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M. F. Abdulla C. P. Ravikumar Anshul Kumar Department of Computer Department of Department of Computer Science and Engineering Electrical Engineering Science and Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016, INDIA Abstract

We propose an improved BIST architecture which supports on-chip comparison of signatures at no significant increase in area. The BILBO-based BIST architecture, used popularly in application-specific integrated circuits, suffers from two disadvantages. First, the initialization of the BILBO registers and the scanning out of the signatures are slow processes due to the sequential nature of these steps. Second, the test application time in a BILBO-based architecture does not depend on whether or not the circuit is faulty. It is typical to organize the testing procedure into one or more test sessions. In each test session, one or more functional modules are tested by applying pseudo-random test patterns. The responses of the functional modules are compressed into signatures which are captured into signature registers. Since the signature of the circuit is compared outside the chip, the test application must continue irrespective of whether or not a fault was detected in the middle of the testing process. More seriously, aliasing errors may result when a single signature is used and testing continues in spite of one or more faulty responses. The test architecture proposed in this paper is able to improve the above situation by performing on-chip signature check. Thus, we allow testing and signature comparison to occur concurrently. We show that such a test method can give rise to significant reduction in test application time. session, without using too many BILBOs has recently been investigated [3]. BILBO-BIST architectures suffer from two limitations.

1.1

The time required to scan in an initialization pattern into a BILBO register and the time required to scan out the signature from a BILBO register depend on the position of the BILBO register in the scan path. As a result, these two steps may require a large number of clock cycles. Let R\, i?2> , Rk be the BILBO registers included in the scan path, and let n\, n^, , n,k be the lengths of these registers. The worst case of initialization occurs when Rk is to be initialized, requiring Y2%=i ni clock cycles. The initialization may have to be repeated for each test session. The same problem occurs when the signature in R\ is to be scanned out. The total number of clock cycles spent in initializing BILBO registers in a test session is given by

(1)

Introduction

Built-in Logic Block Observation (BILBO) introduced in [1] is a popular technique to achieve Builtin Test capability in modern-day VLSI systems. The BILBO-BIST methodology relies on pseudo-random testing of functional modules. Some of the registers which form a part of the data path, are implemented as BILBO registers. A BILBO register serves as a parallel-in parallel-out register during normal operation; in the test mode, a BILBO can be configured into a pseudo-random pattern generator (PRPG), a multiple-input signature register (MISR), or a serialin serial-out shift register. Chip testing is divided into one or more test sessions [2, 3, 4, 5]. In each test session, one or more functional modules are tested. Thus, each functional module must be part of a test embedding [2] during at least one test session. The problem of minimizing the test application time by concurrently testing as many modules as possible during each test

where Ri is the highest indexed register during the test session. Similarly, the total number of clock cycles required to scan out the signatures during a test session is given by T,igout = Y^-L nt where RL is the least indexed MISR during the test session. 1.2 Long test application time and aliasing Since BIST techniques rely on pseudo-random testing, a large number of test patterns are required to provide adequate fault coverage in testing any functional module. Let Tm be the number of test vectors required to test module m. It may be the case that the application of 7/ << Tm initial paterns are sufficient to detect a fault /. Since the purpose of testing is to reject a faulty chip, it would seem logical to stop the testing process as soon as a fault is detected. However, the BILBO-BIST test architecture continues the testing process, oblivious of a faulty response having been generated. Apart from an increase in test application time, a more serious problem is posed by not terminating the test process. Since a fault / may be detected by more than one test vector, and since the output

57

9th International Conference on VLSI Design January 1996

signature may remain unaffected in these multiple detections, it may turn out that the fault / goes undetected in the final compressed signature. This problem is called aliasing due to multiple detection [4, 6, 7].

Responses

Partial Signattires

Let m be a functional module and let vi, v2, , VN be a sequence of test vectors applied to m. Let ri, r2, , rjv be the response of m to this input sequence. Assume that the responses of m are compacted into a signature in a signature register S. Let Si,S2,- , SN be the contents of the signature register when the input sequence v\, v%, , VN is applied. SN for a good circuit is known as its golden signature; the circuit under test is declared faulty if its signature is different from the golden signature. We shall refer to Si, 1 < i < N as partial signatures of module m; we can also talk of golden partial signature in the same spirit. We shall refer to the golden partial signature corresponding to the input sequence ^i, ^2, -s, Vi as G,-. A fault / in module m can render one or more responses rj to be different from the correct responses. As a result, one or more partial signatures of module m are different from the golden partial signatures. Aliasing is said to have occurred if SN matches with the golden signature of the faulty module, though one or more partial signatures Sj may be different from the corresponding golden partial signatures. Aliasing can be reduced by comparing some partial signatures with the corresponding golden partial signatures. This concept is referred to as multiple signature checking. Here the circuit under test is declared as faulty if there exists at least one partial signature Si which does not match with the corresponding partial golden signature G,-. The idea of multiple signature checking has been known but has not been put in practice [8]. There are two practical difficulties in implementing multiple signature checking. If the signature comparison must take place off-chip, there is a sharp rise in the test application time since the partial signatures have to be shifted out during the test process. On-chip comparison of the partial signatures is impractical since that will require on-chip storage of the golden partial signatures. We now present a novel implementation of multiple signature checking suitable for BIST environment. 2.1 Check Points for Partial Signatures The number of pseudo-random test vectors, N, is large (103 < AT < 107) for functional modules such as adders, multipliers, and ALUs used in data paths [5]. On examing these vectors, we have observed that, interestingly, there are several instances i such that r,- = Gi_i. In other words, the response of the good circuit for input v* is identical to the golden partial signature of the circuit for the input sequence V\,V2,- ,Vi-\. We refer to such an instance i as a check point CP{. See Figure 1. We denote by jm as the set of all check points of a module m.

7m

Figure 2: Self-Checking BILBO Availability of these nearly free check points is the key to our BIST scheme. Lemma 1 An error in output response rj at time ti followed by an error in output response rj+h at time ti+h may have no effect on the signature of a parallel signature analyzer causing aliasing. Introduction of multiple check points reduces aliasing. If a check point falls between the instances of erroneous responses, it is bound to reveal the fault which may otherwise go undetected, leading to aliasing. This result is stated as the following lemma. Lemma 2 //, at time instance ti, the partial signature Si 7^ Gi, and r,-+/, is the earliest next faulty response, then a check point CPi+k 0 < k < h, must be faulty check point. Proof: Assume that the check point at fj+fc is not a faulty check point i.e. n+k = Si+k-i- Further Ri+k is a correct response by assumption. Therefore, the partial signature Si+k-i = Gi+k-i for all 0 < k < h (by Lemma 1). But we have a contradiction for k = 1.

= {CPAn = Gi-X}

(2)

Self-Checking BILBO

A check point CPi will be called a faulty check point if Tj ^ Si-1. There must be at least one faulty check point to declare that the circuit under test is faulty.

We propose a modification to the BILBO-BIST test architecture [1, 2] to implement multiple signature checking. A modified form of a BILBO, known as the

58

1 1 1 0 0 0

B

0 1 1 1 0 0

c

X 0 1 0 0 1

MODE Normal Mode MISR With bypass Signature Check PRPG With bypass Halt With bypass Serial Scan In-

"Self Checking BILBO" (SC-BILBO) is shown in Figure 2. There are 6 modes of operation of an SC-BILBO, as illustrated in Table 1. The three control inputs to the SC-BILBO, namely A,B,and C determine the mode in which the SC-BILBO is configured. In the "Signature Check" mode, the SC-BILBO functions as an MISR and concurrently checks for a faulty check point. As we will explain later, the error signal can be bypassed to a primary output pin of the chip where it can be observed by an external control circuit. The control circuit monitors the error signal and declares the chip as faulty if a faulty check point is observed.

,T

ni * in ni j required test length

Figure 4: Test Sessions for the Example there are k SC-BILBOs Ri, R2, , Rk in a scan chain, we can initialize Ri by configuring Ri, R%, , R4-1 in the "Halt-with-bypass" mode and Ri in the Serial Scan-in" mode. Thus Ri can be initialized in only n,clock cycles. Let P be the set of registers used in test session; then the total time for initialization of the test session is given by J2R.P " Compare this with the total time in a conventional BILBO-BIST architecture (see Equation 1). When compared to Equation 1, the saving in clock cycles required to shift out the signature of the CUT is significant in the SC-BILBO architecture, since no clock cycles are expended for the purpose in the the latter. The modes "MISR with bypass" and "PRPG with bypass" of the SC-BILBO allow concurrent testing and checking to take place. In Figure 3, we illustrate an example where registers i?i, R2 and R3 may be configured as PRPG with bypass mode. The register R4 is configured as a signature check mode. Register R5 is configured as MISR with bypass mode. Thus the error signal from R4 is available at SOutr we can reconfigure R4 as an MISR with bypass mode and i?5 in Self Checking mode to observe the error signal from R5.

3.1

Implementation of Checker

The checker circuit compares the response at time t{ with the partial signature at time ,_i and outputs an error signal Si-i # rt. A straight-forward implementation of the checker circuit will need an equality comparator consisting of a sequence of n XOR gates for an n-bit MISR, and an ra-input OR gate to generate the equality detection signal. However, noting that the scheme presented in the previous section is equally valid when we use a function of r,-, in place of r,- itself for defining check points and comparing signature we can use the XOR gates which are already part of the conventional BILBO to serve as the checker. This is illustrated in Figure 2. The n 1 XOR gates compare the respose bits Zn-i,Zn-2,- ,Zi with the flip-flop outputs / , fn-i, 'j/b- An additional XOR gate is required to compare /i and Zn. An n-input OR gate will be required to ganerate the error signal. The checker circuit of SC-BILBO checks for a faulty bit in the partial signature 5,-.

fn,fn-i, -,/2- Therefore a check point will occur when r,- = rotateright(Gi-i) i.e. the response r,- is equal to the value of the golden signature (7,_i rotated to the right by one bit position.

Test Sessions

While the SC-BILBO can be configured to function as a PRPG or MISR, the input line of the register Sin can be concurrently made available at Sout without affecting the functionality of the SC-BILBO. An additional multiplexer (shown in Figure 2) is required for this bypass mode of operation. The SC-BILBO can also be configured in a "Halt with bypass" mode, where the clock is inhibited to the flip-flops. The Halt-withbypass mode is useful in initializing an SC-BILBO. If

Consider a test session in which several modules mi,m2,- ,ms are tested concurrently. Let the test length required to test m,- be /,-. The minimum testing time T required for the whole session is equal to the longest of the /,-. That is T > max(li). Secondly for each module m< there should be a final check point at instant Q such that /, < C< < T. Figure 4 shows a test session with 3 modules being tested concurrently. We also want check points of one module not to overlap with check points of the other modules in the same test session so that all modules except for that which has reached a check point can be put in bypass mode. The module which reaches the check point can be then accessed easily. In view of these requirements, we need

59

Table 2: CPL and # of check points for an 8-bit adder. Entry 0,1,5,8 corresponds to CPL 1 + x1 + x5 + xs. Check points in test patterns Characteristic Polynomial* 1-2500 2501-5000 5001-7500 10 11 25 0,1,2,4,5,8 18 10 12 0,4,5,6,8 17 7 15 0,2,3,4,7,8 18 6 12 0,2,6,8 18 7 9 0,1,4,8 17 6 6 0,1,6,7,8 15 12 12 0,1,2,7,8 some flexibility in placing the check points. This flexibility is indeed available, by virtue of the following observations. L e m m a 3 The time instances of all the check points in the set 7TO of module m can be shifted ^h clock cycles, by changing the initialization values vi and Si of the pattern generator and the signature register respectively to ift and S\h respectively. Proof: Let vi, 2, , vjv be a sequence of test vectors and Si, S2, , 5JV be the contents of signature register when the input sequence is applied. Let CP( be a test point occurs at the time instant i. If the pattern generator and the signature register are initialized to t>i+fc and S\+k respectively then the sequence of the test vect o r s w i l l b e n o v r y i + k , v x + i e + i , , v N , v N + 1 , , v N + k

Table 3: CPL and # of check points for a 4-bit multiplier Characteristic Polynomial 0,1,3,4,6,8 0,1,7,8 0,1,3,6,7,8 0,1,5,7,8 0,4,7,8 0,2,5,6,7,8 Check points in test patterns 1-65 66-130

1 1 1 2 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 2

shown that the output response sequence of some functional units contains golden signatures required for onchip multiple signature check. The simulation results show that there are a sufficient number of check points distributed throughout the test sequence length. This helps in reducing the aliasing considerably. We have proposed a modification to the BILBOBIST test architecture, where the XOR gates which are already part of the conventional BILBO can be used to serve as the checker, hence allowing testing and signature comparison to occur concurrently.

References

[1] B. Konemann et al. Built-in test for complex digital integrated circuits. IEEE Jl. of Sol. St. Cir., SC15(3):315-318, Jun 1980. [2] M. Abromovici et al. Digital Systems Testing and Testable Design. W.H. Freeman and Company, New York, 1990. [3] S-P. Lin et al. Generating a family of testable designs using the BILBO methodology. JETTA, 4:7189, Apr 1993. [4] E. J. McCluskey. Built-in self-test techniques. IEEE Des. and Test of Com., pp. 21-36, Apr 1985. [5] T. W. Williams and K. P. Parker. Design for testability - a survey. IEEE Trans. On Comp., C31(1):2-15, Jan 1982. [6] V. D. Agrawal et al. A tutorial on built-in self-test: Principles. IEEE Des. and Test of Comp., pp. 7 3 82, March 1993. [7] V. D. Agrawal et al. A tutorial on built-in self-test: Applications. IEEE Des. and Test of Comp., pp. 69-77, Jun 1993. [8] D. Lambidonis et al. A quasi-optimal scheduling of intermediate signatures for multiple signature analysis compaction testing scheme. JETTA, 6:75-84, Jun 1995. [9] Veriwell Corp. Veriwell/SPARC Simulator. Available through Anonymous ftp, 1994.

and the partial signatures in the signature register are Si+fc, Si+fc+i, , SN, , Sx+k- Since, the changing of initialization values of the PRPG and MISR, are the same and occur simultaneously, every test vector and partial signature is shifted by the same amount k, therefore any check point will also be shifted by the same amount k.

Experimental Results

We verified the concepts presented in the previous section through behavioral simulation carried out using a Verilog simulator [9]. We used part of the example given in Figure 3. Results are shown for test session 1 (Table 2) where # 2 , ^ 3 are configured as PRPG with bypass mode, and R5 is configured in signature checking mode. We assume that all registers are 8-bit wide, and that the functional modules deal with 8-bit unsigned numbers. We were interested in the number of check points seen during a simulation of the circuit for a reasonably large number of clock cycles. Table 3 shows the results of simulation of a 4-bit multiplier. We were also interested in the relation of the characteristic polynomial (CPL) of the signature register to the number of check points observed (Tables 2 and 3).

We have proposed a novel BIST structure called Self-Check BILBO (SC-BILBO) which performs Onchip multiple signature check and allows testing and signature comparison to occur concurrently. We have

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