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# Guidelines & Recommended Practices

## Selection of Artificial Lift Systems for Deliquifying Gas Wells

Annex 1 Use of the Vogel IPR Curve
This section discusses use of the Vogel Inflow Performance Relationship (IPR) curve for gas wells producing water or oil/condensate. The Vogel IPR curve was originally developed for oil wells producing from solution gas drive reservoirs. As the Static Reservoir Pressure (P r) falls below the Bubble Point Pressure (Pb), gas starts to come out of solution in the reservoir. This free gas reduces the relative permeability and inflow capacity for oil. Thus, the unit inflow rate of oil per unit pressure drop in the Flowing BottomHole Pressure (Pwf) reduces as the drawdown (Pr Pwf) increases. Although the Vogel IPR was developed for oil wells producing from solution gas drive reservoirs, it has been found to work reasonably well for gas wells. For a more detailed discussion of inflow performance for gas wells, see Section 4.3 of Gas Well Deliquification, Second Edition. Vogels IPR equation is: Qw / Qmax = 1.0 0.2 (Pwf/Pr) 0.8 (Pwf/Pr)2 Qw Qmax Pwf Pr (1)

The oil production rate at any Flowing Bottom-Hole Pressure P w The maximum possible oil production rate at Pw = 0.0 The Flowing Bottom-Hole Pressure, expressed in Psig. The current value of the Static Reservoir Pressure, in Psig.

Values of Qw and Pwf can be measured by performing a well test (Q wf) and associated flowing bottom-hole pressure measurement. The value of P r can be measured with a static bottom-hole pressure measurement. The equation can be rearranged to calculate Qmax as shown in Equation 2. Qmax = Qwf / (1.0 0.2 (Pwf/Pr) 0.8 (Pwf/Pr)2) (2)

Once Qmax has been calculated, Q w can be calculated for any P wf using Equation 3. Qw = Qmax * (1.0 0.2 (Pwf/Pr) 0.8 (Pwf/Pr)2) (3)

For many gas wells, the liquid produced is water, not oil or condensate. A reasonable approximation for water production at any flowing bottom-hole pressure can be found from equation 4.

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## Qw = Qmax * (1.0 0.2 (Pwf/Pr) 0.8 (Pwf/Pf)2) Qw Pwf Qmax Pwf Pr

(4)

The water production rate at any Flowing Bottom-Hole Pressure The maximum possible water production rate at P wf = 0.0 The Flowing Bottom-Hole Pressure The current value of the Static Reservoir Pressure

If the wells gas/water producing ratio (GWR) is known, the gas rate can be estimated for any particular water production rate with equation 5. Qg = Qw * GWR Qg Qw GWR Estimated gas production rate Estimated water production rate Gas/water ratio (5)

Figure 1 shows the Vogel IPR curve when the Static Reservoir Pressure is below the Bubble Point Pressure. Figure 1
Typical Vogel IPR Curve

## Selection of Artificial Lift Systems for Deliquifying Gas Wells

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If the Reservoir Pressure is above the Bubble Point Pressure, the IPR graph looks as shown in Figure 2. Figure 2
Vogel IPR Curve when Reservoir Pressure is above Bubble Point

Pr Pbp

Qmax

In this case, the relationship when the Reservoir Pressure is above the Bubble Point Pressure is a straight-line Productivity Index (PI) line. Above the Bubble Point Pressure, Equation 6 is used to calculate the PI. PI = Qw / (Pr Pwf) PI Qwf Pr Pwf Productivity index Production rate on well test Static reservoir pressure Flowing bottom-hole pressure (6)

The flow rate when the Flowing Bottom-Hole Pressure is equal to the Bubble Point Pressure is: Qbp = PI * (Pr Pbp) (7)

Then, if the Flowing Bottom-Hole Pressure is below the Bubble Point Pressure, (Qw Qbp) / (Qmax + Qbp)= 1.0 0.2 (Pwf/Pr) 0.8(Pwf/Pr)2 And this can be solved for Qw: (8)

Selection of Artificial Lift Systems for Deliquifying Gas Wells Qw = Qbp + (Qmax + Qbp) * (1.0 0.2 (Pwf/Pr) 0.8(Pwf/Pr)2)

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