown for the devotions and habits peculiar to Darwesh
ciation in constant conflict with the

the

saintliness.

This

is,

perhaps, the reason

why

the

amulets

they

prepare

have a

great

reputation

for preserving the wearers in safety in times of accidents. They are scarce a.nd difficult for a

Those who carry them foreigner to obtain. believe that they will be preserved from evil and
that all their enterprises will prosper. Should it be otherwise, then their faith must have become weak or some impious hands must have touched
their

supernatural power is conOne of the most sidered to be beyond dispute.

charm, for

its

famous charms worn is to protect the wearer from danger in battle. The following words may " be written on such an amulet, God, if any one stirs up against the bearer of my present
writing any manner of evil, smite off his head. Kestrain his evil heart, bridle his tongue and turn God, let the bearer of this away his cunning.

64

THE RELIGIOUS OEDERS OF ISLAM


Thy
safe-keeping, within

writing be in

Thy
is

favour

which never
tower
;

faileth.

Thy

safeguard
;

a strong

Thy
I

irresistable.

Thy power protection is mighty seek shelter witli Him that hath

power and might and lordship." Various invocations and passages from the Qur'an are also
written.

Another amulet is worn as a protection against the evil eye, always a source of dread to the After reciting the praises of God.> superstitious.
be for a hindrance to
these words find a place in the charm, "Let these my enemy, the frowning

forehead, the dazzling flame, the dark night, the smooth sword, the dry rock. O God, tear forth his eye who would curse therewith, snatch the
evil tliought from his forehead and the word from his tongue. Let his mischief fall upon his own head, upon his goods and on those most dear' to him." Another charm contains these words, " In the name of God, the merciful, who sitteth on the throne l)efore which kings bow their heads. The eyes of conquering nations have been closed

in the presence of the believers they hear not, of the ruler not. see God, mighty, of the they
;

fearful

proud nations, of the peoples of old, smite with punishment the man who hath concerned Thou who smotest the elephant evil against me. and sentest against them birds to cast on them

THE TIJANIYYA ORDER

66

stones marked with the signet of heaven,^ with Thee we take refuge, for from Thee cometh forth
victory.

him who has plotted against


bearest
this writing,
I

unconquerable conqueror overthrow O thou who us.


strengthen thee as

God

did the Prophet


tracts

Muhammad."

There is much more written than the brief exwhich I have given. The charms all contain ascriptions of praise to God, curses on the supposed enemy, protection from evil and the assurance of safety from the special evil against which
is supposed to guard. The and the power to distribute them adds not only to the renown and the in-

the particular

charm

authority to prepare
tlie

fluence of
of

Shaikhs, but

is

a lucrative source

income.

A.D.
'

The Tijaniyya Order was founded in a.h. 1196 1781 by Ahmad bin Mukhtar bin Salamu'tTijani, who for a time was a student in the important

Muhammadan

University of Fez.

After-

A reference to the invasion of Arabia by the Abyssiniaus who brought an elephant with them, a circumstance so remarkable that the invasion, the army and the year are known as that of the " elephant." According to Hishamf and Wakidf, the army perished from an outbreak of small-pox,
but the Qur'an ascribes it to a miraculous divine interposi" Hast thou not seen how thy Lord dealt with the army of the elephant ? Did He not cause their stratagem
tion,

to miscarry? And He sent against them birds in flocks clay stones did they hurl down upon them, and He made

them

like stubble

eaten

down"

(Suratu'I-Fil [cv] 1-5.)

66

THE EELIGIOUS ORDERS OF ISLAM

wards, in a.h. 1186, he made the pilgrimage to Mecca, where he astonished the theologians by his
erudition and knowledge. Five years after he returned to Eez and the idea of founding an Order

began
ous

to take

shape in his mind

but Fez was a

and religisuch an attempt, and so he moved further south. In due time he announced to a small l)ody of devoted followers that the Prophet had directed him to form an Order, different to
place too
to political
strife for

much given up

For instance, no member of it was under permitted, pain of the severest penalties,
all

others.*

to

become

affiliated

to

another Order.

An

ear-

nest

propaganda followed

and the Order soon

became exceedingly powerful in Tunis, in the Sahara, the Western Suddn, and even as far as Timbuktu. The chief Zawiyah was, in due time, located in Fez under the patronage of the then Moorish Emperor. The Order has been a militant
2

of its

as well as a teaching one. leaders, in 1833 went to

Ha'.ji

'Umar, one

Bornu and then

l"The Prophet appeared in great splendour and said, Abandon all the ways thou hast pursued. Be my vicar upon the earth. Proclaim thy independence of the Shaikhs,
'

who have
will be

initiated

thee into their mystical doctrines.

thy intercessor before God and thy guide before the believers, who will be inspired by thy counsels and will " follow thy way.' (Depont et Coppolani, p. 416.) 2 For an account of its wars and for a detailed account of " L'Islim dans I'Afrique Haji 'Umar's work, see Chatelier,
Occidentale,"
p.

167.

THE TIJANIYYA ORDER


to the

67
of great

Hausa country.

He was

man

and very fanatical. He reproached the ordinary Muslims with their gnorance and their apathy. Even the Qadiriyya were too tolerant for him. Later on, under his influence and by means of his military expeditions many converts were made and the Order extended its operations from Senegal to Timbuktu, and as
vigour, of considerable learning
far south as the hinterland of Sierra Leone. ^

The

kingdom he thus

set

up soon became divided into

various smaller ones, but the influence of Islam remained. Thus, this Order, a result of the active
revival

Islam at the end of the eighteenth century, has done more to advance the cause of Muhammadanism in Western Africa than any other has accomplished, and it is still a living
of

power.

From the mouth of the Senegal to two thousand miles, there is said to over Lagos, be hardly any town of importance in the seaboard
which there
is

"

in

not, at least,

one mosque, with

^ Since the estabactive propagandists of Islam." lishment of French influence in the Senegal and

Niger regions the political power of the Tijaniyya has declined. The European occupation
in the

these regions may stay any further political influence and development, but so active an Order
of
1

Chatelier,

" L'Isl4m daus I'Afrique Occidentale," p. 17G.

" The preaching of Blyden, quoted by Arnold in the Islam," p. 277.


2

G8

THE RELIGIOUS ORDERS OP ISLAM


yet give trouble, and its religious influence

may
is

not likely to decrease under the more settled conditions of these lands. The two Orders, the Qadiriyya and the Tijaniyya have played the chief part in the propagation of

Under the Qadiriyya the propaganda was by peaceful methods. By the instruction its leaders gave to their disciby the colonies they founded, they multiplied Sudan their chief centres of action. The Order is widely scattered. Its members are found as far south as Sierra Leone and in the Upper " The whole religious movement in Niger regions, the Eastern Sudan also has been directed by the influence of the Qadiriyya Darweshes since the
ples,

Islam in the Western Sudan. ^

in the

first

half of the nineteenth century."

Tijaniyya, as we have seen pursued opposite methods and, so long as they had power, won

The

their way by force. Chatelier speaks of them as " " ardent aux and of the Qadiriyya saintes guerres
It is, however, said as " pacifique et debonnaire." ^ that of late years the Tijaniyya Order has pursued

peaceful methods more regularly, and that it is now loyal to the French Government and readily
assists

French travellers in the Sahara.


Morocco,
Si

The Eahmaniyya Order was founded by another


native of
1

Muhammad

ibn 'Abdu'r-

" L'Islam dans Chatelier, I'Afrique Occidentale," p. 318. 3 2 Ibid, p. 16G. Ibid, p. IGG.

THE RAmiANIYYA ORDER

69

Eahman, who died about the year a.h. 1208 a.d. He was for a while a student in the al1793.
Azhar College in Cairo. After this he travelled and preached in many lands. Thus his fame as a saint, renowned for his miraculous powers,
to his native land. preceded his return

After his

preaching to the formation


a powerful
tribes.

arrival there, great numbers flocked to hear his and to receive his instruction. This led
of

the Order, which soon became


association
of

proselytising

among

the

Kabyle

The fatwas

the 'Ulama, given

at the instigation of the

feared this rising power,

Turkish authorities, who were unable to check its

growth.
said
to

At present, the Eahmaniyya Order is disunited by the internal rivalry of its chiefs and to have thus lost much of its early It has now become a politicoreligious spirit. by no means inditierent to religious society, and which is still powerful advantages, temporal
be

enough

to require careful observation.

This Order has great influence in the western Sudan. It also has in Algeria one hundred and

and seventy-seven Zawiyahs, and eight hundred


seventy-three
fifty-six

Muqaddims and one hundred and


In the chief Zawiyahs

thousand members.

the Ikhwan keep up, by means of relays day and voice of the name night, the repetition in a loud
of God.

The ceremony

of

the initiation of a

Darwesh

70

THE RELIGIOUS ORDERS OF ISLAM

the Kahmaniyya Order is given as follows. The Shaikh takes the right-hand thumb of the
into

neophyte and says to him, shut your eyes and say " I seek me, refuge with God against Satan I ask forgiveness of God. the stoned. Let us return to God and to His messenger and renounce sin. God of the worlds forgive the past and make
after

The Shaikh then tells and says three times, " There is no god but God," which the person to be initiated
us better in the future."
to be silent

him

also

repeats three times.

Then both together

they repeat the Ftitiha and invoke the aid of the Prophet and of the founder of the Order. The
disciple is then directed to obey God and the " There is no god but God," Prophet and to say, three hundred times after the morning and the

after-noon

prayer respectively.
of

From

the after-

Thursday till that each week, the Darwesh must say,


thy favour
his family salvation."

noon prayer

of Friday in " God, let

rest upon our Saviour Muhammad, and his Companions and grant them The afternoon prayer of Friday must conclude with a prayer called al-'Ummi (the un" God, let Thy favour rest on our Savilettered),

our,

Muhammad

and his Companions."

the unlettered Prophet, his family This prayer should be re-

peated twenty-four times

when God

will

remit the

sins of twenty-four years. The neophyte is then exhorted to practice the duties of brotherhood.

THE DARQAWIYYA ORDER


to

71

be resigned and to repeat the dliikr of the Order faithfully. He is told that entrance into the ranks of the brotherhood is like entering into the ark of Noah or into the home of Abraham, and
that
all

who
in

did this obtained

salvation,
is

and so
to be

will he

the

Order to which he

now

admitted.

The Darqawiyya Order was founded by


of

a Sharif

Morocco, Mulai al-'Arbi ibn Ahmad ibn alHasanu'd-Darqawi at the end of the eighteenth
preached the doctrine of absention during his life time and his successor, the Order kept clear of all entanglements but about the year 184:0,
affairs and,
;

century.
that of
political

He

from worldly

a fanatical and ambitious man. Si 'Abdu'r-Kahman Tuti became the leader. Since then many of the

brethren have discarded the views


their

of

their first

Shaikh and hold quite opposite opinions as regards


relation to worldly affairs. " Most of the l)rethren appear inoffensive : in reality they are

very dangerous,

we may

look

upon them as the

^ In precursors and initiators of the Sanusiyya." Morocco the Order is now distinctly political in its aims and is in full sympathy with the more turbulent tribes. Its members are said to have

been largely concerned in many insurrections. " In all the rebellious movements in Algiers

and Morocco, we have found the hand


1

of these

Frisch,

"

Le Maroc,"

p. 191.

72

THE RELIGIOUS ORDERS OF ISLAM

frightful sectaries, these men in rags, these puritans of Islam, these fanatical Darweshes." ^

Africa
will

The Darqawiyya Order is now what the Wahhabis were

in

North-Western

in Arabia.

They

not submit to any yoke and are always in rebellion against constituted authority whether In 1888 one of its of Arabs, Turks or Christians.
leaders proclaimed a jihad, or sacred war, against the French. In the opinion of the Turks the

term Darqawi

The

chief

synonymous with the word Zawiyah is at Ferkla, about a


is

rebel.

day's

journey north-west

of Tafilet.

The
selves

richer

members
to

of the

Order content them-

Friday prayers, the going recital of the special the the hadya, offering dhikr and occasional re-unions in the Zawiyahs. In their outward life they can hardly be dis-

with
of

the

tinguished from other Mushms. Other members, tribes and poorer originally from the mountain
classes pass their lives in wandering from place to place, chanting the Qur'an and begging for their daily subsistence. They wear the khirqa, a mantle composed of many different pieces, sewn

together without sign


of humility.

any order and often torn as a The investiture of a neophite


is

with the khirqa

great importance. admission to the Order.


1

looked upon as a matter of It is the sign and: seal of the


et Coppolaui," p. 504.

"

Depont

THE MADANIYYA OEDER


The Madaniyya Order
spirit of intolerance
is

73

influenced by the
is

same

which

characteristic of the

It was founded about Darqawiyya Darweshes. 1820 by Muhammad ibn Hamza al-Madani, a member of the Darqawiyya Confrat6rnit3\ It very

where

soon attained to a position of influence in Tripoli, in the head Zawiyah of Misrata numerous
trained.

proselytes were

The Shaikhu'l-Madani

professed to teach the doctrines of the Shadhiliyya and of the Darqawiyya Orders, but his son and
successor, Shaikh Ja'far, gradually modified these and adapted his teaching to tlie principles which underlie the pan-Islamic movement, of which he was one of the originators. He has ever since His been one of its most ardent supporters.
treatise "

The shining

stantinople in
his teaching. tions on the

light," published in Con1885 contains a full exposition of

In addition to the usual dissertaUnity of God (tauhid) and on mysticism (tasawwuf), such as the Shadhiliyya leaders would give, there is a political section bearing Shaikh Ja'far in the direction of pan-Islamism.

who found

soon obtained the favour of Sultan 'Abdu'l-Hamid, in him a most useful agent for the
propagation of a doctrine so dear to himself. home was founded for the Shaikh in the palace
Yildiz

A
of

Kiosk

near

to

his

imperial
of

master,

to

whom

grand chaplain. There are three Madaniyya Takyas, or Zawiyahs,

he stood in the relation

74

THE RELIGIOUS ORDERS OP ISLAM


The Shaikh sends
parts.

in Constantinople.

forth his
to inspire

Darweshes into
the

all
tlie

They seek

Shaikhs

of

various other

Orders with

their political propaganda. they appear as teachers of their doctrines, to the Darqawiyya as ardent reformers, to the 'Ulama

To the Shadhiliyya

and to

with any Order they and power dignity of the Sultan as the Khalifa of Islam. In this way they ina of with themselves great number gratiate influence. and much They keep people gain alive a spirit of restlessness and encourage the
extol the

men unconnected

hope that
the yoke

all

Muslim lands

will

be freed from

the infidel, and will be reunited under one great theocratic rule the Empire of
of

the Khalifa.
progress

and
of

They owe much


the

are the stern enemies of real


of

their

power

to the

protection

Government.
the

In

iVlgiers

they

Musalmaus employed by the French. They endeavour to win them over to their views and to employing them as secret
find recruits

among

two Zawiyyahs in Algiers. Order has not much influence. Its connexion with the Turkish Government is known, and this discredits it because in Morocco the claim made by 'Abdu'l-Hamid to the Khalifate of Islam is not acknowledged. They have a few there but their Zawiyahs Muqaddims have little influence, and probably remain in Morocco chiefly
agents.
are

There

In Morocco the

THE RELIGIOUS REVIVAL


as
spies.

75

In other parts

of

Africa and in

the

Hedjaz they are active and powerful. The rapid development of the pan-Islamic movement owed
of
skill very much to the zeal and administrative Shaikh Ja'far and his disciples of the Madaniyya Order. In some places, especially in Barka, the memhers of this Order have been absorbed in the still more dangerous one of the Sanusiyya, I have now given a brief account of some of

the older Orders and of some of the more modern


ones,
of religious revival which, stimulated

which owe their existence to the great wave no doubt by

the

Wahhabi movement in Arabia, passed over the Muslim communities in Africa and led on to an
Islam as a theocratic system
does not recognize the limitations made by political influences between the various Muslim peoples,
dividing

active propaganda.

them

into different States, and so these

to all lands, can at any time Orders, and everywhere exercise a very real influence in any direction which their leaders may choose. For many centuries Islam has prevailed not only on the northern coast of Africa but has

common

progressed in the interior. Still, the great advance is to be dated from the end of the eighteenth
century, or the beginning of the nineteenth, and has been mainly due to the increased energy and

devotion of the

The whole Keligious Orders. hinterland from the Bed Sea to the Atlantic, as

76
far

THE RELIGIOUS ORDERS OF ISLAM

south as six degrees north latitude, and the country on the eastern side of Africa down to the

Portuguese territory

is

now more

Muhammadan

influence.

or less under Islam has passed also

from the Sudan into the equatorial regions. It extends from two centres. From the west it has
gone along the Atlantic coast to Senegal, Timbuktu and the Hausa land. From the eastern side the

modern movement began when


Idris, the

Si

Ahmad

bin

Shaikh

of the

Qadiriyya Order, sent out

missionaries, during the early part of the nineteenth century. They won over the Muslim Nubians who then joined this Order in large

numbers and, after this, missionary work began This work amongst the pagans of Kordufan. was afterwards carried on under the influence of the Mahdi, and is now sustained by the great These two currents, someSanusiyya Order. and more warlike times fanatical; at other times more social and commercial, are advancing rapidly The presence of the into all the pagan regions. officials of the great European Powers in Senegal, Timbuktu, Nigeria and other parts may have a deterrent effect on this expansion, for trade will no longer be in the hands of Muslim merchants, who,
to their credit be
it

said, are active Missionaries.

One

article of

commerce
It

also, that of slaves,

will

no longer

exist.

has, however,

out that the improved

means

of

been pointed communication.

THE MUSLIM ADVANCE

77

which follow on orderly rule in x^frica, in one way facilitates the Muslim propaganda. "Muhammadan North Africa is advancing surely and steadily sovithwards across the Sahara, which is no longer the barrier it once was. Instead of being an unbroken desert, as once thought, it is

now known

to contain
of

teeming pagan

tribes.

mountains has hitherto proved an great range obstacle to advance, and Muhammadanism has been
kept in check, but with the partition of Africa amongst the Powers of Europe has come a new
danger. The old mountain-passes are now being crossed by roads, and the existence of a protective government is encouraging a new activity. The

Qur'an
tribes

is

being brought

down amongst

and is prevaiHng. the Muslims these tribes


difficult

When
the

the pagan once claimed by

will be ten times


^

more

Another gospel." point is that the Arab slave-dealers have been overthrown and thus the action of the civilized Powers has taken away from Islam a great reproach, which the pagans who were asked to be-

to

reach with

come converts could urge


missionaries.

against

the Muslim

Amongst the movement are


race in
1

earlier

the

agents of this extensive Fulahs, the most superior

the Western
T.

Sudan.

They
M.

are
S.

strict

The Rev.

Broadwood

" C. Johnson,

Review,"

June 1908,

p. 354.

78

THE RELIGIOUS ORDERS OF ISLAM

Muslims and under Shaikh Danfodio, about a hundred years ago, became a powerful kingdom, warlike and aggressive. They spread to the west and to the south, won many of the Hausa people
to Islam,

made

Muhammadan

State,

Sokoto, in 1837, the capital of a then advanced as far as the

Yoruba country and built the large city of Ilorin. Four large, important kingdoms in Senegambia and the Sudan represent the result of the energy infused into the Fulah people by Shaikh DanThe very rapid growth of Islam amongst fodio.^
inferior races is not
of

wholly due to
Its

its

a low moral standard.

faith

is

acceptance based on

than love. The Muslim convert himself on his prides superiority as a believer in the one true religion and is scornful of all
pride
rather

other men and all other creeds. The pagans then see and desire to emulate this haughty condescension and, as such a position can only be obtained by conversion, they very easily accept

the religion of

Islam.

Bach new convert

dis-

plays the same feeling of superiority and so, with increasing and rapid force, the religion spreads

where

it

to contend against.

has no higher form of faith and morals It is natural to every man

1 It is said that he prophesied that his green flag would be the passport to victory for a hundred years. If this is so, his words have come true, for the decisio\i that the Fulah country shoiild become a part of the British Empire

was made in 1900.

EESULT OF THE MUSLIM ADVANCE


to desire to
of

79

become the equal, if not the superior, and when a pagan reahzes this fact others, he is well on the way to become a Muslim. The Muslim missionary finds easy access to an
uncivilized
"

negro tribe for, as Sir Bartle Frere he can at once communicate the shibboleth of admission to a social and political communion, which is a passport for protection and assistance from the Atlantic to the wall of China. Wherever a Moslem house can be found there the negro convert who can repeat the dozen syllables
said,

of his

creed,

is

sure of

shelter,

sustenance and
finds

advice,
at

and

in his

own country he

himself

once a member of an influential, if not of a dominant caste. This seems the real secret of
the success of the Moslem missionaries in
Africa."
i

West

At the same time the rapid proselytism, so vigorously carried on by various Darwesh Orders really hinders all sound progress in the long run.
a pagan race to some vices, such puts away
It

elevates

certain

level.

It

as cannibalism

and
insti-

infanticide,

but teaches the converts that slavery,

facility of divorce

and polygamy are divine

God's latest revelation and enforced by the command and example of his latest The convert is taught that this system prophet.
tutions, set

forth in

is
1

perfect and final and he

is

thus fixed at this low


of Islam," p. 286.

Quoted by Arnold,

"

The Preaching

80

THE RELIGIOUS ORDERS OP ISLAM

stage of moral life. He lias no discontent and, where that is absent, desire of improvement or of

Eeform implies a higher life is rarely found. imperfection in Islam and that no Darwesh teacher The very pride in it will admit can be the case.
which leads men
to accept
it

keeps

it

stationary.

To admit that any other people are the equals of Muslims, or that any creed can possibly be favourably compared with that of Islam is heresy of the worst kind and, wherever Islam is predomition.

nant, would raise up a fanatical spirit of opposiThe Darwesh propaganda in Africa is then
for the well-being of humanity, or for the prospects of civilization. Two French writers,

neither

men who
views,

are by no
said,

means narrow
is

in

religious

impossible, when comparing the present state of Africa with its former state, not to see how evil the influence of Islam

have

" It

has been, and not to desire that


'

it

may

shortly

give place to a political system less limited and " The less demoralising." mystical and merciless doctrines of

of all progress.

Islam are the absolute enemies The East remains immobile." ^

To return, however, to the Fulahs, it must be borne in mind that they never thoroughly occupied the country. They held the larger towns but
never subjugated the pagan tribes in the moun1

Ganniers, Le Maroc," p. 87. " Le Maroc," p. 47. Frisch,

"

THE FULAH DYNASTY

'

81

tainous regions. A Fulah army left a district where it operated a depopulated desert. Every form of handicraft, every pursuit in life was taxed
Bribery, corruption and extortion marked the so-called administration of justice, whilst the multiplication of harems and the growth of a large class of idle
princes led to nepotism and imposition of tax after tax to meet the necessities of the rulers
so heavily that decadence soon set in.
"

and was

their idle sons

and

relatives.

No man's

life

safe

common
;

compunction
tortionate

people were killed without notables were removed by poison

or secret murder.
levies

Trade was paralaysed by exand rendered difficult by the


^

insecurity of the roads."

The Fulah dynasty


not have lasted being denuded
tracts of

as a

dominant power could

much
of
its

longer, for the country

was

population and enormous land had gone out of cultivation. The


of

overthrow
civilization

this

evil

rule

and humanity.

the Fulah Sultanate, was

is a great gain to Sokoto, the capital of easily captured by a

British force in March 1903, and the empire founded by Shaikh Danfodio amongst the Hausas of Nigeria came to an end. A few months after the Sultan and many of his Emirs lost their lives
in the defence of
1

one of the towns.

If

the spread

" Blue

Book on Northern Nigeria." No.

409, 1903, p. 20.

82

THE RELIGIOUS ORDERS OF ISLAM

amongst pagan races had really conferred some persons claim for it, if the Fulah rule had been of any real service to the country and its people, then the easy conquest of the Sultan of Sokoto would have been impossible but it was a cruel, despotic rule and slave raids had rapidly depopulated the country. Fifty years ago the traveller Barth estimated the population This was probably too high, yet at fifty millions. the fact that now there are not more than ten or twelve millions shows the ruthlessness of Muslim Chronic disorder and conrule in this fair land.
of Islam
all

the blessings

stant warfare has been the distinguishing mark of Fulah rule, and this has led to the hatred of the Had still unconverted pagans to their late rulers. to the it would have been been Sultan, loyal they impossible for a few British officers, with a small body of trained and disciplined native troops, to

have overthrown a comparatively powerful ruler Islam under Fulah rule and his government. failed to make the pagan people happy, peaceful or prosperous, and so it justly came to an end.

The most recent


propaganda
is

carried

and, indeed, the chief present on by an Order which sur:

passes all the others in its power and its influence an Order, which specially sets itself against all

western and modern civilization and is absolutely hostile to all progress, whether it comes from an

European or from

Musalman

source.

It

thus

SHAIKH SANUSI
constitutes a very real danger, ^

83

It is that of the bin Si 'Ali Si Muhammad founded by Sanusiyya, bin Sanusi, who was born in the year a.h. 1206

A.D.

He belonged to a noble family and 1791. claimed to be descended from the Khalifa 'Ali, the
son-in-law of the Prophet. The name by which is usually known is that of Shaikh Sanvisi.

he

He was a native of Algiers, where he spent the At the age of thirty he early part of his life. and for about to seven years studied went Fez,
Muhammadan law and
theology under the most In a Zawiyah of the famous teachers there. he became Darweshes acquainted with Taibiyya the philosophy and the mysteries of the Shadhil-

He then returned to Algiers just iyya Order. before the French occupied that country. Whilst there he wandered about as a religious teacher
and so spread his views amongst a number of people. After a while he made up his mind to proceed on the pilgrimage to Mecca, and took the opportunity of conversing with learned men at the several places at which he stayed on the way.

He was

also initiated into

some

of the Religious

intended to make a stay of some Orders. in Cairo, in order to study at the famous length Theological College of al-Azhar but, in some way
;

He

Isldm at the present time is the formation of the new Order of the " Ltes Confreries Musuhnanes," Sanusiyya." (Chatelier,
1

"

The predominant

fact in the evolution of

p. 12).

84

THE EELIGIOUS OKDERS OF ISLAM

or other, he gave offence to the more influential 'Ulama attached to the College, who denounced him as an innovator in religion, a fatal fault in
so

conservative a place.

The

result

was that

Shaikh Sanusi had to proceed on his way. He, however, gives quite a different reason for his He says that one day, when he was departure.

making the usual wadu, or ceremonial ablution, before engaging in the namaz, or stated prayers, in the Mosque attached to the College, he saw
a man who looked mean and poor. who was quite a stranger, thus spoke:

The man
"

O know my name?" He
thou do so with me,
of the age."

Sanusi

"

"

Why How do
"
:

dost

you

"I am the Qutb replied; " " it is tliou I said Then," Sanusi,

am

seeking."

The man

said

to

him

Thou

hast nothing to do with me, go to Mecca." In after years, it suited Shaikh Sanusi to show that
left Cairo owing to a supernatural direction, and not that he was expelled as a troublesome student. But, whatever was the cause, he did go, and proceeded on his way to fulfil his original intention of making the pilgrimage to Mecca. As his mind had already been directed towards the life of a Darwesh, when he arrived at Mecca he placed himself under the tuition and spiritual guidance of Shaikh Ahmad bin Idris, the Shaikh of the Qadiriyya Darweshes. Owing to some local disputes Shaikh Ahmad was exiled from

he

THE SANUSIYYA ORDER

85

Mecca. His devoted pupil and follower went with him, and on the Master's death in 1833
claimed,
followers,

though opposed by some others


to

of his

be

his

successor.

This led to a
of

division in the

Order,

the result

which was

that
his

Shaikh Sanusi,
fellow

having

induced

many

of

Darweshes to join him, formed a new Order, of which he assumed the headship. He then commenced an active propaganda in

Yemen, but the members of the older Orders looked upon his work with disapproval and sucHowever, he remained in cessfully opposed him.

Mecca from 1835 to 1843 gathering men around him and developing his plans. He called his
" teaching the Tariqatu'l-Muhammadi, or Way of Muhammad," and said that his community was
of the great Shadhiliyya gave his own Order the name of Tariqatu's-Sanusi, or "Way of Sanusi." Men in the position he had now assumed profess to

reformed

branch

Order.

He now

have special revelations


divinely directed
in

from

God and

to

be

movements; so not finding sufficient scope in Mecca for his plans and purposes, he one day announced to his disciples that Muhammad had appeared to him and had ordered him to leave Mecca and to
their
settle his disciples in

Zawiyahs

in

many

different

lands.
of

This he did most effectually.

In course
Arabia,

time,

Zawiyahs were established in

86^

THE RELIGIOUS ORDERS OP ISLAM

Egypt, the Central Sudan, Tunis, Algiers, Tripoli, Senegambia and even in the Eastern Archipelago. The rapid extension of this Order has been marvellous.

There

is

nothing
its

like it in

the modern

Muslim world.
has increased.

With

extension

its

power

also

Shaikh Sanusi, after settling his course of action, soon gathered a large body of disciples together, over whom he exercised a most Whilst displaying adminisrigorous discipline. trative abiUties of a very high order, he continued his theological studies and became a prolific writer on religious subjects. M. Duveyrier says,
that
there
;

are

three

million

members

of

the

Order but the Sanusis themselves say there are eight millions. Probably there are five or
six,

for

the

inhabitants

of

Wadai, now nearly


three millions.
to

all

Sanusis,

number almost

are nearly always hostile and Shaikh Sanusi very soon Darweshes,

The 'Ulama

the

leai-nt

that his growing influence stirred up a spirit of

The 'Ulama of Constantinople, Cairo, and Mecca were all ranged in opposition to him.
jealousy.

A Mufti
named
against

of

the Maliki

school of

x\bu 'Abdu'llah

Muhammad, who
and his master

jurisprudence, died in

1881, published in Cairo a book containing fatwas

Shaikh

Sanusi

Shaikh
the re-

Ahmad

bin Idrls.

One fatwa condemns

luctance of Shaikh Sanusi to admit persons into his presence, his absence from public prayers on

FATWA AGAINST SHAIKH SANUSI

87

Friday, which is described as an impious habit, and the use of a number of ritual practices which
differ

from those

of

the Maliki
of

rite.

One

act

objected to

was the crossing

the arms on the

breast and the holding of the list of the left hand between the thumb and first finger of the right when engaged in prayer. The Malikites pray with

the arms at the side of the body. The fatwa also refers to his abandonment of the four orthorites and of his accepting without an intermediary the prescriptions of the Qur'an and the Sunna, that is, he did not follow the rulings of -the four great Imams, Hanifa, Malik, Shali'i and

dox

Hanbal, Such conduct


strongest proof

is said,

"

to constitute the

of his ignorance."

To

this

fatwa,

which shows the hatred

of the

'Ulama, the Shaikh might have replied in the words used by his Master, Ahmad bin Idris, " the
interpreters
error.
of the Qur'an do not keep us from There are numerous interpretations at As a matter of fact variance with the Traditions."

Shaikh Sanusi claimed to be a restorer of the and pure faith and practice of Islam, before it was, as he considered, :corrupted by the Mujtahidun and 'Ulama, the official interprters of the canonical law and of theology. Whatever effect this fatwa' had in Mecca and in Cairo, it had none whatever in the districts controlled by the Sanusis or amongst the Bedouin or with
early

88

THE RELIGIOUS ORDERS OF ISLAM


tribes
of

the

nomadic Sudan .^

Tripoli

and the central

In consequence of the opposition of the 'Ulama, Shaikh Saniisi in the year 1855 withdrew altogether from their spheres of influence, and in
in the Libyan desert, midbetween way Egypt and Tripoli,"' founded a which became the head-quarters of the Zawiyah Order. The site was well chosen. It is situated about one hundred and fifty miles south of Tobruk, a Mediterranean port used by the Sanusis, and occupies a commanding position on the " It is great caravan routes of North Africa. at once a fortress and a convent, a university and a shrine." Except to modern artillery it is an almost impregnable place. It possesses a fine mosque and many buildings. It grew rapidly
after the

the oasis of Jaghbiib

whom many came


It

conversion of the people of Wadai, of as students or as labourers.

was a place to which tribute of ivory, slaves and ostrich feathers were sent by many chiefs,
1

For the
better
"

full

2^-*^-*=^.

fatwa, see Depont et Coppolani, pp. 54G-51. Sometimes the plural form e:^^A*=. is used.
as Jarabub.

It

is
i

known by Europeans

Tripoli, nominally Turkish, but practically under the rule of the Sanusiyya Confraternity is dangerous ground,

into

which France with her experience of this powerful and highly organized Muhammadan sect, on the border land of the Sahara and Algeria itself, may well hesitate to enter." Silva White, " The Expansion of Egypt," p. 123.

THE SANUSI CAPITAL

89

stores

and to which, from harbours Uttle known, great Pilof warlike material were brought.

grims on their way to Mecca stayed to worship and to receive a blessing. This place, in which matters of the greatest moment to Africa were Europlanned, has been jealously guarded from been has ever not one of whom travellers, pean
able to tread
its

streets, or

look

upon

its walls.

Neither Turkish nor Egyptian


authority in
ruler.
it.

officials

had any

The Shaikh was an absolute

The

oasis, a

transfer of the capital in 1895 to the Kufra movement to be described later on, has

importance of Jaghbub, which is more than the university of the Order. Jaghlnib was not only the administrative centre, but was also the theological home of the Order where hundreds of its missionaries were trained as teachers and preachers and then, year by year, sent forth in large numbers to proclaim
lessened

the

now

little

the doctrines of Islam in


Africa.

all

The names

of

all

parts of Northern the brethren of the

Order were carefully entered in the record books


kept there. It is said that had seven hundred pupils.
its ^theological

school
of

The Order

the

Sanusiyya

is

more than an organization

to reform
;

what
is

its

leaders consider to

be lax in Islam

it

a powerful proselytizing ])ody. The isolation of the desert life at Jaghbub, and the freedom gained

90

THE RELIGIOUS ORDERS OF ISLAM

from the opposition of the 'Ulama and orthodox Mullas and Maulavis gave Shaikh Sanusi that peace and tranquillity which increased his spiritual influence over his followers. Soon after his arrival there, he began work amongst the negro races. He purchased slaves from those nomad tribes who in the internecine wars of their respective territories had after a victory taken them as prisoners, or had acquired them by successfully pillaging slave caravans. Shaikh Sanusi brought these slaves to his Zawiyah, placed them under religious instruction for a time, and then, when fitted
for
it,

sent

them

to their

own

countries as free

men and
and

as preachers of Islam. They remained his most faithful followers.

became

Shaikh Saniisi died at Jaghbub in the year a.h. 1276 A.D. 1859 and was buried in that place. His mausoleum in the great mosque there is a very magnificent one and it is common for his

followers
to

to

make

pilgrimages

to

it

instead of

Mecca. Though little known in the Western world, he was one of the most remarkable men of the age. No obstacle checked him. He astonished the educated by his knowledge, he won
the populace by his skilful adaptation of his teaching to their needs, by the fervour of his methods and the fame of his miracles. He made the fetish
tribes

from

lake

Chad

to

the

Mediterranean

take a long step forward in political and economic

INFLUENCE OF SHAIKH SANUSI

91

but with activity and in religious knowledge; fanaticism of a all this he roused deeper spirit

and a greater hatred

of

all

non-Muslim people.

He thus placed a barrier to any real enlightened The highest progress for the African races.
level has
it

been attained and any departure from would now be considered a mark of offence against God.

Without shedding blood or calling in the aid any temporal ruler, by the energy and force of his character he raised up in the Ottoman Empire and its adjacent lands a theocratic system which is independent of any political Power. His great object was to restore the original Islam and to revive what he conceived to be the This religious and moral laws of the Prophet.
of

being the attitude of his mind, he naturally opTurkish rule and posed all modern innovations in
hfe,

an impassable barrier and the influence of against European civilization lands. He had Muslim in Powers the Christian
and wished to
raise

been influenced by the earher Wahhabi revival, for he followed that sect in some of its rigorous whilst he prohibition of many harmless things, At the same its bold opinions.^ aloof from kept
1

tween the Wahhabis and the Samisi's, they differ in the The Wahhabfs forbid matter of pilgrimages to shrines. them. the Samisfs encourage them,

Though

there are

many

points

of

resemblance be-

92

THE RP:LIGI0U3 ORDERS OP ISLAM


stiffness

time, with all this


he, as

of

thought and

life,

the head of a

Darwesh Order, introduced


all

a mystical element into

that he taught.

Shaikh Sanusi was succeeded by his son, 'Ali bin Sanusi, 1 a lad then of about thirteen years
of age,

who by European

writers

is

also

called

Shaikh Sanusi, but by Muslims and his own followers Shaikhu'l-Mahdi. In order to distinguish

him from

his father, I shall speak of him as the He Shaikhu'l-Mahdi, or simply as the Shaikh.^

had no connexion whatever with the late Mahdi in the Eastern Sudan. He and his brother Si Muhammad Sharif were both very young when their father died, being respectively fourteen and thirteen years old, but Shaikh Sanusi had wisely appointed some of the ablest Muqaddims to be their tutors and guides, and so the administration went on as usual and the lads gradually gained experience. In due course the Shaiku'lMahdi took the administrative oversight of the
Order, whilst his brother, who died in 1895, looked after the religious teaching. His follow'

His

full

name

is

Si

al-Mahdi bin Si

Muhammad

bin

Si 'Ali bin Si Sanusi.


2

his

In 1902 it was reported that he had died in Kanem, most recent acquisition. Nothing is known as to the
;

character of his successor but it is Jiot likely that there will be any change in the plans and purposes of the Order, which is too far committed to a fanatical policy to make a

change

of leadership materially alter its

methods or objects.

COUNCIL OF THE SANUSIYYA OEDER


ers,

93

or at

all

them,

looked

events the more ignorant amongst upon the elder brother as the
in

coming Mahdi, who was expected

the thir-

teenth century of Islam, a period of time which expired in the year 1882. In support of their expectation they said that he bore between his

shoulders the indubitable sign of his designation


to

some high office, a round bluish spot, such which had, according to Muslim belief, appeared on the bodies of Moses, Christ, and
as that

Muhammad,
phetic order.

the three great leaders of the proTheir belief has not been verified,
lasted
it

but whilst

it

added power and prestige

to the rule of the Shaikh.

The Grand Council of the Order used to meet, annually, on the great feast day, known as 'Idu'lAdha, at Jaghbub, under the presidentship of the
Shaikh, who was in this work assisted by his Two of the latter brother and his councillors.
held the office of Wazirs.
of the

One was

in special

Zawiyah Jaghbub, while the other charge the all the other Zawiyahs. affairs of superintended
at

The organization
live in

is very simple. The Darweshes the various Zawiyahs, each of which is under the charge of a Muqaddim to whom the

members must
were
in

There yield implicit obedience. 1886 one hundred and twenty-one different Zawiyahs, all subject to the one at that time situated in Jaghbub, in which there used to be

94

THE RELIGIOUS ORDERS OP ISLAM


four hundred
^

about
all

Darweshes, gathered

from

them were unmarried, and parts. so were ready at a moment's notice to go anywhere the Shaikh might direct them to proceed, or to undertake any duty he might call upon them
Most
of

A hundi-ed negro slaves did the perform. household work and attended to the gardens. The inmates of the Zawiyah were well armed, and a large reserve of guns and ammunition was kept in stock. Five pieces of artillery had been purchased in Alexandria and were kept ready for A certain number of artificers and workuse.
to

men

lived

outside

the

Zawiyah.
tliis

One day
or

the

Shaikh was asked whether all play was against the French
'*

warlike disthe

Turks.
said

Neither against the one nor


"

the other,"

he.

My
I

father began a

work which had great


on."

results.

simply carry
of

it

Taxes are levied

at the rate
tal

two and a half per cent on capione hundred and twenty-five francs, exceeding
extraordinary contributions are sometimes from the possessors of treasure, warecattle.

and

called for

The Order itself is rich in and camels, the latter being branded with the name of Allah. Whenever the
houses and
slaves, houses, sheep

delegates of the Shaikh visit the brethren in the

subordinate Zawiyahs they receive offerings.


1

The

Zawiyahs

Duveyrier, writing in 188G, gives this number of but there must be many more now.
;

ADMINISTKATION OF SHAIKH SANUSI


poorer brethren,

95

who cannot pay the taxes, are employed in building Zawiyahs, in attending to the gardens and cattle and in carrying despatches. For the latter purpose a system of couriers was organized, by means of which communication between Jaghbub and distant Zawiyahs was easy and The Shaikh was thus kept comparatively swift. The well informed of all that was going on. a of at arrival stranger Jaghbub was probable known before he came near to it, and, unless he had something in the shape of a passport from a Muqaddim, he was subjected to a very strict examination before he was allowed to have any interIf all was satiscourse with the Darweshes. after some days accord factory, the Shaikh might a interview of the him but, as personal privilege his person is looked upon as sacred, such interIn order to views were very rarely granted.^ ensure secrecy, the orders of the Shaikh and of
;

Muqaddims sent by letter are nearly always written in a vague and impersonal form. Thus a " Your serletter from Mecca to Jaghbub reads
the
:

vant whose writing


1

is

known

to

you.

Its super-

referred to

This was one of the things denounced in the fatwii, on page 8G. It says, " The pretensions put forward that the action of shutting himself up and of not receiving visitors, except at particular hours and then only after repeated demands for an audience constitute the way (tarlq) of the Sufis are simply lies," (" Depont et
Coppolani,"
p. 548).

S6

THE RELIGIOUS ORDERS OF ISLAM


is

scription

also a little
it

known.
arrive at

By

the grace of

God Most High may


it

Jaghbub and may

be referred to the lords of the brothers

God keep iis in peace. Amen. Under the invocation of Bedoub." i In the salutation at the
beginning of a letter no name is ever mentioned. Conventional terms are used to disguise the
purport of the correspondence, and great care taken to ensure the safe delivery of letters.
is

Muqaddims laave much inlluence over are not actual members of the Order, who people and who have not taken the calling of a Darwesh
parts the people hold a kind of feudal tenure, and are by the vassals of the Order. The principractically in a such district is not the Turkish pal person
their lands

The

upon them.

In some

Mutasarrif,

but the Saniisi leader, and the chief

work of the Turkish officials is to keep the members of the Samisiyya Order contented. It is said that 'Ah' Kamali Pasha, sometime Governor of Barca, looked upon himself, first, as a humble
the high
servant of the Shaikhu'l-Mahdi and, secondly, as official of the Ottoman Empire. The

most active centre of its influence was, until the removal to the Kufra oasis, the peninsula of Barca,
nominally
1

belonging

to

the

really to the Shaikhu'i-Mahdi.

Ottoman Empire, Thus the Saniisi's


:

The meaning

it

is

of this is not known outside the Order probably a kind of talisman.

THE SANUSI ARMY

97

occupied the most fertile part of Tripoli and the Sultan did not dare attempt to expel them. Some Turks have, indeed, become brethren of the Order,
but just as in Syria with the Druzes and in Khurdistan with the Khurds, so here the Porte
is

obliged to compromise and to conciliate

men

has no power of control. It is said that the Shaikhu'l-Mahdi could command the
over
it

whom
of

services
soldiers,

twenty-five
of
fifteen

and

thousand men as foot hundred mounted men.


of

In the north-eastern

part

Africa,

excluding

Egypt, a very common form of oath used by the " al-Haqq Sidi as-Saniisi," people is to swear by In that is, "by the truth of Sidi as-Sanusi." ^
addition to these volunteers, there are the regular Darweshes and a large number of slaves always
available

when

fighting

men

are needed. Shaikhu'l-

Mahdi did not commit the error of neglecting the masses. A Muslim traveller, if found worthy
of
it,

receives hospitality in
;

any Zawiyah he may


he receives

be near

and,

if

he

is

intelligent,

much

attention from the

Muqaddim.

In this way the

Order has become very popular. In the annual conference held formerly at Jaghbub, and now at al-Istat, the Shaikh, assisted
1 " If a Bedouin of these May I be parts swears one may be sure excluded from the Ziwiyah, if ,' " he is speaking the truth." (Silva White, From Sphinx to
' :

Oracle," p. 123.)

98

THE RELIGIOUS ORDERS OF ISLAM


his

Muqaddims, examines the temporal and spiritual condition of the Order, and discusses with them plans for the future, especially as by
regards the extension of their influence. In their propaganda work they seek to influence men of
position, and of the young.

pay much attention to the education In provinces long subject to Islam, such as Egypt, where they wish to reform the
schools,

they generally commence by opening and trust to time for the gradual spread In this way they are able each of their views. year to consider the operations of the Order as a whole, and the success they meet with is extraordinary. For example, they went first to Farfara, an oasis in the Lybian desert, in the year 1860, and in less than thirteen years they completely changed the character of the people and acquired
religion,

One very favourite method was to purchase the slaves taken from it, and after teaching Islam to them to release and to send them back as preachers to
valuable property.
of reaching a

new

tribe

their

own

people.

In this way much success

was met with in the Wadai country, the Sultans of which have been and are ardent admirers of the Sanusis. The first object of the Shaikhu'lMahdi was the conversion of the Chief, by showing him the advantage, primarily to himself and then
to his people, of the establishment of commercial The Sultan relations with the Sanusiyya Order.

THE SANUSIS IN WADAI

99

of the "Wadai country, 'Ali bin Muhammad, soon became an enthusiastic follower of the Shaikhu'l-

At his decease in 1876, the succession to the Sultanate was disputed, and it shows the enormous influence the Sanusi's had then obtained, that they were able to stop the internecine conflict
Mahdf.

and

to secure the accession of the candidate they

preferred.

The new Sultan then

elected

became

a loyal subject, and held his oflice as a tributary To the north-west of to the Jaghbub Zawiyah.

which has In 1855, the people of that country were all pagans, in 1888 they had all become Muslims, and the chief had been He used admitted as a member of the Order.
Wadai, there
is

a State called Ennedi,

now become

a vassal one.

to send to

Jaghbub not only rich presents, but the choicest of his young men to be fully trained and instructed under the personal direction of In fact, the whole region the Shaikhu'l-Mahdi. round lake Chad is more or less under Sanusi
influence.

To the north-west

of lake

Chad

lies

an inhos-

the midst of which, about five pitable desert, in of south Jaghbub, is the great oasis of degrees Kufra.
oasis
is

The large Zawiyah


the

of

al-Istat
of

in this
all

second in
for

importance

the

years was looked to as a probable future asylum in an almost unapThe move thus anticipated proachable region.

Zawiyahs, and

many

100

THE RELIGIOUS ORDERS OF ISLAM

actually came to pass in the year 1894 or 1895 when the Shaikhu'l-Mahdi, with many of the

wealthier

residents of Jaghbub, left that town for Kufra, a half-way resting place for caravans

going to and fro from Wadai to Benghazi and thus, from a strategical point of view, an important position. Although, at present, the Turks hold Tripoli, their power does not penetrate into the interior, the districts of which are entirely in the hands
of the

Sanusis.

About the time

of the

Fashoda

incident, the Shaikhu'l-Mahdi

made an important

In movement in the hinterland of Tripoli. March 1899 the Anglo-French agreement was

made, defining the respective spheres of influence between the two countries in North Central Africa. It was then found that the Saniisi country lay Since then entirely within the French sphere. the Sanusis have extended westward into Kanem.
of June 19, 1902, reported that on the 20th of January a body of French Sudanese troops inflicted a severe defeat on the Sanusis

The Patrie

and the Tuwariq Berbers in the lake Chad disIn the spring of 1908 the French had trict.i to send an expedition to this region. again The hatred of the Sanusfs to Muslims who
1 u rpjjg Tawdriq Berbers are a very bigotted race and " Search for are largely under Sanusf influence." (King,

the Masked Tuwareek,"

p. 147.)

THE ZAWIYAH OF AL-ISTAT


submit to the
political

101

supremacy

of

the Christian

Powers, or who would effect a compromise with western civilization, is so great that good Muslims are exhorted to leave such countries as Turkey and Egypt. This naturally arouses hostility them and so, in order to avoid reprisals against

and to be free from such evil influences, the Shaikh transferred his seat of Government to al-Istat, an isolated place, where he can be nearer to his chief centre of proselytism and better survey the movements which interest him. He himself
is

close

said to live not in the Zawiyah, but at Joffa It will be interesting to see what by.

attitude

the Saniisis take

up with reference
in

to

recent reform

movements
that

Turkey.

They

will

probably

their head-quarters

New

it justifies the removal of from Turkish territory. routes have been opened up in various

hold

directions.

"

Shaikhu'l-Mahdi

From this inaccessible fortress the now governs all the territories
;

Swift messengers carry occupied by the Sanusi's. his orders to all parts of North Africa and he
is
all

kept

constantly

informed

by

his

agents

of

that transpires in the outer world, receiving books, pamphlets, newspapers, and all the require-

ments
the
1

of his responsible office.

His military and

political organization is

complete.
^

The

Saniisi

never

changes."

Mr.

policy of Vischer, a

Silva White,

"From Sphinx

to Oracle," p. 129.

102

THE RELIGIOUS ORDERS OF ISLIm

British official, reports that in 1902 he found " the Sanusi head-quarters at Kufra to be a

regular arsenal of modern arms and ammunition and that in the schools children are taught to
^ The foreigners in the deepest hatred." Order has now seventeen monasteries in Egypt, but in Tripoli there are many more. It there

hold

all

defies all rules

and is a great social and political The Sanusiyya Darweshes sometimes, in places where they were likely to meet with much Thus in Tunis opposition, assumed other names. the Qadiriyya Order they appeared as members of when they commenced operations there. The success they have met w^ith has been comparatively small, and they have only five Zawiyahs in that country. They have been more successful in the oases of the Sahara, where they have won over many of the Ikhwan of the Eahmaniyya
power.
Order.

In the Algerian province of Constantine have had great influence with the active they and fanatical Tijaniyya Confraternities. They commenced work in Morocco in 1877 and soon had three Zawiyahs there, at Tangiers, Tetuan and Fez. In that country, however, they are very closely connected with the Darqawiyya Darweshes, with whose political views and tendencies they In the locality where have much in common. the Darqawiyya Shaikh resides, his followers
1

C.M.S. Review, June 1907,

p. 382.

THE PROGRESS OF THE SANUSIS

103

are looked upon as close friends and allies of the In the various oases and amongst the Sanusi's.

Berber tribes of the Atlas range they have many adherents. 1 In the country of Tibeste and of Borku, to the north-west of lake Chad, they used their utmost endeavours to convert the heathen
population or to
stir

up the Muhammadans
life.

to

greater strictness of religious had gone as far as Senegal

were

in

Timbuktu.

In 1873 they and in 1888 they At that time the Order had

not penetrated into the Upper Nile region, nor into Nigeria, but their infienence on the Orders
already there is so great that it is probably only a question of time when the influence of the
Saniisis will be

predominant in these regions.

In

the year 1900, the Kev. E. F. Wilson reported that the Sanusis were in Lokoja, a town in Upper
Nigeria, and were giving trouble by proclaiming that a massacre of Christians would shortly take This seems to have been an isolated effort, place.2
for the official testimony is that " there is practically no SaniisI cult in Northern Nigeria, except possibly in Bornu."^ To the Muslims of these
districts,

the

leaders.
1

Sultans of Sokoto have been the So long as their influence was parathese tribes, see Duvreyrier, "

For a

list of

La

Confrerie

Musulmane,"
2

p. 38.

C.M.S. Report, 19001, p. 94. Blue Book No. 409, 1903, Northern Nigeria,

p. 77.

104

THE RELIGIOUS ORDERS OF ISLAM

mount, even so powerful an Order as that of the Sanusiyya could gain no permanent footing. It has made attempts and has sent preachers to Kano, but has gained no real influence. It is to
be hoped that the Hausa Muslim Chiefs will still maintain the same attitude towards the Saniisis,
but, as the advent of this Order
affect

would no longer
it

their
be,

political

power, for they

is

gone, and,
to
their

would
recent

moreover, a serious trouble

conquerors,

may now

look

upon

the Sanusiyya propaganda in a more favourable Still, in various parts of Africa this Order light.

has

spread

much

with great rapidity and influence and power.


it

possesses

has found no footing, except at Constantinople. In Asia there are about twelve Zawiyahs, of which three are in Arabia; there being one each in Jedda, Madi'na and Mecca. In Europe

The archives of the Order are kept in the one Mecca. The Order is popular in the Hijaz, the tribes of which are much attached to it. It
at

forms a material force ready to oppose the 'Ulama and the civil authorities when the time arrives. The Sanusiyya Darweshes are also found in the Malay Archipelago. The geographical limit of the Order
full of
is

not yet reached, for

it

is

community

which by its austerities and its promises attracts the sympathy of many Muslims and so tends to absorb and to unify the mighty
life

THE SANUSIS AND OTHER ORDEES


forces of

105

the various Orders.

It

is

also active

in its mission
it

work amongst pagan

tribes

whom

converts in large numbers.

A point of great importance is the apparent readiness and success with which the Sanusiyya
Order attaches to
nities.
itself
:

other religious Confrater-

" It is important to reDuveyrier says member the tendency of the Sanusiyya Confraternity to assimilate to itself other religious

associations

which

in

common with

it

have issued

forth from the school of the Shadhiliyya, that is to say, almost the whole of the Musalman Orders.

These
in

tactics, of

which the

political results

may

be very grave, have been crowned with success

Einn says that a great number of cases." ^ the object at which these Darweshes aim is " to unite all the Orders into one federation, having a
theocratic pan-Islamitic form, free from
control, and opposed
to all
all

secular
^

modern

ideas."

The Shadhiliyya, the Tijaniyya and the Qadiriyya Orders, after having commenced by repudiating the claims of Shaikh Saniisi, now bear, more or less, the intellectual yoke of the Sanusiyya and conform, to some extent, in political matters, to the views held by it." The Madaniyya Order is
1

"

La

Confrerie IMusalmane,"

p.

8.

Einn, "Marabouts et Khouan," p. 510. 3" All these Orders, or Confraternities, formerly divided seem, on the contrary, to-day to obey a common impulse,
2

106

THE RELIGIOUS ORDERS OP ISLAM


much under
its influence.

also very

It is said

by some writers that Shaikh

Sanusi

tolerated

certain of the special rites and ceremonies of these other Orders, and thus extended his personal influence over a
into his

mass

own

people not actually initiated Order, especially over the superstiof

tious, warlike

and fanatical Tuwariq. A man may become a Sanusi, without abandoning his own
Order, provided that he submits
to

certain

re-

capacity for assimilation " is a special characteristic of the Order. Thus, the Sanusis claim the support of no less than
strictions.
fact, this

In

forty (or, as

groups

more

Orders, or branches of them or less allied to the Shadhiliyya school of

Eeligious

some

authorities

would

say, sixty-four)

philosophy, which embraces the majority of the Muslim Orders. Amalgamation is undoubtedly

aimed

in fact, progressing rapidly the Sanusis settle there they because wherever thus conlatitudinarianism rule. Its eventually
at,
is,
;

and

of the Sanusis."

stitutes the great cohesive force in the propaganda ^ Its secret agents are to be found

in Zawiyahs of other Orders, and these men duly report to the Shaikh all that is of importance for

him to know. They also quietly spread Sanusi views amongst these other Darweshes. Conscious
the origin of which is as yet unknown." (Frisch, Maroc," p. 186.) 1 Silva White, " From Sphinx to Oracle," p. 117.
"

Le

THE DHIKR OF THE SANUSIS


of the

107

power which an air of mystery gives, they keep the rules of their Order secret and avoid The rosary they any outward distinctive sign. use is one common to otliers. In the namaz, or
public prayer, they use no peculiar rites, bvit a special dhikr is made known to their followers.

as follows.

The usual form of dhikr used by the Sanusis is The worshipper, after Salatu'i-Fajr,

or the usual morning prayer, says forty times, " O my God, preserve me at the moment of death

then one and in the trials which follow it " then hundred times, " I seek pardon from God " one hundred times, There is no god but Allah
; ;

"

and Muhammad is the Prophet of God then one hundred times, " O my God, grant thy favour to our Lord Muhammad the illiterate prophet, also to his family and companions, and give them ^ The three last should then be repeated safety."
;

"

over again three times, making altogether nine hundred repetitions. The ritual directions of the dhikr are that the rosary should be carried
all

and

on the hand and not be suspended from the neck, in all meetings for worship music and dancing
are strictly prohibited. Whilst the Sanusis strongly assert the truth that God alone is to be exalted, they allow a

i^n

j^

^y\

^\

iz^ lij^

js.
-

j^
_

^\
c- -

108

THE RELIGIOUS ORDERS OP ISLAM

very high veneration to be paid to saints, though The novice is they would not call it worship. expected to entirely renounce the world, and to Shaikh as his yield implicit obedience to the

Luxurious spiritual guide and temporal leader. dresses, silk embroidery, ornaments (except for women) and gold and silver vessels are forbidden
things but the precious metals may be used in the hilts of swords, as they may be employed in the Jihad, or Holy War. Coffee and tobacco ^
;

Tea may be drunk, but not sweetened with loaf sugar, for that is said to be clarified with the bones of animals slain without the use of the expression Bismillah (i.e.^ in the name of God) by the persons who killed
are strictly forbidden.

that appertains to them is thus and so unlawful for use by Muslims. impure, Music and dancing are not allowed. Intercourse with Jews or Christians is not permitted.^ No salutation should be made to them, and no business transacted with them. If the Jew or Christian should not be a Rayah, or Dhimmi, he must be dealt with as an enemy.^ He- is
All
1

them.

This

rule

is

Muqaddim

said,

"

somewhat 'relaxed in Algeria, where a Those who are rich may smoke, but the

poor had better abstain, for in order to indulge in this whim they may deprive their children of bread." (Depont et Coppolani, p. 556.)
2

Duveyrier,
<<

"

La

Confrerie

What

specially characterizes

Musulmane," p. 7. them (the Sanusiyya),

THE OETHODOXY OF THE SANUSIS


either a

109

Dhimmi, that is, one allowed to live on payment of a tax, or he is a fair subject for oppression and death. The Order is thus absolutely

hostile

in

its

spirit

non-Muslim

peoples.

and intention to all The members of the Order

should not carry their disputes before alien law The Shaikh is the supreme judge, who courts. alone can settle the civil and criminal cases which
arise in so large a body. They profess to quite orthodox in their religious principles. They look upon the Qur'au as God's word direct

may
be
to

His people, and consider the Sunna

to be that

will, declared in the daily actions and words of the Prophet. They look upon bid'at, or inno-

same

vations on the traditional beliefs and practices, as hurtful and heretical they assert the absolute
;

necessity

of the

Imamat, that

is,

the

constant

presence of a spiritual Pontiff, in their Shaikh. They consider

whom

they find

that the ideal

religious life is one of contemplation. All this leads the Sanusiyya, the most

uncom-

promising, and the most powerful of all the Orders, to view Islam as a Theocracy and to consider that all good Muslims should with

them so look upon


above every

it.

The

result

is

great

Muhammadan Order or Sect, is, not merely the fanaticism within their own religion, but their burning hatred of Christians." (Eohlfs, quoted by Silva White in
"From Sphinx
to Oracle," p. 127.)

110

THE RELIGIOUS ORDERS OP ISLAM

and conpan-Islamic movement. Intelligent vinced, too, of the excellence of their cause, they can with patience wait for the full result of
their
to

teaching.

Not that
for

this

is

likely to lead

one of the most recent of the best informed French writers on Islam in Algiers declares that, if it were possible to drive the French into the sea and to establish a theocratic State, the religious Orders would do it at once.i But for the present, the Sanusi's
toleration,

more

enter into no political engagements with Christian or Muslim Powers, and simply trust to the leaven which their principles introduce amongst

MusHms.
generate
state, as

The end
Islam,

by restoring

to be sought for is to so reit to its ancient

may
tive

they conceive it to have been, that it present an effective barrier to the destrucspirit.

forces of

dern

European civilization and They do all this from a


tliat

the

mois

religious

motive for they affirm

the glory of

God

their only aim. They do, however, look forward to a temporal kingdom, which the Theocracy they

hope

to

see will

be

work
^

for that object in their

but for the present they own way, and that

caught a glimpse of the posof casting us into the sea and of substituting a theocratic Musalmdn State for the actual Government ;
sibility

" If these secret Societies

then, without the least doubt, they would seek to overthrow in one supreme effort the Christian rule." (Comte Henry de Castries, "Isl^m," p. 236.)

THE MAHDI OF KHARTUM


way
the
is

111

Powers.

any entanglements with worldly In 1872 the Prussians tried to stir up Sanusis to proclaim a Jihad against the
to avoid

The French, but in vain. ordered the Shaikh to send


fight

Sultan of Turkey him some men to the Russians, but not a man went. The
influence

Italians have

Frencli

sought their aid in counteracting in Tunis, but have not suc-

ceeded in getting it. During the revolt of Arabi Pasha in Egypt the Sanusis did not stir.

In the year 1885,

six

envoys came from the

Mahdi

the Sudan to Jaghbub with a letter addressed to the Shaikh of the Saniisis.^ The
in

Mahdi

wrote

somewhat

as

follows

"
:

have

defeated the English and Egyptian troops. I shall continue the war until Egypt falls into
the hands of the true believers.

Thou

art

all

powerful in the West. The Shaikh asked his


say in reply.

Holy War." Darweshes what he should


Join
"

me

in a

They

said,

Thou

art the Master,

and we follow thy order." The Sudanis were well treated, and on the fourth day the Shaikh " Tell addressed them as follows your master that we will have nothing to do with him. His way is not good. I send no letter in reply."
:

The

jNIahdf,

Muliammad Ahmad, who was

originally

a I\Iuqaddim of the Qidiriyya Order, had acquired in, the Zdwiyah of Keneh, a town in Upper Egypt, a great reputation as a mystic and a worker of miracles.

112

THE RELIGIOUS ORDERS OP ISLAM


a great

clanger to civilization was happily The Shaikh saw plainly that the revolt was premature and lacked the conditions of permanence and success. No doubt also it was the implied ignoring by the Mahdi of his own pretensions as the foremost and most excellent of all the Shaikhs, and not any consideration for Egypt, which led the Sanusi leader to refuse his countenance and aid to the Eastern Sudan movement. The destruction of the Mahdi of Khartum has very materially strengthened the
averted.
of the

Thus

Saniisiyya Order by the accession to its ranks Darweshes of the Nile whose power, as a

separate body, has now been broken and by the extinction of any rival authority to that of its own Shaikh, who is undoubtedly the most powerful leader of

men

in Africa at this present

time,

for negroes, converted to Islam in their thousands every year, form excellent soldiers and these by

the million are at the call of the great Sanusi He is now the head of chief, Shaikhu'l-Mahdi.

the anti-christian

movement from Morocco to Mecca and from lake Chad to Darfur. The direct action of the Samisis in any
the
;

of

insurrections

in

Algiers

has never been

but even though no overt acts can proved be alleged, yet the widespread influence of their
teaching and their

known

dislike to all

modern

methods

of civilization

have doubtless been very

SANUSI RELATION TO THE FRENCH


powerful
of

113

leading others on in the and pronounced opposition, way and their Zawiyahs have always been open to In order to remove a standing menace rebels. to Algeria, it was necessary for the French to occupy the oasis of Tuat in force. The Taibiyya and the Karzaziyya Orders seem to have been friendly over this, but the Bakkayiyya and the Sanusiyya Darweshes strongly opposed the French. It lies near It is a most important place to hold. the centre of the Sahara and its possession gives In 1881 a control over many trade routes. French expedition was destroyed by the Tuwariq, instigated by 'Abdu'l-Qadir, the head of the Samisis in Tuat. They foresaw that punishment would come and persuaded the Sultan of Morocco to declare Tuat to be a part of his dominions which he did in a letter in 1886. The French remonstrated and he then said that the letter was a It became quite clear that under Sanusi forgery. influence Tuat would become a centre of intrigue, and so about the year 1900 the French took
factors

in

more

active

absolute possession of

it.

The present

policy, however, of the

Order seems

to be to encourage emigration from lands under alien rule to lands which European influence has
or in which it has not yet any way a power. This really means a vast emigration to the oases of the Sahara and

not yet reached,


in

become

114

THE EELIGIOUS OEDERS OF ISLAM

other parts. " The exodus from all the Musalman countries grows more numerous every day." ^ Thus all the main caravan routes are being brought

under SaniisI control, wells are dug, trees are planted and cultivation is carried on by freed
slaves,

now

carefully instructed in

the dogmas

and practices of the Order. In this way it is thought that the true believers may be gathered together and be preserved from living under the yoke of Christian powers, or under the scarcely less hated rule of the Sultan and Khedive, who, in the opiniou of the Sanusis, are under the control of European Governments and suffer, from that pernicious influence. In fact, Turkey, Egypt, Syria, and other countries where modern civilization has had some influence, are looked upon with much reprobation. The facts of material and moral progress cannot be denied, but the fanatical heed to such improvement. little spirit pays " The Sanusis are the most violent enemies of the Christians, and they equally call themselves the enemies of the Turks." ^ The motto of the Order
is

The Turks and the Christians are category we will destroy them both
:
:

"

in the
at the

same same

time."
for
1

^ None of these countries, then, are suitable the development of the theocratic views of

Comte Henry de Castries, " L'IsMm," " Le Maroc," p. 190. Frisch,

p.

238.

EMIGRATION OF SANUSIS

115

the Order, and departure from them was urged many years ago. In this respect the practice
of

the

Order has been most consistent.


letter,

In a

Leave those who God wills that you should be as you are.' say, God does not reveal himself forcibly to an Arab or to a stranger. His sole object is Himself, the One, who begets not, and is not begotten. O Is not brothers, do not neglect us or the Shaikh. the earth vast ? Change your residence, and then the dwellings of those who do not emigrate with But as to the feeble you will be burnt down. men and women, who cannot do so, perhaps God It is written, 'whoever fleeth will pardon them.
'

written by a pastoral the following passage occurs God. it opens the way to

Muqaddim
"
:

in 1869,

Eecite the dhikr,

his

country for the cause of God, will find many under like compulsion and abundant resources.'
first of
^
'

As

for those

who

led

the way, the

who

the Muhajirun,^ and the Ansar ^ and those followed their noble conduct, God is well
"
*

pleased with them.'

The Shaikhu'l-Mahdi
"

later

on said

to his followers, " Quit

your country.

Is

not God's earth vast ? There is much trouble in the Muslim world at
1

Suratu'n-NL^a',

(iv)

101.

3
i

That That

is, is,

first

emigrants from Mecca to Madina.

those

who

in

Madina helped Muhammad,


101.

Suratu't-Taubah,

(ix)

116

THE RELIGIOUS ORDERS OF ISLAM


till

the growing Christian occupation of lands, Islam. lately open only to the followers of
Africa especially this is the Sultan of Turkey has no real claim to the Khalifate and so

seen to be the case.


to

In There power, and his


a
sort
of

universal dominion is by no means generally admitted. In Morocco it is absolutely denied.^ Thus had it not been for these religious Confraternities,

the flock in Islam

would, in some

without a shepherd. parts, have been as sheep The reason for the founding of new Orders, such as that of the Sanusiyya, is thus to be found in the need felt by large bodies of Muslims for clear direction and supervision, and
for

something which
sohdarity.

will give

them some

spiri-

tual

sought to give of its grand objects the federation of all the various Orders under its general supervision. This propaganda as I have shown has been carried out with much success, but recent writers
hold that
fortunately

This the Sanusiyya Order has by setting before itself as one

many

of

the leaders

of

the other Orders do not approve of this plausible attempt at the entire absorption of their Confraternities

into

that

the

Sanusiyya.

"

The

desire

for

wealth

and
of

now

influences

many

temporal the Shaikhs of other

power which

Confraternities also tends to hinder the Sanusiyya


iMeakin,

"The Moorish Empire,"

p. 198.

SANUSI INTEIGUES
propaganda amongst them."
i

117

"The

Shaikhu'l-

the teaching of the other brotherhoods, he will be respected but will not become their absolute and uncontrollable
flatter

Mahdi

will

in vain

Master. In Tunis and Algeria the same evolution dashes itself in vain against the solid position of the Qadiriyya and the Tijaniyya Orders,
. .

whose individual temper agrees


trines
of

ill

the Sanusis."

If this is
;

with the docthe case, a

must have set in but for all that the Sanusis are a most powerful organization, growThe official ing both in numbers and in influence.
reaction
leaders of
interest

some

of the stronger

Orders from

self-

propaganda of the Sanusis amongst their followers, but the influence of the SanusI Darwishes on the ordinary brethren of

may

resist the

is very great and their masses is most eifective. They are united in purpose and energetic in the dissemination of their views on the reform of Islam in dogma and in practice. They desire to revive

most Confraternities
appeal to the

the glories of the early days of Islam with


its intolerance

all

and fanaticism. It is this aspect of the movement which brings with an attendant danger. It is said by an observant traveller " that, Algeria is honey-combed with Sanusi intriguers .... so vast a combination is necessarily
1

"

Depont

et Coppolani," p. 568.
et

2"Depont

Coppolani,"

p. 558.

118

THE RELIGIOUS ORDERS OP ISLAM


;

so fraught with danger to the peace of Africa intolerant and powerful a sect is, ostensibly,

capable of shaking Islam to its foundation, the moment of action arrives." ^

when

The French

in Algiers are perfectly aware of

the danger which arises from the presence of these fanatical communities in their midst.^

More than
Algeria
are

half

of

the

Muslim
with

inhabitants

of

connected

various

Eeligious

and
of

Orders, which possess no less than three hundred All these Darweshes are fifty Zawiyahs.
to

trained
their

yield

implicit

obedience to the will


rule

Shaikhs. they are simple, credulous persons, but for this reason are all the more easily led astray. Of all the Orders
that of the Sanusiyya is the most irreconcilable enemy of the French, and it is by patient workand by thorough ing, by ceaseless intrigue,

As a

knowledge
it

of the

Muslim mind and heart that


its

has attained to
its

great position of influence

and to

to the possible

present great power for evil. Referring danger and trouble which all this

may

bring,

Comte Henry de

Castries says that

should a continental war compel Prance to withdraw many troops from Africa, the Sanusiyya and
iSilva White,
2
11

"From Sphinx
of

to Oracle," pp.

1245.

the Sanusfs is an irreconcilable enemy, really dangerous to the French authority in

The Confraternity

North Africa."
p. 14.)

(Duveyrier,

"La

Coufrerie

Musulmane,"

THE MISSION WORK OF THE CHURCH

119

the other Orders might easily be stirred up by an

enemy

of France to open revolt.^ The only hope then would be that the Shaikhs of the various Orders in their bid for power would fall out

amongst themselves, and that tribal factions would lead to disunion. 2 He thinks this would be the
for "I'anarchie est le

probable outcome of such an adverse movement, mal endemique de I'lslam." This is true, for from the days of the internecine
strifes of the early Khah'fate there

has never been


political

universal
in Islam.

religious

or

permanent

unity

I have now given an account of the principal Religious Orders, the rise and progress of wliich has an important bearing on the mission work

Church. I have shown the political danger which may arise from this vigorous and fanatical movement the religious peril is no less imminent. Some of the Orders may be more actively
of the
:

missionary in their operations than others


there
is

but

no difference
of

<5ommon hatred

between them in their Christianity and in their desire

to forestall its advance.

For many centuries Islam has had an open door in Central Africa and the Sudans, and, during
1

"L'Islam,"
"

p. 239.

representatives of the different mystical Schools of Islam are generally in a state of severe competition with each other." (C. Snouck Hurgronje, " Revue de I'Histoire des Religions." p. 217.)

The

120

THE RELIGIOUS ORDERS OF


:last

ISLAIM

the

Lundred years

especially, has taken full


It
is

advantage

of its favourable position.

only
to

recently that facilities Christian Missionaries.

have been

afforded

Thus much valuable time


from the beginning

has been
of the

lost.

It is true that

has,

thirteenth century the Church of Eome from time to time, sent missionaries to

Morocco. These heroic men, under great difficulties and in the face of much persecution,
carried

death.

on their work and many found a martyr's The Franciscans are still at work there,
it

though,

is

said that their attention

is

chiefly

directed to the Europeans.^ This is natural, for the Eomanist must always, as compared with a

non-Eomanist,
dealing with recent years

be

at

great

disadvantage

in

Practically, until little has been done to place in an

Muhammadans.

acceptable form the Gospel before the Muslims of Morocco and Algeria. The North Africa Mission
is is

now engaged

in this most difficult work. It confronted by the influence of the great Con-

fraternities

which I have described, and so it all the sympathy and support it can obtain. Its work is highly spoken of and merits recognition. ^
justly deserves
1

Meakin,
2

For an account of Christian Missions in l\Iorocco, see " The Moorish Empire," pp. 307-34. " Spiritual forces are at work in Morocco among the

Moors, those self-same spiritual forces, which, as a righteous, leaven, raised our nature from a state of barbarism and

THE MISSION WORK OF THE CHURCH


Political
its

121

causes have brought civilized rule, accompanying protection of life and property, into Central Africa and the Sudans. This may, however, facilitate the modern Muslim

with

propaganda.

It is also possible that the

adoption

Government in Turkey and reforms in Persia, if they come to pass, may increase the dislike of the more fanatical Darweshes to these Muslim States. It may also cause some of the other Orders to follow the
of a constitutional

example

of the

Samisiyya and to seek in lands

now

occupied by pagan tribes, whom they will hope to win, an escape from modern influences which appear to them to be inconsistent with
the earlier teaching of Muhammadan law and custom, a.nd to be at variance with their ideal of a true Theocratic Muslim State.

In any
continue
to

case,

whatever

may

be the result of

the political activity of the great


. .

Darwesh Orders,

travellers

raise it. It is the popular custom of . disparage missionaries, a task as easy as to disparage the tiny worm which bores and buries itself, and in a lifetime severs less of the tree-trunk than a day's growth adds, but it is a work that tells and the tree falls. Let their work be difficult, their faith a mockery to those who share it not, their object hopeless, their achieve-

to

ments

insignificant,

or,

it

may
;

be, illusory

their faults

apparent, their methods, absurd the missionaries, of whatever creed, are the noble few who live for the future and no seed they sow is lost." (Meakin, " The Moorish Empire,"
1

p. 4.37.)

Ante, p. 77.

122

THE RELIGIOUS ORDERS OP ISLAM


it

and
it

is

by no means devoid

of

serious

peril,

absolutely certain that the religious propaganda will be carried on with vigour. may
is

We
in

fairly accept the position that

Islam,

some

respects, raises a pagan tribe to a higher level of life and conduct, and yet, in the interests of social order, of moral life, of religious belief, and so
in

the best interests of

mankind, we

the conversion of sucli tribes to Islam with

may view much

No well-wisher of even the most degraded race can desire that it should be permanently fixed at what, after all, is a low level of conduct and that an almost impassable barrier should
concern.
of

be placed in the way of its rising to a higher stage life by the acceptance of a purer and more
faith. ^

elevating

Muslims have been and


;

will

be won
fold

for

Christ

still

it is

matter

of

common

experience that a people once gathered into the of Islam are extremely difficult to reach

and are

far

less

responsive

to

the

claims

of

Christianity than when in their heathen state. It seems very unlikely that the varied African races can remain long in their present religious

and social condition. They will soon become Muslims or Christians. Probably, in the past
history of

been a

crisis

the Church, there has hardly ever so acute as this is now. In many
field,

parts of the mission

people
79, 80.

now heathen

XAnte, pp.

THE MISSION WORK OP THE CHURCH


be no more
will be so forty or fifty years to reach difficult

123

hence and it will them then than now. It is not so in Africa. Let these years pass by and the Africans, then become Muhammadans, will be a hundred fold more difficult to influence then than now.
to

As regards the present relation of Christianity Islam, whilst the work of the Missionary
Egypt and
life is
it

Societies in

in other great centres of

Muhammadan
primary duty
in Africa
is

of

must be maintained,
by

the highest value and would yet seem that the

of arresting the progress of

Islam

forestalling its
It
is

operations amongst
fact

the pagan tribes.

this

which gives

such great importance to the Universities' Mission and to the C.M.S. Uganda Mission. " There was a time where the future of the Kingdom of Uganda

hung

in the balance.

It

was a struggle between


and,
if

Christianity

and

Muhammadanism,

the

had been delayed, even for a few years, we might have found Uganda
advent
of

the mission

Muhammadan
The formation

State."

of strong Christian Churches the best possible barrier to the onward march If Islam. the C.M.S. Hausa Mission is of
is

promptly and well


1

supported,

similar

progress

the Christianity or Muhammadanism in Uganda Diocese," (C.M.S. Intelligencer, July 1904, p. 489). I reproduce some portions of this interesting article in a note at the end of this book.
Willis,

"

124

THE EELIGIOUS ORDERS OF ISLAM


like result

with a

may
its

also be looked for in the

regions in

which

The

resources

of

operations are carried on. are Missionary Societies

limited in

men and
of
all

means.

In the wonderful

lands and in the great social opening up and political changes which are now in progress, the call for help comes with increasing force from
all

sides.

Some
call

The response can only be partial. estimate of the relative urgency of each
Is
in
it

must be made.
advance

too

much

to say that

Africa places that land in the very forefront of all the many claimants, and gives to Missionary Societies working there

the Muslim

a foremost place in

and the aid

of all

who

the prayers, the sympathy are interested in the per-

manent extension of the Kingdom of God. most urgent work which the Church is now
upon
of

The
called

to undertake is the speedy evangelization the pagan people in Africa, who will, if now neglected, soon pass on into the fold of Islam.

EXTRACT FROM AN ARTICLE,


"

Christianity or

Muhammad anism
"

in the

Uganda Diocese
by the Rev.
J. J. Willis in the

" C.M.S. Intelligencer," July 1904.

From
the

a missionary point of view the Kingdom of Uganda occupies a remarkable position. Though
large
it

Heathen,
Christian,

majority of its population are still may be almost regarded as a Christian


its legislature is practically

country, inasmuch as

and

most

of

its

Christian

by
it

centre of Equatorial surrounded by heathen countries, north, east, south, and west. Beyond, this belt of Paganism lies another belt, west, north, and east Muhammadanism. To the south there is none, and there is no advance of Muhammadanism to be feared from that quarter. But in the remain-

country
Africa,

stands in

profession. the

And

leading as a

men

are

Christian

ing

three

directions

there

is.

Paganism, natural religion based on no literaIt is vague, ture, is necessarily a weak religion.

126

THE RELIGIOUS ORDERS OF ISLAM

Chrisformless, and takes no really strong hold. are both strong Muhammadanism and tianity which men hold to the death. And
religions,

between these two religions the battle in Africa It seems more than probable will be fought. that, before very many years are past, one of these or the other will be the dominant power

around Uganda who are at The danger of this present moment Heathen. to one be reckoned a Muhammadan advance is the adherents of that with, because, even though

among

the

tribes

faith in Central Africa

may know

almost nothing

of its teaching, and be scarcely, if at all, bound by its restrictions, once the Heathen have become, even in name, Muhammadan, our great opportuthere is no longer an open mind. nity is passed Now of the three possible directions from which Islam may advance, the most remote is the west. The Muhammadan States on or near the west coast of Africa are separated from us by an
;

immense

stretches of pathless forest

barred by vast and countries under another administration lie between. So that the danger from that direction need not be seriously In any case we have the Kingdom regarded. of Toro, some two hundred miles to the west, standing as an outlying fortress in that quarter. A more serious danger looms in the north, from the Muhammadanism advancing slowly from
distance
;

they

are

UGANDA MISSION

127

Egypt southwards through the Sudan. Every year is bringing Egypt nearer to us, as communication by river and road is perfected, and travel from north to south facilitated. The future
of the Nile tribes will not be long undecided, and much will depend on whether Christianity or

Muhammadanism

is

first

in the field.

Many

of

the Nile tribes farther north are already nominally Muhammadan, but the tribes lying immediately
to the north of

Bunyoro
to

are not only


at least,

but have,

in

one instance
desire
of

still pagan, expressed a

very

strong

be taught.

Now

is

our

opportunity
rejoice that

extending to the north, and


is

we

it

being seized.

But if the possibility of Muhammadan encroachment from the north is an eventuality clearly to be reckoned with, a very much more pressing danger threatens from the east. Here the distance
from the
is

once to be reckoned by months, reckoned by days. It was inevitable that with the railway should come in a rush of
coast,

now

to be

SwahiH
1

i
;

inevitable, too, that they,

with their long

" It

is

that
tribes

Muhammadanism
of

Islam is Zanzibar, know that language, it is evident that th.eir proselytizing efforts can only have a very superficial effect. Conversion practically may be said to consist in the utterance of a formula. Yet these Swahilis, and also
their so-called converts, are extremely difficult to

by these Swahilis, in the character of merchants, is propagated among the heathen the interior. As all the available literature of in Arabic, and very few Swahilis, even in

win to

128

THE RELIGIOUS ORDERS OF ISLAM

experience of civilization, should exercise a dominant influence over the tribes in East Africa
still

in

their

infancy.

Christ they are so ignorant, even of their own ignorance, so impervious to argument, and they cling so stubbornly to their creed." (G.M.S. Report, 1907-08, p. 52.)
:

For the spread


p. 31.

of

Isl^m in Nigeria, see the same Report,

INDEX
Abdal, 24 AkhyAr, 24
Alwaniyj'a Order, 37

Amirghaniyya Order, 38
Amulets, 20, 68-4

Anwdr, 23
Autad, 23

Bakkayiyya Order, 57 Baktashiyya Order, 52 Bistdmiyya Order, 37

initiation into, 54

Chistiyya Order, 45

Darqiwiyya Order, 71
Darweshes, relation to progress, 1, in Turkey, 7 opponents of, 9 Dhikr, various kinds of, 32-3 effect
; ;

7,

80, 82

in Algiers, 7;

of,

34

Dhimmi, 109
Fatwd,
G9, 87

Faqlr, 26

Fulahs, 77, 81

130

INDEX
Pan-Isldmism,
2, 45,

131

73

dhikr of, Q4diriyya Order, 38 character of founder of, 43-4


;

40

extension

of,

42-3

Qalandar, 51 Qalandariyya Order, 51

Qutb,

19, 22,

23

Rifa'iyya Order, 44

political influence of, 45

Rahmanfyya
;

Order, 68
;

Religious Orders, growth of, 3; opposition to, 5 enemies of, 9 admisheads of, 10 officers of, 11-2 origin of, 18
; ;

sion into, 28-31, 42, 54, 55,70; dhikr of, 32-5,40; Siddfqiyya, 36 Alwdniyya, 37 Bistdmiyya, 37 Qidiriyya
; ;

38

Amfrghaniyya, 38
;

Rifa'iyya, 44

Chistiyya, 45

Su-

46; Shadhiliyya, 47; Mauldwiyya, 48; Naqshbandiyya, 49 Qalandariyya, 51 Baktdshiyya, 52 Khilwatiyya, 54; Bakayiyya, 57; Shaikiyya, 57; Karzdziyya, 58 Taibiyya, 59 Hansaliyya, 61 Tijdniyya, 65

harwardiyya,

Rahmd,niyya, 69
nusiyya, 83
of,
;

Darq^wiyya, 71

extent of influence

of,

IMadaniyya, 73 Sa43, 76-77 hostility


;
;

110.

Sdlik, 27

Sanusiyya Order,
its

its extension, 83 82, its founder 83-5 opponents, 86 head-quarters of, 88, 100 death of founder of, 90 character of founder of, 91 second Shaikh of, 92 death of second Shaikh of, 92 expec; ; ; ;
; ;

tation

of
of,
;

growth
of,

102-3
of,

al-Mahdf, 93; grand council of, 93, 98; 98, 100 organization of, 101 missionary zeal relation to other Orders, 105-7, 115 social cus; ;
;

toms
of

108

fanaticism
;

of, 109,

114

relation to
;

Mahdi

Khartum, 111 oppose the French,


114
;

113, 116

emigration

of, 101,

132

INDEX

Siddlqiyya Oixler, 36 Shadhiliyya Order, 46 Shaikhiyya Order, 57

Shaikh, 10, 26 Shuhadd', 22

Suharwardiyya Order, 46
Taibiyya Order, 59 Tijdniyya Order, 65
Talqlu, 30 Tilmidh, 26
Tariq, 26

extent of influence

of, G7,

68

Tuat, 60, 113

Tawariq, 100, 113

Uganda Mission, 123, 125, 127 'UlamsV, influence of, 1 opposed to Darweshes, 9 fatwa by, 87 opposed to Baktashfs, 63 opposed to Ralimaniyya
;
; ;

Order, 69

opposed to Sanusfs, 86

Umama', 23
Universities' Mission, 123

Uwaishiyya Order, 37

Wahhdbfs, 91
Waif, 15, 25

Zdwiyah,
Ziarat, 31

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