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Title: Kinetic Studies and Reactor Modeling of Single Step H2 S Removal Using Chelated Iron Solution Authors: A. Karimi, A. Tavassoli, B. Nasernezhad PII: DOI: Reference: To appear in: Received date: Revised date: Accepted date: 20-5-2009 7-11-2009 21-11-2009 S0263-8762(09)00307-4 doi:10.1016/j.cherd.2009.11.014 CHERD 415

Please cite this article as: Karimi, A., Tavassoli, A., Nasernezhad, B., Kinetic Studies and Reactor Modeling of Single Step H2 S Removal Using Chelated Iron Solution, Chemical Engineering Research and Design (2008), doi:10.1016/j.cherd.2009.11.014 This is a PDF le of an unedited manuscript that has been accepted for publication. As a service to our customers we are providing this early version of the manuscript. The manuscript will undergo copyediting, typesetting, and review of the resulting proof before it is published in its nal form. Please note that during the production process errors may be discovered which could affect the content, and all legal disclaimers that apply to the journal pertain.

*Manuscript

Kinetic Studies and Reactor Modeling of Single Step H2S Removal Using Chelated Iron Solution
A. Karimi1, A. Tavassoli1, B. Nasernezhad2 1 Gas Research Division, Research Institute of petroleum industry (RIPI) karimial@ripi.ir 2 Chemical Engineering Department, Amir Kabir University Abstract

Airlift reactor concept was used for hydrogen sulfide removal from acid gases using

were determined and finally, an Autosweet program was developed for design and

and products with time, the required time to achieve steady state conditions, concentration profiles of two phases at steady state and volume of the reactor in absorption and regeneration sections can be calculated based on implemented model in this study. Comparison of theoretical and experimental results shows a good agreement and justifies the model. Based on the model as a second stage of project, a 1 m3 prototype reactor was designed and constructed at NIOC research institute. Keywords: kinetics, modeling, airlift, chelated iron, hydrogen sulfide

Liquid phase oxidation process using iron chelate catalytic solution (LOCAT) has been employed for treatment of acid gas streams. However, the process was identified economical for up to 850-1050 kg/hr of sulfur production, although much larger systems have been installed [1]. Advantages of these systems include the ability to treat both aerobic and non-aerobic gas streams, high H2S removal

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Introduction

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1

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simulation of the reactor. Variations of the concentration profiles of the reactants

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chelated iron solution. Rate equations for absorption and regeneration reactions

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Page 1 of 23

efficiencies, great flexibility; essentially 100% turndown on H2S concentration in feedstock, and quality and the production of innocuous products and byproducts. The two most common processing schemes encountered in these systems are named "Conventional" and "Autocirculation". The first one is employed for processing gas streams, which are either combustible or cannot be contaminated with air. Here, absorption and regeneration reactions occur in separate vessels. The second one is

which both absorption and regeneration reactions are carried out in a single vessel according to the following equations respectively:
H 2S 2Fe 3 2Fe 2 S 2H

us

cr

used for processing acid gas streams (CO2 and H2S) or noncombustible streams in

H 2 O 2Fe2

1 O2 2

2Fe3

an
2

2OH

The overall reaction is the reaction given in equation (3):

The autocircualtion scheme of the reactor is illustrated in Fig. 1. The reactor consists of three main zones; riser, downcomer and gas-liquid separator. In riser both absorption and regeneration reactions take place. In the initial section of the riser, in which the reaction of equation (1) occurs, acid gas is sparged and absorbed into a catalytic solution. Then, the solution flows in regeneration section in which air is sparged where the reaction of equation (2) occurs. The solution circulates due to density difference created between riser and downcomer zones. As seen in Fig. 1, the two spargers for acid gas and air are placed in an appropriate flexible distance to each other. The regenerated catalytic solution re-enters to the riser absorption zone due to the presence of the natural circulation.

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H 2S

1 O2 2

H 2 O S

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(1) (2) (3)
Page 2 of 23

In comparison with the conventional scheme, the unique feature of the autocirculation reactor is that no pumps are required to circulate solution between absorber and oxidizer. Therefore, these are generally less expensive units with few operational problems related to sulfur plugging than usually reported for the other scheme. However, due to presence of oxygen and sulfide ions, these units may produce more byproducts.

pressure distribution and bubble diameter were determined in another work [2]. The main objective of this paper is to determine reaction kinetic parameters for both absorption and regeneration reactions and then presenting a model to simulate the reactor behavior using airlift reactor concept which is commonly used for

In fact, a little information concerning kinetic data has been revealed in the

soon as H2S reaches to interface plane, the absorption reaction takes place between

imply an appropriate model interpreting the experimental data is very important for determination of rate constant and the other required parameters. In addition the

investigations commonly confirm that the regeneration reaction can be considered first order with respect to the oxygen concentration, [4, 5, 6] but there are different information can be found regarding the order of reaction with respect to the chelated iron II concentration. For example, Sada et al. reported this order equal to 0.536 [4], however, the other investigators reported it to be mostly equal one and two [5].

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literature shows a great controversy regarding kinetics parameters. The

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two phases [3]. The method of how to measure the kinetics parameters and how to

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literature. The absorption reaction between H2S and catalytic solution is fast and as

M
3

fermentation or bio-reactions.

an

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Hydrodynamic parameters of this scheme such as gas hold up, liquid velocity,

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Page 3 of 23

Reviewing some papers shows that the order varies between one and two when pH and concentration of chelated iron solution change. Here, an experimental investigation is performed to determine rate equations for
RIPI20*, iron chelate catalytic solution (i.e. Fe-EDTA complex), and a model is

developed to predict variations of the concentration of the reactants and products with time. The Autosweet program is also developed to estimate the time needed

volume of the reactor needed to take place the absorption and regeneration reactions within the safe zone operation and for a given condition. Experimental data obtained from a bench scale reactor are in a good agreement with simulated reactor using the program.

Experimental Setup

Kinetic experiments were carried out in a glass reactor illustrated in Fig. 2. The reactor has 10 cm diameter and 20 cm height in which gas and liquid can be

the bulk of gas and liquid on the agitator shaft.

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contacted. Both phases are well mixed via two impellers located at two positions in The agitator speed in all

experiments is constant and equal to 300 rpm. Six baffles, 1 cm in width, are placed symmetrically to avoid the formation of vortex inside the reactor and make agitation to take place completely. Variations of iron concentration and dissolved oxygen in liquid phase are measured and saved using an oxidation-reduction probe (ORP) and a DO electrode. Depending Variations of iron concentration and dissolved oxygen in liquid phase are measured and saved using an oxidation-reduction probe (ORP) and a DO electrode. Depending on the purpose of experiment the electrodes are connected to a PentiumII personal
* RIPI20 is formulated by RIPI

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4

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Page 4 of 23

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to steady state conditions, concentration profile of two phases at steady state and

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computer for data acquisition. Containers, V2, V3 and V4, are dry nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide and air cylinders, respectively. A vacuum pump is used for evacuation of the reactor and charging the catalytic solution from container V6. Off gases from the reactor can be gathered in vessel V5.

The reaction mechanism is as follows:


H 2S(g ) H 2 O ( L) H 2 S ( aq) H 2 O (L)

cr us
(7)

H2S(aq)
HS

HS
S 2Fe2 H

Equations (4) and (5) represent the absorption of H2S into the aqueous chelated iron

the sulfide ions to elemental sulfur and the accompanying reduction of the ferric

Writing the intrinsic rate equation in the power form yields:


rH 2S dC H 2S dt

equation, absorption rate of H2S in liquid phase is related to the gas phase pressure[4]:

J H 2S .a.VL

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The aim here is to determine values of n1, m1 and K1. According to the following

ce pt

K 1C H 2S 1 . C Fe 3

dPH 2S VG .( ) R.T dt

ed

iron to the ferrous state. The overall absorption reaction follows equation (1).

m1

solution and its subsequent ionization, while equation (6) represents the oxidation of

an

2Fe3

The rate of absorption of H2S per unit of gas-liquid interface, J H 2S , is given as[7]:

J H2S

K L .E H2S .(C H2S,i

C H2S )

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(4) (5) (6) (8) (9)
Page 5 of 23

Absorption reaction kinetics

Where K L the liquid-side mass-transfer cofficient, C H 2S,i the liquidside interfacial H2S concentration and C H 2S the concentration of H2S in the liquid bulk (i.e., x with x the distance from the gas-liquid interfac) and for fast reaction C H 2S
0 . Also

the enhancement factor E H 2S is the result of chemical reaction[7]. In chemically enhanced reaction regim E H 2S can be defined as [5]:

cr an ed M
m1

E H 2S

Ha

D.K 1 .C Fe 3 KL
2

m1

Since the solubility of H2S in the catalytic solution is relatively high, so it is assumed that concentration of H2S at interface is equal to its solubility:
C H 2S , i C* H 2S PH 2S He

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C*H2S is equilibrium concentration of H2S in solution and He is Henrys law constant. Combination of above equation results:

dPH2S dt
0 PH 2S

VL .R.T .K L .a.E H2S .PH2S VG .He

ln

ce pt

PH 2S

VL .R.T .K L .a.E H 2S .t VG .He

Substitution of equation (10) in equation (12) gives:

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dPH 2S

PH 2S

VL .R.T .a. D.K 1 .C Fe 3 VG .He

.dt

Determination of n1:

In this experiment a high concentration of chelated iron solution

about 10000 ppm is prepared. Thus, variations of the iron concentration can be neglected. First of all, the glass reactor is evacuated and 700 cm3 of the 10000 ppm of RIPI20 catalytic solution is charged inside the reactor. A little dry sulfur is added on the liquid surface to avoid further contacts between gas and liquid before starting

ip t
(10) (11) (12) (13) (14)
Page 6 of 23

the experiment and data recording. Then, H2S is fed into the reactor and variations of the gas pressure inside the reactor is recorded with time for a given condition. Linear trend of the data in Fig. 3 indicates that the absorption reaction is first order with respect to the hydrogen sulfide concentration. Also plot of ln
0 PH 2S

PH 2S

independent of PH 2S and the reaction is first order in H2S[8].


Determination of m1:

During the experimental tests the pressure of the gas phase is

concentration in excess. 700 cm3 of 2000 ppm of RIPI20 catalytic solution is charged into the reactor and dry sulfur powder is added to the contact area inside the reactor. Then agitator is turned on and data recording is started. Fig. 4 shows the results of the experiment. Linear trend of the data indicates that absorption reaction is first order as a function of the chelated iron III concentration[9]. According to equation (10), the enhancement factor for H2S is plotted respect to concentration of chelated iron III solution in Fig. 5. The slope of the line is equal to m1 [8]. This quantity is equal 0.53, which confirms that the reaction is first order
2

with respect to the chelated iron III concentration.


Determination of K1: In

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and none of them is excess. The reaction is started with a 2000 ppm of RIPI20 catalytic solution with H2S initial pressure equals to 46.7 millibar. Using equation (14), the data are analyzed to determine rate constant and finally the rate equation for absorption of H2S in chelated iron solution at pH=8-10 and for T=22 oC can be derived as follows:

ce pt

this step, variations of both reactants are measured with time

ed

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7

an

kept constant and high value via continuous injection of H2S in order to maintain its

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cr

intercept from the y-axis is zero, then according to equation (13), E H 2S is

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Page 7 of 23

vs. time as shown in Fig. 3 turns out to be linear and its

rH 2S

dC H 2S dt

k ab .C H 2S .C Fe 3 , k ab

16 .815 ( time

concentration 1 )

(15)

Regeneration reaction kinetics:


Reaction mechanism is considered as follows:
H 2 O (L) H 2 O ( L)

Using isolation method, in each step concentration of one of the reactants is

investigated.
Determination of n2: The

reactor is evacuated and 700ml of chelated iron II is fed

into it. Then, pure oxygen is injected to the system up to a known pressure and variations of oxygen pressure with time is recorded. In Fig.6 variations of
Ln
0 PO 2

PO 2

and slope of 0.0025 indicates that regeneration reaction is first order with respect to the dissolved oxygen concentration[10].
Determination of m2:

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and variations of concentration of iron II with time is recorded. The gas phase with a high flow rate is charged into the reactor through a gas sparger. Fig. 7 shows a

ce pt

is plotted versus time. The straight line with correlation factor of 0.992

In this experiment, concentration of dissolved oxygen is excess

ed

considered to be high and variations of concentration of the other one is

an

rFe 2

dC Fe 2 dt

n2 2 K 2 .C O .C m Fe 2 2

us

Considering power form for the intrinsic rate equation yields:

cr

1 O2 2 ( aq)

2Fe2

H 2O

2Fe3

2OH

ip t
(16) (17) (18)
Page 8 of 23

1 O2 2 (g )

1 O2 2 ( aq)

linear trend for variations of

1 C Fe 2

, which indicates that the reaction is second order

with respect to the chelated iron II concentration[9]. According to the Fig. 8, slope of the curve log
C2 Fe C O2

versus log

rFe 2 C O2

(i.e. 1.9933)

shows the order of the reaction with respect to the chelated iron II concentration. This expresses that order of 2 is correct again[9].
Determination of K2: In

this step, variations of both reactants are measured with time

0.0185. Using this slope the rate constant can be calculated. The experiment is repeated for different temperatures and the results are plotted in Fig. 10. Activation energy, Arrhenius constant and rate constant for regeneration reaction can be estimated as follow:

Ko

381 .7 m 6 / mol 2 .s and E a

Kinetic model

By applying mass balance equations for two elements in absorption and

equations with them, concentration profiles of the H2S and iron II are determined. For this purpose, it is necessary that mentioned equations are coupled with hydrodynamic model results determined in previous work. In this way, required height for complete absorption of H2S and regeneration of reacted iron II will be determined. Following assumptions are considered in regeneration section:

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regeneration sections respectively and combination of resulted intrinsic rate

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ed

K2

Koe

Ea RT

an

us

and none of them is excess. Fig. 9 shows that the slope of the resultant line is

cr

25 .159 kJ / mol

ip t
(19)
Page 9 of 23

1) Negligible changes in gas phase composition due to high flow rate of the air injected. 2) The mass transfer of oxygen from gas to liquid phase as a ratelimiting step. 3) Negligible axial dispersion. Several experiments were carried out to correlate variations of volumetric mass

Absorption section:

An element of the absorption section is illustrated in Fig. 11.

Consideration of mass balance for gas and liquid phases around the element yields following equations respectively [11]:
Qg P dYH2S RT
P dYH 2S RT

K g .a.P(YH 2S

* YH ).A.dx 2S

an
0
0

us

cr

transfer coefficient with gas flow rate in the reactor[2,6]

Qg

E.K L .a (C * H 2S

C H 2S ).A.dx

ed

Q L dCH2S

(1

).b1 .rH2S .A.dx

In which, rH2S is intrinsic rate equation of absorption reaction. In equation (21), E is enhancement factor and in the industrial process, theoretically the relation of E and C Fe 3 depends on the regime of mass transfer with reaction that occurs and

istaneous reaction may well explain the results observed and can be calculated from the following relation [5,10]:
E 1 D Fe 3 ,L .C Fe 3 b1 .D H 2S,L .C* H 2S

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diffusion of the reactive components. E relates proportionally to C Fe 3

ce pt

Here, b1 is the stochiometric coefficient of the absorption reaction.


Regeneration section:

Mass balance for liquid phase around the element in

regeneration section results the following equation:

10

ip t
(20) (21) (22) and an (23)
Page 10 of 23

D Fe 2

dC Fe 2
,L

dx 2

(1

).A.dx Q L dC Fe 2

(1

).b 2 .rFe 2 .A.dx

(24)

Assuming negligible axial dispersion, the first term will be omitted. Here, rFe2+ is intrinsic rate equation for regeneration reaction.
rFe 2 dC Fe 2 dt K 2 .C O 2 C 2 Fe 2

(25)

RT

to liquid phase; therefore the rate of oxygen transfer per unit volume of the dispersed phase is as below:
rFe 2 K L .a. [( C O 2 ) i (C O 2 ) o ]

In which reaction is:


rFe 2

is the effectiveness factor. The final rate equation for regeneration

dC Fe 2 dt

ed

Autosweet Program

Autosweet program was prepared to predict overall performance of the reactor and safe operating zone in both sections for a given condition. To solve above equations, some hydrodynamic parameters such as gas holdup, liquid velocity, pressure distribution, bubble diameter are required. These parameters were investigated in simultaneous work of the author [2].

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Using determined rate equations for absorption and regeneration sections,

ce pt

4 * K reg .( C O 2 ) i

1 K 2 .C 2 Fe 2

K 2 .C O 2 C 2 Fe 2

an
1 K L .a

us

Regeneration reaction is limited to the rate of mass transfer of the oxygen from gas

cr

K2

m6 381.7( ) exp( mol2 .s

25.159(

kJ ) mol )

11

ip t
(26) (27) (28)
Page 11 of 23

In absorption section, the required height for complete absorption of H2S (safe operating zone) and concentration profile of two phases at steady and unsteady state are determined through simultaneous solution of equations (20) and (22). In regeneration section, equations (24) and (27) are solved simultaneously to determine concentration profile and percentage of conversion at both steady and unsteady sates.
Simulation of reactor and comparison of results:

from glass with dimensions given in Table 1. Table 2 shows the properties of the catalytic solution, RIPI20, and acid gas used as feedstock. Results of the simulation of the reactor such as concentration profile at steady state, variation of concentration with time, variation of equilibrium concentration with air/H2S ratio and comparison

Figs. (14-1,14-2) respectively. Table 3 shows overall results of simulations and

Conclusion

1- The absorption reaction of hydrogen sulfide by chelated iron III is first order with respect to the both reactants. 2- Regeneration reaction is first order with respect to the dissolved oxygen

3- Comparison of the theoretical and experimental results shows a good agreement and confirms the capability of the model implemented and the Autosweet program.

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concentration and is second order with respect to the Chelated iron II concentration, when the concentration of catalytic solution varies between 1000-4000 ppm.

ce pt

ed
12

resulting experiments.

of the theoretical and experimental results are shown in Fig. 12, Figs. (13-1,13-2),

an

us

cr

The experimental reactor is made

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Page 12 of 23

4- The results of this study were used to design a new reactor for H2S removal at RIPI with about 1 m3 capacity and also for optimization of similar reactors in operating units. 5- Application of such reactors for H2S removal is genuine and development of the model is necessary for simulation of larger scale units.

Nomenclatures:
A a b Cross sectional area Interfacial area per unit volume of gas and liquid Stochiometric coefficient m2

C* H 2S
C Fe

an

C H 2S

Concentration of hydrogen sulfide at gas bulk

Concentration of hydrogen sulfide at interface

M
13

Concentration of iron in catalytic solution Concentration of ironat equilibrium

Ceq,Fe

(C O 2 ) i

ed

Concentration of oxygen at interface

ce pt

(C O 2 ) o
D E Ea He Ha J K K1 K2 Kg KL

Initial concentration of oxygen Dispersion coefficient Enhancement factor Activation energy

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Henrys law constant Hatta number Absorption rate Pre-exponential reaction rate constant Absorption rate constant Regeneration rate constan t Gas phase mass transfer coefficient Liquid phase mass transfer coefficient

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mol/m3 mol/m3 mol/m3 mol/ m3 mol/m3 mol/ m3 m2/s kJ/mol Pa.m3/mol mol/s m6/mol2.s m3/mol.s m6/mol2.s m/s m/s

m2/m3

cr
Page 13 of 23

ip t

m,n P Po Qg R

Order of a reactant in reaction Pressure initial value of Pressure for any species Volumetric gas flow rate Gas constant Reaction rate Time Volume of liquid phase Volume of gas phase Distance from gas sparger Effectiveness factor
Average gas holdup at cross section

mol/m2.s Pa Pa m3/s
8.314 J/ mol.k

r
T VL VG Z

mol/s s m3 m3 m -

References

[1] G. Nagl, Removing hydrogen sulfide, Hydrocarbon engineering, 6 (2001) 35-38

Removal Using Chelated Iron Solution: Investigation of hydrodynamic parameters

651.

[3] M. Abedinzadegan, M.R. Jafari Nasr, A mathematical model describing the ARI

Chem.Eng.& Technol., 17 (1994) 141-143. [4] E. Sada, H. Kumazawa, H. Machida, Oxidation Kinetics of FeII EDTA and FeII NTA Chelates by Dissolved Oxygen, Ind. Eng. Res., 26 (1987) 1468-1472. [5] H. J. Wubs, A. A. C. M. Beenackers, Kinetics of the Oxidation of Ferrous Chelates of EDTA and HEDTA in Aqueous Solution, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 32 (1993) 2580-2594.

Ac

Autocirculation reactor for low temperature conversion of H2S into sulfur,

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in an internal loop air lift reactor, I. J. of Sci. & Tech., Trans. B, 28(B6) (2004) 643-

ed

[2] M.A. Jafari nasr, H. Bakhtiyari, A. Karimi, A. Tavasoli, Single Step H2S

M
14

an

us
Page 14 of 23

cr

ip t

[6] A. Karimi, A. Jebreili Jolodar, A. A. RajabPour, H. R. Bakhtiary, Mass transfer study in AUTOCIRCULATION reactor for H2S removal from acid gas streams", Petroleum & Coal, 49 (1) (2007) 27-33. [7] J.F. Demmink, A. A. C. M. Beenackers, Gas desulfurization with ferric chelates EDTA and HEDTA, new model for the oxidative absorption of hydrogen sulfide, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 37 (1998) 1444-1453.

Ferric Solutions of EDTA and HEDTA, AIChE Journal, 40(3) (1994) 433-443. [9] O. Levenspiel, Chemical Reaction Engineering, 2nd Edition, Wiley Eastern University, New York, 1989.

[10] J.F. Demmink, A. A. C. M. Beenackers, Oxidation of Ferrous Nitrilotriacetic

Kinetics, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 36 (1997) 1989-2005.

Publishing Corporation, 1995.

Acknowledgment

The author wish to express his appreciation to RIPI of National Iranian Oil Company (NIOC) for the financial support of this research, project Nos: 71010109,71010112.

Address

Correspondence concerning this paper should be addressed to A. Karimi, Gas research division, Research Institute of Petroleum Industry (RIPI), National Iranian Oil Company (NIOC), West Blvd. Azadi Sport Complex, P. O. Box: 14665-1998, Tehran, Iran

Ac

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[11] A. Gianetto, P.L. Silveston, Multiphase Chemical Reactors, Hemisphere

M
15

Acid with Oxygen: A Model For Oxygen Mass Transfer Parallel to Reaction

an

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cr

[8] H. J. Wubs, A. A. C. M. Beenackers, Kinetics of H2S Absorption into Aqueous

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Page 15 of 23

Tabels and Figures:


Table 1 - Experimental glass reactor dimensions Length (m) Diameter (m) Riser 1.9 0.145 Downcomer Gas-liquid separator 1.8 0.62 0.174 0.25

Table 3 - Overall simulation results


Liquid residence time / s Liquid downcomer velocity /(m/s) Liquid mass velocity / (kg/s) Average gas hold up Steady state oxidation reduction potential / mV

an
BYPASS U-tube manometer V1
D.O .Meter or ORP

33.6

0.175

0.89

0.012%

-101

us
0.03
Agitator

H2S absorption length / m

cr
CFe+2 at the end of absorption zone / ppm

Gas

1.65*10-5

1.3

2 vol.% of H2S in acid gas

266

ce pt

V5

ed

pH electdrode

Ac

Vacuum pump

COMPUTER

IBM PS / 2

Fig.1 - Autocirculation scheme of the reactor.

Fig.2 - Glass reactor for kinetic experiments.

16

ip t
CFe+2 at the end of regeneration zone / ppm

Table 2 - Properties of the catalytic solution, RIPI20 and acid gas used as feedstock Property Viscosity Density Concentration (Pa.s) (kg/m3) Liquid 1.005*10-3 1000 2000 ppm iron chelate

69

N2 V2

H2S V3

Air V4

LIQUID STORAGE TANK

V6

Page 16 of 23

ln

P o H 2S PH 2S

Fig.3 Determination of n1

ln

CFe 3 CFe 3

Ac

ce pt

ed
Fig.4 Determination of m1

M
17

an
Page 17 of 23

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cr

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EH2S

ln

o PO 2

PO 2

Ac

ce pt

ed
Fig.6-Determination of n2.

M
18

an
Page 18 of 23

Fig.5 - Determination of m1using eq.(10),Slope of the line is equal to m1/2=0.5.

us

cr

ip t

/(mol / m3 )

log

C O2

Ac

ce pt

ed
log C Fe 2 CO 2
Fig.8-Determination of m2,Slope of the curve is equal to reaction order [9].

rFe 2

M
19

an
Page 19 of 23

Fig.7-Determination of m2 using the method presented by Levenspiel [9].

us

cr

ip t

CFe2

ln

C Fe 2 C O2

Ac

ce pt

ln (K)

ed
Fig.10-Variation of regeneration reaction rate constant with temperature.

M
20

an
Page 20 of 23

Fig.9 - Rate constant for regeneration reaction at 25oC

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cr

ip t

YA

YA CA

dYA dx dx dCA dx dx
YA e
A (gas )
k2

Qg

YAf

CA

Ql

C Af C Bf
x
T

C Ae

x + dx

C Be

T+

Fig.11-An element of absorption section.

CFe3+/ ppm

Ac

ce pt

Fig.12- Concentration profile along riser at steady state

ed

Fe2+

21

CFe2+/ ppm
Page 21 of 23

Fe3+

an

us

cr

dT dx dx

ip t
Liquid

CB

dC B dx dx

A + zB

CFe2+/ ppm

H2S =0.95 (cm3 / s) AIR=66.21 (cm3 / s) N2=46.35 (cm3 / s)

CFe3+/ ppm

Ac

ce pt

ed

Fig.13-2-Variations of CFe 3+ with time at the end of regeneration section

M
H2S =0.95 (cm3 / s) AIR=66.21 (cm3 / s) N2=46.35 (cm3 / s)

22

an
Page 22 of 23

Fig.13-1-Variations of CFe 2+ with time at the end of regeneration section.

us

cr

ip t

Ceq,Fe2+ / ppm

N2=46.35 (cm3 / s) H2S = 0.95 (cm3 / s)

AIR / H2S Vol. Ratio

volume ratio at feedstock.

ce pt

Ceq,Fe3+ / ppm

Ac

ed
N2=46.35 (cm3 / s) H2S = 0.95 (cm3 / s)

AIR / H2S Vol. Ratio

Fig.14-2-Variations of equilibrium concentration of Fe3+ vs. Air/H2S


volume ratio at feedstock.

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Page 23 of 23

Fig.14-1-Variations of equilibrium concentration of Fe2+ vs. Air/H2S

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