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Unit II: VOLTAGE SAGS AND INTERRUPTIONS

T.Balasubramanian/AP/EEE/P.S.R.E.C

Sources of sags and interruptions Estimating voltage sag performance Motor starting sags Estimating the sag severity Mitigation of voltage sags Active series compensators Static transfer switches and fast transfer switches Part A 1. List the sources of sag and interruptions. Rural location remote from power source Long distance from a distribution transformer with interposed loads Unreliable grid system Power distributors tolerances not suitable for voltage sensitive equipment Switching of heavy loads Unbalanced load on a three phase system

Equipment not suitable for local supply 2. Mention the methods to improve voltage sags in utility system. a. Reduce faults: Tree trimming, tree wire, animal guards, arresters, circuit patrols b. Trip faster : Smaller fuses, instantaneous trip, faster transmission relays c. Support voltage during faults: Raising the nominal voltage, current limiting fuses, larger station transformers, line reactors 3. Define the depth of the voltage dip. The depth of the voltage dip is defined as the difference between the reference voltage and the residual voltage during voltage dip often expressed as a value in volts or as a percentage or per unit value of the reference voltage. 4. Define the duration of the voltage dip. The duration of a voltage dip is the time between the instant at which the voltage at a particular point on a supply system falls below the voltage dip start threshold and the instant at which it rises to the voltage dip end threshold. 5. Explain the area of vulnerability. The concept of an area of vulnerability has been developed to help evaluate the likelihood of sensitive equipment being subjected to voltage lower than its minimum voltage sag ridethrough capability(the minimum voltage magnitude a piece of equipment can withstand or tolerate without misoperation or failure). 6. What are the factors affecting equipment sensitivity to the voltage sag? The Factors affecting equipment sensitivity are specific load type, control settings, and applications. 7. What are the three categories of equipment sensitivity? Equipment sensitive to only the magnitude of voltage sag. Equipment sensitive to both the magnitude and duration of voltage sag. Equipment sensitive to characteristics other than magnitude and duration. 8. What is the use of estimation of voltage sag? The estimation of voltage sag performance is used to determine the need for power conditioning components at sensitive loads in the plant. 9. List the devices used to reduce the voltage sag. a. Ferroresonance Transformer b. Magnetic Synthesizers c. On-line UPS

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d. Stand by UPS e. Hybrid UPS f. Motor-Generator Set g. Super Conducting Magnetic Energy Storage Device. h. End user equipment with suitable specifications. 10. Mention the types of compensations. a. Surge impedance compensation b. Line length compensation c. Compensation by sectioning i. Active compensation ii. Passive Compensation 11. What is STS (Static Transfer Switch)? STS is an electrical device that allows instantaneous transfer of power sources to the load. If one power source fails, the STS switch to back up power source so quickly that the load never recognizes the transfer made. 12. What are the classifications of STS? a. Low Voltage STS ( Upto 600V, 200A-4000A) b. Medium Voltage STS ( 4.16kV 34.5kV) 13. Define about Fast Transfer Switch (FTS). Fast transfer switch is used to obtain the minimal time of switch between two sources of power. This can be achieved by analysing the phase shift between sine waves of two power sources. The components of FTS are, a. Zero detector units b. Phase lock loop systems (PLL). PART B 1. Discuss about the sources of sags and interruption.(16) Voltage sags and interruptions are generally caused by faults (short circuits) on the utility system.

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Fig.2.1: Fault locations on the utility power system.

Fig.2.2: Voltage sag due to a short-circuit fault on a parallel utility feeder.

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Fig.2.3: Utility short-circuit fault event with two fast trip operations of utility line recloser Consider a customer that is supplied from the feeder supplied by circuit breaker 1 on the diagram shown in Fig.2.1. If there is a fault on the same feeder, the customer will experience a voltage-sag during the fault followed by an interruption when the breaker opens to clear the fault. If the fault is temporary in nature, a reclosing operation on the breaker should be successful and the interruption will only be temporary. It will usually require about 5 or 6 cycles for the breaker to operate, during which time a voltage sag occurs. The breaker will remain open for typically a minimum of 12 cycles up to 5 s depending on utility reclosing practices. Sensitive equipment will almost surely trip during this interruption. A much more common event would be a fault on one of the other feeders from the substation, i.e., a fault on a parallel feeder, or a fault somewhere on the transmission system (see the fault locations shown in Fig.2.1). In either of these cases, the customer will experience a voltage-sag during the period that the fault is actually on the system. As soon as breakers open to clear the fault, normal voltage will be restored at the customer. Note that to clear the fault shown on the transmission system, both breakers A and B must operate. Transmission breakers will typically clear a fault in 5 or 6 cycles. In this case there are two lines supplying the distribution substation and only one has a fault. Therefore, customers supplied from the substation should expect to see only a sag and not an interruption. The distribution fault on feeder 4 may be cleared either by the lateral fuse or the breaker, depending on the utilitys fuse saving practice. Any of these fault locations can cause equipment to misoperate in customer facilities. The relative importance of faults on the transmission system and the distribution system will depend on the specific characteristics of the systems (underground versus overhead distribution, lightning flash densities, overhead exposure, etc.) and the sensitivity of the equipment to voltage sags. Figure 2.2 shows the characteristic measured at a customer location on an unfaulted part of the feeder. Figure 2.3 shows the momentary interruption (actually two separate interruptions) observed downline from the fault. The interrupting device in this case was a line recloser that was able to interrupt the fault very quickly in about 2.5 cycles.

2. Explain how the voltage sag performance is estimated? (6) It is important to understand the expected voltage sag performance of the supply system so that facilities can be designed and equipment specifications developed to assure the optimum operation of production facilities. The following is a general procedure for working with industrial customers to assure compatibility between the supply system characteristics and the facility operation: i. Determine the number and characteristics of voltage sags that result from transmission system faults. ii. Determine the number and characteristics of voltage sags that result from distribution system faults (for facilities that are supplied from distribution systems).

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Determine the equipment sensitivity to voltage sags. This will determine the actual performance of the production process based on voltage sag performance calculated in steps 1 and 2. iv. Evaluate the economics of different solutions that could improve the performance, either on the supply system (fewer voltage sags) or within the customer facility (better immunity). 3. Describe the mitigation of voltage sag. (16) There are many solutions to prevent damage due to voltage dips. Typically, these solutions can be categorized into three classes: Solutions in the manufacturing process itself; Solutions between the process and the public electric grid;

iii.

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Solutions in the grid. a. Reduction of the Number of Faults Short circuits cannot be entirely eliminated. The actions taken are: replacing overhead lines with cables; the use of insulated conductors on overhead lines; regular tree cutting in the area of the transmission line; fencing against animals; shielding overhead conductors with additional shield wires; increased insulation levels; increased frequency of overhaul and periodic maintenance, cleaning insulators, etc. b. Reduction of the Fault Clearance Time The duration of a voltage dip is largely determined by the speed at which short circuits are cleared. A necessary feature of short-circuit protection is the graduation of the operating times of switches, fuses, etc., in order to ensure that a short circuit is cleared at the most appropriate point in the supply system. This means that the clearance time and, consequently, the duration of voltage dips and short interruptions depend on the location where the short circuit has occurred. A reduction in fault-clearance time does not mean a decrease in the number of faults but only a mitigation of their effects. It also does not influence the number or the duration of supply interruptions, for the duration depends solely on the speed of voltage recovery. Fast fault clearing does not influence the number of voltage dips, but can significantly reduce their duration. The basic method for reducing fault duration consists of the use of current-limiting fuses. These are capable of clearing a fault in a very short time. Decreasing the short-circuit current and shortening its duration significantly limit the duration of a voltage dip to rarely exceeding one cycle. c. Modification of the Supply System Configuration These operations allow for a reduction in the severity of the phenomenon, but at a high cost, particularly in HV systems. The basic method of preventing voltage dips is to install elements of redundancy, as follows: Installing generators close to sensitive loads. They support the voltage during distant dips. The voltage reduction equals the percentage share of the generator current in the shortcircuit current. Increasing the number of substations and busbars in order to limit the number of customers, who potentially may be affected by the disturbance. Installing current-limiting reactors at strategic points of the system in order to increase electrical distance to the fault. It should, however, be remembered that this action may make a voltage dip deeper for other customers. Supplying sensitive customers busbars from several substations. The effects of a voltage dip on one substation will be reduced by the influence of the others. The more

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independent these substations are, the more effective the measure is. The best reduction effect can be achieved by providing a power supply from two different supplying systems. The second supply increases the number of dips but reduces their duration and depth. d. Voltage Stabilizers A more sophisticated way to eliminate the negative effects of dips is called custom power technology. This technology is mainly based on power electronics and also, on some occasions, electrical energy storage. The most common method for mitigating the effects of the considered disturbances is the use of additional equipment, namely voltage stabilizers. They can be installed on both the suppliers or the customers side but, as experience shows, the customer is the one who much more frequently does it, since the improvement in supply conditions and increasing the equipments immunity are beyond the customers control. These systems can be generally termed as systems of improved power parameters. Two kinds of technical solution can be distinguished: i. Energy storage systems. The stored energy is utilized to supply a critical load during the disturbance. These systems can be used in the case of voltage dips with arbitrary residual voltage, as well as during short supply interruptions. The immunity level of equipment depends on the amount of energy stored and on the energy requirements of the protected process. In many cases the reaction time of the compensation equipment should be considered critical. Since the energy storage process is, as a rule, very costly, it is applied only to particularly sensitive equipment. Examples of energy storage systems are: uninterruptible power supplies (UPSs), superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES), rotating machines with flywheels, motorgenerator systems, etc. ii. Systems having no energy-storing capability. These can only be used to reduce the effects of voltage dips (typically up to a maximum of 50 %) but not of supply interruptions. They differ in depth of the voltage dip, which they are able to compensate. The duration of a dip is not a critical parameter in these systems. Their cost, as a rule, is smaller than that of the energy-storing systems. Example of such solutions are: o Constant voltage transformer (CVT); o Static fast transfer switching (SFTS); o Static generators of the fundamental harmonic currents and voltages. e. Improvement in Equipment Immunity One of the most advantageous solutions, in both technical and economical terms, is the use of equipment of a sufficient immunity level that is adequate for the intended operational environment. This is an effective method which eliminates unwanted disconnections due to voltage dips (short interruptions to a lesser extent). More and more frequently the immunity to a voltage dip of a specified depth and duration becomes the basis of a manufacturers offer, determining its commercial success. The level of compatibility of a sensitive load with the supply network is assessed prior to connection. The possible procedure includes three stages: i. Acquiring information on system operation. That is, the prospective number of voltage dips. There are a number of ways to get such data: contacting the electric power supplier, monitoring the power supply over an extended period of time, analysis of faults, etc. Obtaining credible information requires the measurements to be performed for a long time. An alternative is the use of statistical methods of prediction. ii. Acquiring information on equipment sensitivity. This information can be obtained from the manufacturer, by conducting tests or assuming typical sensitivity

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characteristics. In practice, it frequently happens that the user learns about the limited immunity of the equipment only after installing it. iii. Determination of the potential effect. If the foregoing information is available, thereis the possibility to assess the potential threat of equipment failure (failure rate) and evaluate the economic effect of its occurrence (Section 4.6.1). On that basis a method of proceeding can be chosen: improvement of supply conditions, better (i.e. less sensitive) equipment and application of a stabilizer or acceptance of the existing situation. 4. Discuss the role of Active Series Compensators in power quality improvement.(8) Advances in power electronic technologies and new topologies for these devices have resulted in new options for providing voltage sag ride-through support to critical loads. One of the important new options is a device that can boost the voltage by injecting a voltage in series with the remaining voltage during a voltage sag condition. These are referred to as active series compensation devices. They are available in size ranges from small single-phase devices (1 to 5 kVA) to very large devices that can be applied on the medium-voltage systems (2 MVA and larger).

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Fig 2.4: Active Series Compensator A one-line diagram illustrating the power electronics that are used to achieve the compensation is shown in Fig. 2.4. When a disturbance to the input voltage is detected, a fast switch opens and the power is supplied through the series-connected electronics. This circuit adds or subtracts a voltage signal to the input voltage so that the output voltage remains within a specified tolerance during the disturbance. The switch is very fast so that the disturbance seen by the load is less than a quarter cycle in duration. This is fast enough to avoid problems with almost all sensitive loads. The circuit can provide voltage boosting of about 50 percent, which is sufficient for almost all voltage sag conditions. 5. Write notes on Static transfer switches and Fast transfer switches. There are a number of alternatives for protection of an entire facility that may be sensitive to voltage sags. These include dynamic voltage restorers (DVRs) and UPS systems that use technology similar to the systems described previously but applied at the medium-voltage level. Another alternative that can be applied at either the low-voltage level or the mediumvoltage level is the automatic transfer switch. Automatic transfer switches can be of various technologies, ranging from conventional breakers to static switches. Conventional transfer switches will switch from the primary supply to a backup supply in seconds. Fast transfer switches that use vacuum breaker technology are available that can transfer in about 2 electrical cycles. This can be fast enough to protect many sensitive loads. Static switches use power electronic switches to accomplish the transfer within about a quarter of an electrical cycle. The transfer switch configuration is shown in Fig. 3.28. An example medium-voltage installation is shown in Fig. 3.29. The most important consideration in the effectiveness of a transfer switch for protection of sensitive loads is that it requires two independent supplies to the facility. For instance, if both supplies come from the same substation bus, then they will both be exposed to the same voltage sags when there is a fault condition somewhere in the supply system. If a significant percentage of the events affecting the facility are caused by

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faults on the transmission system, the fast transfer switch might have little benefit for protection of the equipment in the facility.

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Fig.2.5: Configuration of a static transfer switch used to switch between a primary supply and a backup supply in the event of a disturbance. The controls would switch back to the primary supply after normal power is restored. 6. Write notes on ferroresonant transformer. (8) Ferroresonant transformers, also called constant-voltage transformers (CVTs), can handle most voltage sag conditions.

Fig.2.6. Ferroresonant Transformer CVTs are especially attractive for constant, low-power loads. Variable loads, especially with high inrush currents, present more of a problem for CVTs because of the tuned circuit on the output. Ferroresonant transformers are basically 1:1 transformers which are providing an output voltage which is not significantly affected by input voltage variations Figure 2.7 shows the voltage sag ride-through improvement of a process controller fed from a 120-VA ferroresonant transformer. With the CVT, the process controller can ride through a voltage sag down to 30 percent of nominal, as opposed to 82 percent without one.

Fig.2.7. Voltage Sag improvement using ferroresonant transformer

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From the above figure, it is clear that the ride-through capability is held constant at a certain level. The reason for this is the small power requirement of the process controller, only 15 VA. Ferroresonant transformers should be sized significantly larger than the load.

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Fig.2.8. Voltage sag versus ferroresonant transformer loading Figure 2.8 shows the allowable voltage sag as a percentage of nominal voltage (that will result in at least 90 percent voltage on the CVT output) versus ferroresonant transformer loading, as specified by one manufacturer. At 25 percent of loading, the allowable voltage sag is 30 percent of nominal, which means that the CVT will output over 90 percent normal voltage as long as the input voltage is above 30 percent. This is important since the plant voltage rarely falls below 30 percent of nominal during voltage sag conditions. As the loading is increased, the corresponding ride-through capability is reduced, and when the ferroresonant transformer is overloaded (e.g., 150 percent loading), the voltage will collapse to zero. Magnetic synthesizers can handle three phase and provide improved voltage sag support and regulation for three-phase loads. They use resonant circuits made of nonlinear inductors and capacitors to store energy, pulsating saturation transformers to modify the voltage waveform, and filters to filter out harmonic distortion. They are applicable over a size range from about 15 to 200 kVA and are typically applied for process loads. They supply power through a zigzag transformer. The zigzag name comes from the way the transformer changes the phase angle between voltage and current. The zigzag transformer traps triplen harmonic currents and prevents them from reaching the power source. Applications of magnetic synthesizers include protection of large computer installations, computerized medical imaging equipment, and industrial processes, like plastic extruders, especially from voltage sags. They protect sensitive loads not only from voltage sags but also from transients, overvoltage, undervoltage, and voltage surges. However, they can be bulky and noisy. The block diagram in Figure 2.9 illustrates the main components of a magnetic synthesizer.

7. Write notes on Magnetic synthesizer. (8)

Fig.2.9. Block diagram of Magnetic Synthesizer

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8. Explain about power quality improvement using motor generators sets. (8)

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Motor-Generator sets are available in various sizes and configurations. This is one of the established technologies for preventing sensitive loads from sags and interruptions.

Fig.2.10. Typical M-G set with flywheel. Fig.2.10 shows the arrangement of M-G set in which the motor is powered by a driver circuit from line. The motor drive a generator that energize the load. Flywheels on the same shaft provide greater inertia to increase ride-through time. When the line suffers a disturbance, the inertia of the machines and the flywheels maintains the power supply for several seconds. This arrangement may also be used to separate sensitive loads from other classes of disturbances such as harmonic distortion and switching transients. Disadvantages: o Losses o Noise and maintenance o Frequency and voltage drops with the speed. This may not desirable for some loads. Written-pole synchronous machine are also used. In this machine, the number of poles getting varied according the speed of the machine to maintain the frequency as well the voltage constant. Solid state inverters are also preferred for some cases. But the loss and cost associated with this arrangement is high. 9. Discuss about motor starting sags. (12) The motors are drawing more current during starting. This large current will, by flowing through system impedances, causes a voltage sag. Effects: Dim lights Contactor drop-outs Disturbance to sensitive equipments. The time required for the motor to accelerate to rated speed increases with the magnitude of the sag, and excessive sag may prevent the motor from starting successfully. Motor starting sags can persist for many seconds, as illustrated in Fig. 2.11.

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Fig.2.11. Typical motor starting voltage sag Motor Starting methods:


Starting Method Autotransformer starting Resistance and reactance starting Reduction on L-L Voltage Taps provide a motor voltage of 80, 65, or 50 percent of system voltage during start-up. Varies with the resistance/ reactance value. Reactors are typically provided with 50, 45, and 37.5 percent taps. Energies one part of winding 57%

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Reduction in starting current Vary with the square of the voltage applied Varies with the resistance/ reactance value. 50% 33%

Part-winding starting Star-Delta starting

Estimation of the sag severity during full-voltage starting: V(pu). kVASC Voltage sag in pu, Vmin (pu) kVA LR kVASC
where, V(pu) Actual system voltage, in per unit of normal kVALR - Motor locked rotor kVA kVASC System short circuit kVA at motor

Computation for sag to 90 percent of nominal voltage, using typical system impedances and motor characteristics. If the sag is above the minimum allowable steady state value of the affected equipment, then the full voltage starting is acceptable. Otherwise, voltage sag duration characteristics to be compared with the voltage tolerance envelope of the affected equipment. Such complicated analysis may be left to computer analysis.

Fig.2.12. Typical motor versus transformer size for full-voltage starting sags of 90%. Computer simulation requires the following data: o Parameter values for the standard induction motor equivalent circuit: R1, X1, R2, X2 and XM. o Number of motor poles and rated rpm (or slip). o WK2 (inertia constant) values for the motor and the motor load. o Torque versus speed characteristic for the motor load. ________

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UNIT III OVERVOLTAGES Sources of over voltages Capacitor switching Lightning Ferro resonance Mitigation of voltage swells Surge arresters Low pass filters Power conditioners Lightning protection Shielding Line arresters Protection of transformers and cables Computer analysis tools for transients PSCAD and EMTP Part A 1. What is overvoltage? An overvoltage is defined as an average line-to-line voltage value greater than the maximum acceptable for the equipment installed. 2. What are the sources of over voltages? The sources of surges are, i. ii. 3. Switching Lightning

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Classify the over voltages. With reference to shape and duration, overvoltage can be classified as: Continuous (power frequency) Temporary Transient Combined

4. Define capacitance switching. Capacitors are used to provide reactive power (in units of vars) to correct the power factor, which reduces losses and supports the voltage on the system. Some capacitors are energized all the time (a fixed bank), while others are switched according to load levels. During switching of shunt capacitor banks, high magnitude and high frequency transients can occur. 5. Define lightning. Lightning is a natural cause of overvoltage which is the electrical discharge of cloud in to the tallest objects usually the power system structure. 6. What are the types of lightning? Types of lightning are Direct lightning Indirect lightining

7. What is ferroresonance? The resonance occurred in relation with the core of the transformer involved with the power systems is called as ferroresonance. 8. List the methods to prevent ferroresonance. Preventing the open-phase condition Damping the resonance with load Limiting the overvoltages Limiting cable lengths Alternative cable-switching procedures

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9. What is surge arrester? 10. What are line arresters?

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Surge arresters are devices used to limit high-amplitude transient overvoltages. The arresters placed periodically along the line (normally on the top phase conductor) to prevent insulator flashover and hence the interruption and sag significantly are called line arresters. 11. What is meant by shielding? Shielding is the arrangement of installing grounded bare conductor over the live conductor of the power system to provide protection from the lightning strikes. This will intercept most lightning strokes before they strike the phase wires. 12. Define PSCAD. PSCAD (Power Systems CAD) is a powerful and flexible graphical user interface to the world-renowned, EMTDC solution engine. PSCAD enables the user to schematically construct a circuit, run a simulation, analyze the results, and manage the data in a completely integrated, graphical environment. Online plotting functions, controls and meters are also included, so that the user can alter system parameters during a simulation run, and view the results directly. 13. Define EMTP. The EMTP (Electromagenatic Transient Program) has been specifically developed for the power systems problems, but some of the methods have applications in electronic circuit analysis as well. The EMTP can solve sny network which consists of interconnections of resistances, inductances, capacitances, single and multiphase -circuits, distributed parameters lines and certain other elements. 14. List the protection methods of transformers and cables. The transformer can be protected against overvoltages by the following methods: a. Internal Protection i. ii. i. ii. Capacitive Protection Use of interleaved coils Ground wires Lightning arresters

b. External Protection

The cable protection schemes against overvoltages are, a. Open Point arrester b. Under oil arrester c. Elbow arrester d. Fluid injection e. Lower discharge arrester PART B 1. Explain the over voltages induced by lightning. Statistical data shows that an average of 1000 storms break out each day throughout the world. Of all the electric lines, overhead networks are the most affected by lightning overvoltages and overcurrents.

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Lightning strikes are characterized by their polarization: they are generally negative even if approximately 10% of them have reversed polarity, but these are the most violent. The rising front of lightning strikes defined by standards is 1.2s for voltage and 8s for current. A distinction is often made between direct lightning strikes on a line and indirect lightning strikes, falling next to a line, or on the earth cable. i. Direct Lightning Strikes: Direct lightning strikes result in the injection of a current wave of several dozens of kiloamperes in the line. This current wave, which may cause conductors to melt by propagating on either side of the point of impact, results in an increase of voltage U given by, i U Zc 2 where i is the injected current and Zc the characteristic line zero-sequence impedance (usually from 300 to 1000). U reaches values of several million volts, which no line can withstand, then at the first pylon which the wave meets, the voltage increases until clearance breakdown occurs (insulator string). According to whether or not arcing has occurred (depending on the value of the current injected into the line), the wave which continues to propagate beyond the pylon is said to be broken or full. For various network voltages, arcing does not occur below the critical current indicated by the straight line in Figure 3.1.

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Fig.3.1: Strength of direct lightning strikes and minimum arcing strengths as a function of network voltage level For networks with a voltage less than 400 kV, all direct lightning strikes result in arcing and an earth fault. It is estimated that only 3% of overvoltages exceed 70 kV and have an origin in direct lightning strikes. Moreover, as a result of attenuation of the voltage wave throughout its propagation along the line, maximum overvoltages at the entrance of a substation or building are estimated at 150 kV in MV systems. Indirect Lightning Strikes: When indirect strokes fall on a support or just next to a line, high overvoltages are then generated in the network. Indirect strokes are more frequent than direct ones and are proven to be also almost as dangerous. If lightning hits the pylon or the earth cable, the current flowing off causes an increase in metal frame potential with respect to earth. The corresponding overvoltage U is i L di U R 2 2 dt where R is the earth connection steep wave resistance and L is the inductance of the pylon and/or the earthing conductor. When this voltage reaches the value of arcing voltage of an insulator, an arcing return occurs between the metal structure and one or more of the conductors. When the voltage is greater than 150 kV, this arcing return is unlikely to happen. The quality of pylon earth connections plays an important role: from 750 kV upwards, there is virtually no risk of arcing ii.

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return, thus justifying the installation of earth cables on EHV lines. In networks below 90 kV, these cables provide efficient protection if the pylon earth connection is excellent. If lightning hits just near the line, the energy flowing off to the ground causes a very rapid variation in the electromagnetic field which induces waves on the line that are similar in shape and amplitude to those generated by a direct stroke. They are mainly characterized by their very steep front and their very fast damping. When the voltage wave resulting from a lightning stroke passes through an MV/LV transformer, transmission mainly occurs by capacitive coupling. The amplitude of the overvoltage thus transmitted, observed on the secondary winding on the LV side, is less than 10% of its value on the MV side (generally less than 70 kV). Therefore, on LV lines, induced overvoltages are generally less than 7 kV. 2. Write a brief notes on capacitance switching. One of the more common causes of electrical transients is switching of capacitor banks in power systems. Electrical utilities switch capacitor banks during peak load hours to offset the lagging kVAR demand of the load. The leading kVARs drawn by the capacitor banks offset the lagging kVAR demand of the load, reducing the net kVA load on the circuit. Switching of capacitor banks is accompanied by a surge of current which is initially limited by the characteristic impedance of the power system and resistance of the line.

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Fig.3.2.Capacitor Switching

A sharp reduction in the voltage is followed by a voltage rise, which decays by oscillation at a frequency determined by the inductance and capacitance of the circuit. Several cases of power system component failures and malfunctions due to capacitor bank switching operations have been seen by the author. Typically, the voltage rise due to capacitor switching operation can attain values 1.5 to 2 times the nominal voltage. Power equipment can withstand only a limited number of exposures to such rises in voltage magnitude. With time, the insulation systems of such devices weaken, and a point is reached when the devices can fail. In one particular instance, two power distribution transformers failed at the same time; the cause was traced to large capacitor bank switching operations by the utility at a substation located adjacent to the affected facility. Adjustable speed drives (ASDs) and solid-state motor controllers are quite sensitive to voltage rises resulting from capacitor bank switching operations. The ASD might shut down

Fig.3.3. Capacitor Switching Transient 135% of System Voltage

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the motor due to voltage on the system rising beyond the maximum tolerance. In some cases, capacitor switching causes the voltage waveform to undergo oscillations and produce stray crossings of the time axis. This is unacceptable for devices that require the precise number of zero time crossings for proper performance. 3. Write a note on ferroresonance. The ferroresonance occurs when the magnetising impedance of the transformer is placed in series with a system capacitor. This happens when there is an open phase conductor. Ferroresonance result in magnification of harmonics, high voltages and currents, but resulting waveforms are usually irregular in shape. The concept of ferroresonance can be explained in terms of linear system resonance as follows. Consider a simple RLC series circuit as shown in fig.3.2. Neglecting the resistance R for the moment, the current flowing in the circuit can be expressed as,

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E j X L X C

where, E Driving voltage XL Reactance of L XC Reactance of C When XL=| XC |, a series resonant circuit is formed, and the equation gives an infinitely large current that in reality would be limited by R.

Fig.3.4 Simple Series RLC Circuit The voltage across the inductor, v=jXLI v=E+j|XC|I where v is a voltage variable.

Fig.3.5 Graphical solution to the linear LC circuit. Fig.3.3 shows the graphical solution of these two equations for two different reactances, XL and XL. XL represents the series resonant condition. The intersection of the capacitive and inductive lines gives the voltage across inductor EL. At resonance, the two lines will intersect at infinitely large voltage and current since the |XC| the line is parallel to the XL line.

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In practice, ferroresonance most commonly occurs when unloaded transformers become isolated on underground cables of a certain range of lengths. The capacitance of overhead distribution lines is generally insufficient to yield the appropriate conditions. The minimum length of cable required to cause ferroresonance varies with the system voltage level. The capacitance of cables is nearly the same for all distribution voltage levels, varying from 40 to 100 nF per 1000 feet (ft), depending on conductor size. However, the magnetizing reactance of a 35-kV-class distribution transformer is several times higher (the curve is steeper) than a comparably sized 15-kV-class transformer. Therefore, damaging ferroresonance has been more common at the higher voltages. For deltaconnected transformers, ferroresonance can occur for less than 100 ft of cable. For this reason, many utilities avoid this connection on cable-fed transformers. The grounded wyewye transformer has become the most commonly used connection in underground systems in North American. It is more resistant, but not immune, to ferroresonance because most units use a three-legged or five-legged core design that couples the phases magnetically. It may require a minimum of several hundred feet of cable to provide enough capacitance to create a ferroresonant condition for this connection. 4. Discuss the protection against lightning.

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Fig.3.6. Protection against lightning strokes Protective devices used to prevent the system from lightning overvoltages are, Surge arresters TVSS (Transient Voltage Surge Suppressor)

The arresters are diverting the surges to ground independently of the rest of the system. It is important to place the arrester across the sensitive equipment or instruments to be protected. The arresters are usually connected to the local ground. So the local ground may not remain at zero potential during transient events. In Fig.3.6, the first arrester is connected from the line to the neutral- ground bond at the service entrance. It limits the line voltage V1 from rising too high relative to the neutral and ground voltage at the panel. When it performs its voltage-limiting action, it provides a low impedance path for the surge current to travel onto the ground lead. Note that the ground lead and the ground connection itself have significant impedance. Therefore, the potential of the whole power system is raised with respect to that of the remote ground by the voltage drop across the ground impedance. For common values of surge currents and ground impedances, this can be several kilovolts. One hopes, in this situation, that most of the surge energy will be discharged through the first arrester directly into ground. In that sense, the arrester becomes a surge diverter. It can only be a diverter if there is a suitable path into which the current can be diverted. That is not

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always easy to achieve, and the surge current is sometimes diverted toward another critical load where it is not wanted. In this figure, there is another possible path for the surge current - the signal cable indicated by the dotted line and bonded to the safety ground. If this is connected to another device that is referenced to ground elsewhere, there will be some amount of surge current flowing down the safety ground conductor. Damaging voltages can be impressed across the load as a result. The first arrester at the service entrance is electrically too remote to provide adequate load protection. Therefore, a second arrester is applied at the loadagain, directly across the insulation to be protected. It is connected line to neutral so that it only protects against normal mode transients. This illustrates the principles without complicating the diagram but should be considered as the minimum protection one would apply to protect the load. Frequently, surge suppressors will have suppression on all lines to ground, all lines to neutral, and neutral to ground. Efforts to block the surge current are most effective for high-frequency surge currents such as those originating with lightning strokes and capacitor-switching events. The amount of current flowing between the grounds may be reduced by improving all the intentional grounds at the service entrance and nearby on the utility system. This will normally reduce, but not eliminate entirely, the incidence of equipment failure within the facility due to lightning. However, some structures also have significant lightning exposure, and the damaging surge currents can flow back into the utility grounds. It doesnt matter which direction the currents flow; they cause the same problems. Again, the same principle applies, which is to improve the grounds for the structure to minimize the amount of current that might seek another path to ground. When it is impractical to keep the currents from flowing between two grounds, both ends of any power or signal cables running between the two grounds must be protected with voltage-limiting devices to ensure adequate protection. This is common practice for both utility and end-user systems where a control cabinet is located quite some distance from the switch, or other device, being controlled. 5. Explain the transformer protection schemes. Common ways for the utility to protect the transformer: i. ii. Use transformers with interlaced secondary windings. (Design Characteristics) Apply surge arresters at the X terminals.(Possible to place arresters at LV terminals)

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Note that arresters at the load service entrance will not protect the transformer. In fact, they will virtually guarantee that there will be a surge current path and thereby cause additional stress on the transformer. While interlaced transformers have a lower failure rate in lightning-prone areas than noninterlaced transformers, recent evidence suggests that low-voltage arresters have better success in preventing failures. The primary arrester is mounted directly on the tank with very short lead lengths. With the evidence mounting that lightning surges have steeper wavefronts than previously believed, this is an ever increasing requirement for good protection practice. It requires a special fuse in the cutout to prevent fuse damage on lightning current discharge.

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The transformer protection is completed by using a robust secondary arrester. This shows a heavy-duty, secondary arrester adapted for external mounting on transformers. Internally mounted arresters are also available. An arrester rating of 40-kA discharge current is recommended. The voltage discharge is not extremely critical in this application but is typically 3 to 5 kV. Transformer secondaries are generally assumed to have a BIL of 20 to 30 kV. Gap-type arresters also work in this application but cause voltage sags, which the MOV-type arresters avoid.

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6. Describe the mitigation of voltage swells in a power system.(16)

Principles of Protection 1. Preventive protection: To limit internal or lightning impulse overvoltages (overhead protection cable, neutral earthing, regulators, protection relays, switching-impulselimiting circuit-breaker); For draining the overvoltage to earth using special equipments (dischargers, surge arresters). i. To limit the voltage for sensitive insulation. ii. To reduce, or prevent, surge current from flowing between grounds. iii. To drain the surge current away from the load. iv. To bond the ground and equipment. v. To create a low-pass filter using limiting and blocking principles. Insulation Coordination Three basic elements to insulation coordination, which are: Determining the overvoltage stresses from the system. Knowing the strength of the insulation of specific equipment in the substation. Selecting surge arrester ratings and locations, or other mitigation equipment or operating restrictions, to ensure that the system-imposed overvoltages do not exceed the insulation strength of the equipment, including an appropriate protective margin. Installation;

2. Repressive protection:

The fundamental principles of overvoltage protection of electrical equipment are:

Protection level is determined by three factors:

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Environment; Equipment used.

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Final objective of insulation coordination is to ensure safe and optimized distribution of electric power, which means the best possible economic balance between the various costs, namely: Clearance: i. ii. Gas clearance: Shortest path between two conductive parts (air, SF6, etc.) Creepage distance: Shortest path between two conductors following the outer surface of a solid insulator. Environmental conditions (humidity, pollution, UV radiation); Age (deterioration of the material); Permanent electrical stresses (local value of the electric field). Air pressure with altitude; Device filling pressure. Insulation; Protective devices; Failures (operating loss and repairs) weighted with their probabilities.

Insulation Deterioration depends

Gas Clearance depends

Voltage Withstand Power Frequency Withstand: Voltage withstand monitored through the standard oneminute dielectric tests is generally sufficient. Switching Impulse Voltage Withstand: Characterized with the following properties: Non-linear relation with voltage; Unbalance, variation according to wave polarity; Passage through a minimum curve value of the withstand voltage as a function of front time; Dispersion withstand must be expressed in statistical terms.

Standard tests of a wave of front time 250 ms and half-amplitude time 2500 ms Lightning Overvoltage Withstand: Positive and Negative Polarities 1.2/50S Two formulas can be used to evaluate withstand to a 1.2/50 S positive-polarity impulse of an air gap for HV and MV networks:

where V50 is the voltage for which the breakdown probability is 50 %; and

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where V0 is the withstand voltage and d is clearance in meters (V50 and V0 are in MV). A lot of experimental studies have provided tools to evaluate the relation between clearance and withstand voltage, taking into account a variety of factors such as front and tail times, environmental pollution and insulator type. 7. Discuss in detail about Cable protection. (08) Main source of outages in underground distribution is cable failures. As a cable ages, the insulation becomes progressively weaker and a moderate transient overvoltage causes breakdown and failure. The life of the cable may be increased for few years by arrester protection than cable replacement. Depending on voltage class, the cable may have been installed with only one arrester at the riser pole or both a riserpole arrester and an open-point arrester.

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Fig.3.6. Cable Protection To provide additional protection, utilities may choose from a number of options: 1. Add an open-point arrester, if one does not exist. 2. Add a third arrester on the next-to-last transformer. 3. Add arresters at every transformer. 4. Add special low-discharge voltage arresters. 5. Inject an insulation-restoring fluid into the cable. 6. Employ a scout arrester scheme on the primary The cable life is an exponential function of the number of impulses of a certain magnitude that it receives. The damage to the cable is related by, D=NVc where, D - Constant, representing damage to the cable N - Number of impulses V - Magnitude of impulses c - Empirical constant ranging from 10 to 15 Therefore, anything that will decrease the magnitude of the impulses only slightly has the potential to extend cable life a great deal. 8. Explain about the low impedance power conditioners. Low-impedance power conditioners (LIPCs) are used primarily to interface with the switch-mode power supplies found in electronic equipment. LIPCs differ from isolation

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transformers in that these conditioners have much lower impedance and have a filter as part of their design (Fig. 3. ).

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Fig.3.7 :Low impedance power conditioner The filter is on the output side and protects against high-frequency, source-side, common-mode, and normal-mode disturbances (i.e., noise and impulses). Note the new neutral-to-ground connection that can be made on the load side because of the existence of an isolation transformer. Drawbacks: Low- to medium-frequency transients (capacitor switching) can cause problems for LIPCs Transients can be magnified by the output capacitor. 9. Write notes on surge arresters. (8)

TVSS have more surge-limiting elements than an arrester, which most commonly consists solely of MOV blocks. An arrester may have more energy-handling capability. Different modes of operation, crowbar and clamping. Crowbar devices are normally open devices that conduct current during overvoltage transients. Once the device conducts, the line voltage will drop to nearly zero due to the short circuit imposed across the line. These devices are usually manufactured with a gap filled with air or a special gas. The gap arcs over when a sufficiently high overvoltage transient appears. Once the gap arcs over, usually power frequency current, or follow current, will continue to flow in the gap until the next current zero. Thus, these devices have the disadvantage that the power frequency voltage drops to zero or to a very low value for at least one-half cycle. This will cause some loads to drop offline unnecessarily. Clamping devices for ac circuits are commonly nonlinear resistors (varistors) that conduct very low amounts of current until an overvoltage occurs. Then they start to conduct heavily, and their impedance drops rapidly with increasing voltage. These devices effectively conduct increasing amounts of current (and energy) to limit the voltage rise of a surge. They have an advantage over gap-type devices in that the voltage is not reduced below the conduction level when they begin to conduct the surge current. Zener diodes are also used in this application.

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MOV arresters have two important ratings. The first is maximum continuous operating voltage (MCOV), which must be higher than the line voltage and will often be at least 125 percent of the system nominal voltage. The second rating is the energy dissipation rating (in joules). MOVs are available in a wide range of energy ratings. 10. Write notes on protection against overvoltage using isolation transformer. (8)

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Fig.3.8.a. Isolation Transformer

Fig.3.8.b. Isolation Transformer with electrostatic shield Isolation transformer (Fig.3.8.a) attenuates high-frequency noise and transients as they attempt to pass from one side to the other. However, some common-mode and normal-mode noise can still reach the load. Electrostatic shield (Fig.3.8.b) is effective in eliminating common-mode noise -However, some normal-mode noise can still reach the load due to magnetic and capacitive coupling. Main characteristic for electrically isolating the load from the system for transients is their leakage inductance. Therefore high frequency noises are protected from reaching load to source and vice versa. Voltage notching due to power electronics switching can well be protected by isolation transformers. Capacitor-switching and lightning transients coming from the utility system can be attenuated, thereby preventing nuisance tripping of adjustable-speed drives and other equipment. In addition, isolation transformers allows the user to define a new ground reference, or separately derived system. This new neutral-to-ground bond limits neutral-to-ground voltages at sensitive equipment. Grounded neutral wire over the phase wires intercept lightning strokes before striking on the phase wires. But, they will not necessarily prevent back flashovers.

11. Discuss about the protection of power system using shielding. (8)

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This shielding is common in transmission lines and substations, but is not common on distribution lines because of its added cost.

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The back flashovers lead to temporary faults. In order to avoid back flashovers, the ground path must carefully be chosen to maintain adequate clearance with the phase conductors. Also the value of grounding resistance is important to maintain the voltage as low as possible. When a particular section of a feeder is being struck frequently, the section may be modified with a shield wire with justification to reduce the number of transient faults and to maintain good power quality. Figure below shows a substation connected with a transmission line in which few spans nearby substation being shielded to prevent high current faults that can damage substation transformer and breaker.

Fig.3.9. Shielding of substation and lines. It is also common near substations for distribution lines to be underbuilt on transmission or sub-transmission structures. Hence the shielded transmission provides shielding for the distribution as well, provided adequate clearance can be maintained for the ground lead. If any other section of the feeder is experiencing more number of strikes, the area may be effectively shielded to reduce lightning induced faults. This increase the cost to extend poles to accommodate the shield wire. Opting line arresters would be more economical and effective for many applications. Mounting line arresters in a periodic interval along the phase wires of a line exposed to frequent lightning is more effective. Normally, lines flashover first at the pole insulators. Therefore, preventing insulator flashover will reduce the interruption and sag rate significantly. It is observed that this strategy is more economical than shielding and results in fewer line flashovers. Neither shielding nor line arresters will prevent all flashovers from lightning. The aim is to reduce flashovers in particular trouble spots. Sometimes the arrester bleed off some of the stroke current as it passes along the line as shown in figure. The amount that an individual arrester bleeds off will depend on the grounding resistance.

12. Write notes on Line arresters. (8)

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Fig.3.10. Line arresters to prevent flashovers The spacing of the line arresters should ensure the voltage level at the poles in the span should not exceed BIL (Basic Impulse Level) of the line insulators. This usually requires an arrester at every second or third pole. It may be necessary to place arresters at every pole when the feeder supplies to highly critical load or the feeder with high ground resistance. Some systems may be provided with the line arresters only on the top phase when other lines are placed below. In other cases, the arresters put on all three phases to get consistent reduction in flashovers. LPF provides better protection against high frequency transients. Consists of series inductance and parallel capacitance. This circuit provides low impedance to the ground path. Voltage clamping devices are added in parallel with the capacitor in surge protection usage.

13. Write notes on low-pass filter. (8)

Fig.3.11. Low pass filter High surge protector combines two surge suppressors and a LPF for maximum protection. It uses a gap-type protector on the front end to handle high-energy transients. The lowpass filter limits transfer of high-frequency transients. Inductor helps block high-frequency transients and forces them into the first suppressor. Capacitor limits the rate of rise, while the nonlinear resistor (MOV) clamps the voltage magnitude at the protected equipment. Other variations on this design will employ MOVs on both sides of the filters and may have capacitors on the front end as well.

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UNIT IV HARMONICS (9) Harmonic distortion Voltage and current distortion Harmonic indices Harmonic sources from commercial and industrial loads Locating harmonic sources Power system response characteristics Resonance Harmonic distortion evaluation Devices for controlling harmonic distortion Passive filters Active filters IEEE and IEC standards Part A 1. Define harmonic. A harmonic is a component of a periodic wave having a frequency that is an integral multiple of the fundamental power line frequency of 50 Hz. Total harmonic distortion is the contribution of all the harmonic frequency currents to the fundamental. 2. What is harmonic number? Harmonic number (h) refers to the individual frequency elements that comprise a composite waveform. For example, h= 5 refers to the fifth harmonic component with a frequency equal to five times the fundamental frequency. 3. What is meant by distortion factor? The distortion factor is defined as

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DF

2 an a12

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

where, n=2,3,4. an the magnitude of the harmonic frequencies a1 - the magnitude of the fundamental component What are the sources of harmonics? Among the sources of harmonic voltages and currents in power systems three groups of equipment can be distinguished: Magnetic core equipment, like transformers, electric motors, generators, etc. Arc furnaces, arc welders, high-pressure discharge lamps, etc. Electronic and power electronic equipment. Define THD. Total Harmonic Distortion is defined as the ratio of the root mean square value of the harmonic content to root mean square value of the fundamental quantity, expressed as percent of the fundamental. It is measure of effective value of harmonic distortion. What is passive filter? These are LC resonating or parallel resonating circuits which offer very high or low impedance at tuning frequency. These filters are resistive at tuned frequency, capacitive at below tuned frequencies and inductive beyond tuned frequency. What is the significance of power quality indices? In practice, the PQ indices represent, for compactness and practicality, the quickest and most useful way to describe the characteristics of PQ disturbances. They are convenient for condensing complex time and frequency domain waveform phenomena into a single number. What are the power quality indices? Waveform distortions (voltage or current) can be characterized by several indices and the most frequently used are: the individual harmonic; the total harmonic distortion factor;

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the individual interharmonic; the total interharmonic distortion factor. 9. Define TDD. Total Demand Distortion is defined as the ratio of the root mean square value of the harmonic content to root mean square value of the demand current, expressed as percent of the demand current. It is measure of effective value of harmonic distortion.

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where IL - rms value of maximum demand load current h - harmonic order (1, 2, 3, 4, etc.) Ih - rms load current at the harmonic order h 10. What are the harmonic elimination techniques? Series connected filters Shunt connected filters Passive filters 11. What are the advantages of passive filters? i. Simple in construction, less costly and efficient ii. Serves dual purpose harmonic filtration and power factor correction of load. 12. What are the disadvantages of passive filters? i. Cannot function under saturated condition. ii. Number of passive filters installed must be equal to the number of harmonic levels to be compensated. iii. Connection of passive filters necessities a specific analysis of each installation. iv. Non adaptability to system variations . v. Bulky in size. vi. Tendency to resonate with the other load. 13. What is voltage and current distortion? Harmonic voltages result from the harmonic currents interacting with the impedance of the power system according to Ohms law: V IZ where, V - voltage I - current Z - impedance Harmonic currents and voltages have a detrimental effect on utility and end-user equipment. They cause overheating of transformers, power cables, and motors; inadvertent tripping of relays; and incorrect measurement of voltage and current by meters. 14. Differentiate linear and nonlinear loads. Linear Loads: AC electrical loads where the voltage and current waveforms are sinusoidal. The current at any time is proportional to voltage. Linear Loads are:

Power Factor Improvement Capacitors, Incandescent Lamps, Heaters etc.,


Nonlinear Loads: Nonlinear loads are simply any piece of equipment or appliance that increases and reduces its consumption of electricity over time in a nonlinear fashion. With nonlinear loads

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the current and voltage do not follow each other linearly. Nonlinear loads are: Computer, laser
printers, SMPS, rectifier, PLC, electronic ballast, refrigerator, TV etc.

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15. What is the effect of harmonics on transformer? The effects of harmonics on transformers manifest in two ways: Eddy current losses, which can be estimated to be normally around 10% of the losses at full load, increase with the square of the harmonic order. For example, for a fully loaded transformer supplying a load comprising IT equipment, the total losses would be twice as high as for an equivalent linear load. These additional losses may result in a much higher operating temperature and a shorter life, therefore this effect must be taken into account at design stage. Triplen harmonic currents, when reflected back to a delta winding, are all in phase so they can circulate in the winding. These components are absorbed in the windings and do not propagate onto the supply; for this reason delta-wound transformers are useful as isolating transformers. Of course this circulating current has to be taken into account when rating the transformer. 16. What is IEC standard? Give at least two IEC standards for EMC. The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), currently with headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland, has defined a category of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) standards that deal with power quality issues. They are, IEC 61000-2-2 (1993) IEC 61000-3-2 (2000) IEC 61000-3-4 (1998) IEC 61000-3-6 (1996) 17. Mention the devices to control harmonic distortion. Three different solutions can be adopted in the reduction of the harmonic distortion: i. Reduction of harmonic emission from non-linear loads, by modifications to their structure; ii. High harmonic filters (passive and active); and iii. Isolation and harmonic reduction transformers. The devices used to control harmonic distortion are, i. Reinforce distribution system ii. Passive Filters iii. Active Filters iv. Isolation transformers v. Harmonic mitigation transformer vi. Multi-pulse converters 18. What are the advantages of active filters? Superior filtering performance Smaller physical size Flexibility

Part B 1. Explain the harmonic phase rotation and phase angle relationship. (08) Power engineers have traditionally used symmetrical components to help describe three-phase system behavior. The three-phase system is transformed into three single-phase systems that are much simpler to analyze. The method of symmetrical components can be employed for analysis of

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the systems response to harmonic currents provided care is taken not to violate the fundamental assumptions of the method. The method allows any unbalanced set of phase currents (or voltages) to be transformed into three balanced sets. The positive-sequence set contains three sinusoids displaced 120 from each other, with the normal A-B-C phase rotation (e.g., 0, -120, 120). The sinusoids of the negativesequence set are also displaced 120, but have opposite phase rotation (A-C-B, e.g., 0, 120, -120). The sinusoids of the zero sequence are in phase with each other (e.g., 0, 0, 0). In a perfect balanced three-phase system, the harmonic phase sequence can be determined by multiplying the harmonic number h with the normal positive-sequence phase rotation. For example, for the second harmonic, h=2, we get 2X(0, -120, -120) or (0, 120, -120), which is the negative sequence. For the third harmonic, h = 3, we get 3X (0, -120, -120) or (0, 0, 0), which is the zero sequence. Phase sequences for all other harmonic orders can be determined in the same fashion.Since a distorted waveform in power systems contains only odd-harmonic components, only odd-harmonic phase sequence rotations are summarized here: Harmonics of order h = 1, 7, 13, are generally positive sequence. Harmonics of order h = 5, 11, 17, are generally negative sequence. Triplens (h = 3, 9, 15,) are generally zero sequence. 2. Explain the process of locating harmonic sources. (08) On radial utility distribution feeders and industrial plant power systems, the main tendency is for the harmonic currents to flow from the harmonic-producing load to the power system source. This is illustrated in Fig.4.1. The impedance of the power system is normally the lowest impedance seen by the harmonic currents. Thus, the bulk of the current flows into the source.

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Fig.4.1. General flow of harmonic current in radial system This general tendency of harmonic current flows can be used to locate sources of harmonics. Using a power quality monitor capable of reporting the harmonic content of the current, simply measure the harmonic currents in each branch starting at the beginning of the circuit and trace the harmonics to the source. Power factor correction capacitors can alter this flow pattern for at least one of the harmonics. For example, adding a capacitor to the previous circuit as shown in Fig. 5.24 may draw a large amount of harmonic current into that portion of the circuit. In such a situation, following the path of the harmonic current will lead to a capacitor bank instead of the actual harmonic source. Thus, it is generally necessary to temporarily disconnect all capacitors to reliably locate the sources of harmonics. It is usually straightforward to differentiate harmonic currents due to actual sources from harmonic currents that are strictly due to resonance involving a capacitor bank. A resonance current typically has only one dominant harmonic riding on top of the fundamental sine wave. Note that none of the harmonic sources presented earlier in this chapter produce a single harmonic frequency in addition to the fundamental. They all produce more than one single harmonic frequency. Waveforms of these harmonic sources have somewhat arbitrary waveshapes depending on the distorting phenomena, but they contain several harmonics in significant quantities. A single, large, significant harmonic nearly always signifies resonance.

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Fig.4.2. Power factor capacitors can alter the direction of flow of one of the harmonic components of the current. This fact can be exploited to determine if harmonic resonance problem are likely to exist in a system with capacitors. Simply measure the current in the capacitors. If it contains a very large amount of one harmonic other than the fundamental, it is likely that the capacitor is participating in a resonant circuit within the power system. Always check the capacitor currents first in any installations where harmonic problems are suspected. 3. What are the harmonic sources from commercial and industrial loads. (06) Harmonics of different orders generated when connected power system network by different sources as below: i. The non linear loads such as inverter fed adjustable speed drive. ii. The use of powerfactor correction capacitor creates parallel or series resonance problems increasing the harmonic distortion. iii. Process control and solid state power conversion equipments. iv. Energy efficient compact flourescent lamps. v. Use of AC and DC adjustable speed drives vi. Static VAR compensators. vii. Transformers produce very high levels of harmonics when they are initially energized, the so called in rush current will generate harmonics of several orders. viii. Cycloconverters,Lift control system,Traction,AC voltage regulators, UPS, Battery chargers. 4. What are the effects of harmonics (06). The duration presence of long duration harmonic cause more serious effects on the various equipments connected to the power system. Amplitude of harmonics: Large amplitude harmonics of short duration under resonance condition cause dielectric breakdown due to over voltages. Now a day various devices and equipment being measured applications are more sensitive compared to the past. The capacitor used for power factor correction and in different filters decreases resulting in increasing in current drawn by capacitor beyond permissible limits. The capacitor acts as sink for harmonic currents resultant effect of harmonics is overloading , hence over heating increases dielectric stress and increase the power lost. The thermal failure of capacitor may take place because of higher temperature. Non sinusoidal power supplies results in reduction of torque of induction motor. It will increase interference with telephone, communication and logic circuits.

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Error in reading of induction type energy meters which are calibrated for pure sinusoidal A.C power. Higher order harmonics causes voltage stress and corona.

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Presence of harmonics in power system network can cause additional losses in power system network, overheating of transmission lines, transformers and generators etc. Malfunction or even failure of electronic or computer controls.

Hence it is clear that day by day the increase in harmonic contents will impose new problems on operations of electronic equipment. The energy efficient electronic equipment that will be produced in future trends result in poor performance due to the voltage distortion. Hence it is essential to have the proper coordination between the supply authorities and consumers regarding the power quality problem, their causes and results and solutions available to eliminate them. 5. Explain active and passive filters in harmonic control. (10) Passive Filters: They include devices that provide low impedance paths to divert harmonics to ground and devices that create a high impedance path to discourage the flow of harmonics. Both of these devices, by necessity, change the impedance characteristics of the circuits into which they are inserted. Another weakness of the passive harmonic technologies is that they cannot adapt to changes in electrical systems in which they operate. This means that changes to electrical system could cause them to be overloaded or to create resonances that could actually amplify, rather than diminish harmonics.

Fig.4.3. Passive Filters Advantages of Passive filters: 1. Simple in construction, less costly and efficient 2. Serves dual purpose harmonic filtration and power factor correction of load. Disadvantages of Passive filters: 1. Cannot function under saturated condition. 2. Number of passive filters installed must be equal to the number of harmonic levels to be compensated. 3. Connection of passive filters necessities a specific analysis of each installation. 4. Non adaptability to system variations.

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5. Bulky in size. 6. Tendency to resonate with the other load. Active filters:

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When the number of harmonics to be filtered, large no of branches of passive filters will be required . The large no of branches of passive filters will be required. The actual number of branches will depend upon no of harmonic level of branches will depend upon no of harmonic level to be compensated. Hence, because of passive filter use for filtration of large no of harmonics results in large size &more cost. Introduction of self commutated devices e.g. MOSFETS, IGBT etc, accelerated the research in design of active filter & resulted low cost, high performance active filter suitable to eliminate the harmonics of different orders to overcome the drawbacks of passive filters. Active filters compensate voltage of current harmonic signal measured. The injected voltage or current harmonic signal measured. The injected voltage or current harmonic signals in to the power system network is of same magnitude and opposite in phase of the measured harmonic signal. It comprises power converter and control loop which controls the harmonics injection of the filter as the function of harmonic signal measure. Advantages of Active filters:

Superior filtering performance Smaller physical size Flexibility

6. Write notes on harmonic indices. (8) Total Harmonic Distortion: Current distortion levels can be characterized by a THD value, as has been described, but this can often be misleading. A small current may have a high THD but not be a significant threat to the system. For example, many adjustable-speed drives will exhibit high THD values for the input current when they are operating at very light loads. This is not necessarily a significant concern because the magnitude of harmonic current is low, even though its relative current distortion is high. Some analysts have attempted to avoid this difficulty by referring THD to the fundamental of the peak demand load current rather than the fundamental of the present sample. This is called total demand distortion and serves as the basis for the guidelines in IEEE Standard 519-1992, Recommended Practices and Requirements for Harmonic Control in Electrical Power Systems. It is defined as follows:

IL is the peak, or maximum, demand load current at the fundamental frequency component measured at the point of common coupling (PCC). There are two ways to measure IL. With a load already in the system, it can be calculated as the average of the maximum demand current for the preceding 12 months. The calculation can simply be done by averaging the 12-month peak demand readings. For a new facility, IL has to be estimated based on the predicted load profiles.

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Total Demand Distortion: Total Demand Distortion is defined as the ratio of the root mean square value of the harmonic content to root mean square value of the demand current, expressed as percent of the demand current. It is measure of effective value of harmonic distortion.

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where IL - rms value of maximum demand load current h - harmonic order (1, 2, 3, 4, etc.) Ih - rms load current at the harmonic order h Harmonic voltages or currents are almost always referenced to the fundamental value of the waveform. If the distortion is expressed as a percentage of some rated load current then the distortion is called as TDD. 7. What are the importances of measuring harmonics and mention the instruments used for the measurement? (8) Importance of Hormonic measurement: Measurement provides the real time information about the power system network to utilities, consumer and designer .Filters designed after harmonic measurements are technically better and economical. Measurement provides information to analyze the combined effect of harmonic generated by different loads on power quality. Different types of instruments available for harmonic measurement are : Power profiler: It can measure and print in addition to various electric quantities voltage and current total harmonic distortion and frequency. Power network analyzer: It is portable three phase network analyzer designed for power surveys in which the measured data are transformed to PC for evaluation and documentation. Measurement setup: The measurement is done via high quality probe. The computer loads the waveforms of graph sheets. Memory hicorder: It is used to measure three line currents and there line to voltage. Dynamic signal analyzer model: The parameters such as fundamental frequency of A.C. current, line or phase voltage across potential transformer. 8. Write notes on standards for waveform distortions. (10) Standards prescriptions define the limits on voltage supply, measurement method and instruments, mitigation process, etc. The main IEC standards dealing with harmonics and interharmonics are presented. Essential standards regarding the harmonics are EN 50160, IEEE 5191992 and IEEE 1159-1995. Bureau of Indian Standards specified that the voltage is considered to be virtually sinusoidal, if, when supplying an AC motor at rated voltage, the waveform is such that the difference between the instantaneous value of the fundamental component does not exceed 5% of the amplitude. Currently defined distortion limits assume that there will be some diversity between the harmonic currents injected by different customers. This diversity can be in the form of different harmonic components being injected, differences in the phase angles of the individual harmonic currents, or

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differences in the harmonic injection versus time profiles. In recognition of this diversity, the current limits are developed so that the maximum individual frequency harmonic voltage caused by a single customer will not exceed the limits in tables for systems that can be characterized by a short-circuit impedance. IEEE Standards for voltage harmonics: IEEE standards for voltage harmonics distortions followed internationally are given in the following table. Bus Voltage at PCC 69kV and Below 69 to 161 kV 161 and above IEEE Standards for Current Harmonics: IEEE Standards followed internationally for general distribution system for end user limits (120V to 69kV) is given in the following table. Individual Voltage distortion (%) 3.0 1.5 1.0 THD (%) 5.0 2.5 1.5

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9. Discuss about the harmonic sources of commercial and industrial loads. (16) Harmonic Sources Commercial Loads: Commercial Places: Loads: High-efficiency fluorescent lighting with electronic ballasts Adjustable-speed drives for the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) loads Office complexes Department stores Hospitals and Internet data centers

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Elevator drives and

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Sensitive electronic equipment supplied by single-phase switch-mode power supplies.

o Commercial loads are characterized by a large number of small harmonic-producing loads. Depending on the diversity of the different load types, these small harmonic currents may add in phase or cancel each other. o Voltage distortion levels depend on both the circuit impedances and the overall harmonic current distortion. Single-phase power supplies: Electronic power supplies are very important in commercial premises because of increased utilization of personal computers, adjustable speed drives, dc motor drives, battery charges etc., The SMPS is now replacing the old transformer power supplies. The input diode bridge is directly connected to the AC main, eliminating transformer. The direct current is then converted back to AC at very high frequency by the switches and subsequently rectified again. All computer peripherals are now employ SMPS because of its light weight, compact size, efficient operation and lack of need for a transformer. SMPS causes very high 3rd Harmonics. These 3rd Harmonics causes overloading of neutral conductors, especially where undersized old neutral wires may have been installed.

Fig.4.4. Current and Frequency spectrum of SMPS Fluorescent Lighting: Commercial building loads consumes 40% - 60% of generated energy for lighting Lighting (1995) 77% Fluorescent lighting, 14% Incandescent lighting. In discharge lamps, ballasts are used for generating high initial voltage. After establishing the electron flow from one electrode to another, arc current increases and the voltage decreses. Discharge is a short circuit. Ballast has to reduce the current within the limit to maintain the specified lumen output. i.e, Ballast is also a current limiting device. Types: 1. Magnetic Ballast and 2. Electronic Ballast. Magnetic Ballast: It is made with iron core and used with a capacitor. It produces heat loss.

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Electronic Ballast: Switch mode power supply is used to convert the fundamental frequency voltage in to a much higher frequency (25-40 kHz) voltage. Advantages of High frequency: Small inductor is enough to limit the arc current.

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High Frequency eliminates 100 or 120 Hz flicker associated with iron core magnetic ballast. Magnetic Ballast can be used for 2 lamps. But electronic Ballast can be used for 4 lamps. Comparison: Electronic Ballast produces double or triple the standard magnetic ballast harmonic output. Other electronic ballasts have been specifically designed to minimize harmonics and may actually produce less harmonic distortion than the normal magnetic ballast-lamp combination. Typical THD allowed in electronic ballast is betwee10-32%. THD greater than 32% is excessive according to ANSI C82.11-1993, High frequency Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts. In many cases, passive filtering used to reduce input current harmonic distortion to less than 20%. Harmonics in commercial buildings are usually distributed along the phases in a nearly balanced manner.

Fig.4.5. Current and Frequency spectrum of fluorescent lighting

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Adjustable Speed Drives: Applications of ASDs: o Elevator Motors o Pumps and Fans of HVAC Systems

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ASD consists of electronic power converter that converts constant ac voltage and frequency into variable voltage and frequency. Variable voltage and frequency allows the ASD to control motor speed to match the application requirement such as slowing a pump or fan. ASDs also find many applications in industrial loads In modern Industries, non linear loads are unavoidable today. They are injecting harmonics in to the system. Non linear Loads are operating at low power factor. Therefore, power factor correction strategies are applied to the system. Widely using power factor correction capacitors magnify the harmonics. High Voltage distortions are experienced at LV side (Capacitor side). At resonance condition, motor and transformer overheating, and misoperation of sensitive electronic equipment are occurred. Three categories of nonlinear industrial loads : Three-phase power converters Arcing devices and Saturable devices.

Harmonic Sources Industrial Loads:

Three-phase power converters: All equipment containing static converters, as variable speed controllers, UPS units and a.c./d.c. converters in general, are based on a three-phase bridge, also known as a six-pulse bridge because there are six voltage pulses per cycle (one per half cycle per phase) on the d.c. output. This bridge produces in supply networks current harmonics of order 6n1, which means one more and one less than each multiple of six. In theory, the magnitude of each harmonic should be equal to the reciprocal of the harmonic number, so there would be 20% of the 5th harmonic and 9% of the 11th harmonic, etc. Figure 7.19 shows an example waveform of a thyristor bridge current against the phase voltage. Commutation notches are clearly visible in the voltage waveform (the source of high-frequency distorting components). The magnitude of the harmonics is significantly reduced by the use of a 12-pulse converter.

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Fig.4.6 Example waveforms of the supply voltage and current of a six-pulse thyristor bridge with d.c. side reactor

Arcing Devices: The following are the arcing devices: Arc furnaces, Arc welders, and discharge-type Lighting (fluorescent, sodium vapor, mercury vapor) with magnetic ballasts.

The voltage-current characteristics of electric arcs are nonlinear. Following arc ignition, the voltage decreases as the arc current increases, limited only by the impedance of the power system. In electric arc furnace applications, the limiting impedance is primarily the furnace cable and leads with some contribution from the power system and furnace transformer. Currents in excess of 60,000 A are common. The electric arc itself is actually best represented as a source of voltage harmonics. Its magnitude is largely a function of the length of the arc. The arcing load thus appears to be a relatively stable harmonic current source, which is adequate for most analyses. The exception occurs when the system is near resonance and a Thevenin equivalent model using the arc voltage waveform gives more realistic answers. Three phase arcing devices can be arranged to cancel the triplen harmonics through the transformer connection. However, this cancellation may not work in three-phase arc furnaces because of the frequent unbalanced operation during the melting phase. During the refining stage when the arc is more constant, the cancellation is better. Saturable Devices: Equipment in this category includes transformers and other electromagnetic devices with a steel core, including motors. Harmonics are generated due to the nonlinear magnetizing characteristics of the steel. Power transformers are designed to operate below the knee point of the magnetic saturation characteristics. Selection of the operating point depends on,

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Steel cost No-load losses Noise and Other factors

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Some transformers are purposefully operated in the saturated region. One example is a triplen transformer used to generate 180 Hz for induction furnaces. Motors also exhibit some distortion in the current when overexcited, although it is generally of little consequence. There are, however, some fractional horsepower, single-phase motors that have a nearly triangular waveform with significant third-harmonic currents.

The waveform shown in Fig. 5.22 is for single-phase or wye-grounded three-phase transformers. The current obviously contains a large amount of third harmonic. Delta connections and ungrounded-wye connections prevent the flow of zero-sequence harmonic, which triplens tend to be. Thus, the line current will be void of these harmonics unless there is an imbalance in the system. _________________________

Fig.4.7. Transformer magnetizing current and harmonic spectrum.

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Unit V: Power Quality Monitoring Monitoring considerations Power line disturbance analyzer Power quality measurement equipment Harmonic / spectrum analyzer Flicker meters Disturbance analyzer Applications of expert system for power quality monitoring Part A 1. What are the power quality monitoring considerations? Monitoring to characterize system performance. Monitoring to characterize specific problems. Monitoring as part of an enhanced power quality service. Monitoring as part of predictive or just-in-time maintenance. 2. List the objectives of power quality measurements (Needs for power quality measurement). Preventive and predictive maintenance. Determining the need for mitigation equipment. Ensuring equipment performance. Sensitivity assessment of process equipment to disturbances. 3. Mention the three elements of power quality measurement. There are three elements of power quality measurement, namely the measurement transducer, the measurement unit and the evaluation unit.

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4. What kind of power quality parameter do we want to measure? Power quality includes a wide variety of conditions on the power system. Important disturbances can vary in duration from very high-frequency impulses (lightning strokes) to long-term overvoltages and interruptions. Standards, like IEC 61000 and EN 50160, and grid codes define the power quality parameter to be measured. IEC 61000-4-30 defines the methods for measurement and interpretation of results for power quality parameters in 50 Hz systems and is part of the standard IEC 61000 of electromagnetic compatibility. 5. List the advantages of automatic power quality monitoring system. The power quality monitor allows engineers to take necessary or appropriate actions in a timely manner. Advanced power quality monitors can be developed with integrated intelligent systems to meet this new challenge. The system features on-the-spot data analysis with rapid information dissemination via Internet technology, e-mails, pagers, and faxes. 6. Classify the power quality monitoring. Local Monitoring: Its objective consists of determining the quality of power that is delivered to a single customer. System Monitoring: Its objective consists of determining the quality of power and the behavior of the electrical system globally. 7. What are the basic categories of power quality instruments? Basic categories of instruments that may be applicable include Wiring and grounding test devices Multimeters Oscilloscopes Disturbance analyzers Harmonic analyzers and spectrum analyzers

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Combination disturbance and harmonic analyzers Flicker meters Energy monitors 8. What is flicker meter? Flicker meters measure flicker in terms of the fluctuating voltage magnitude and its corresponding frequency of fluctuation. Electric arc furnaces and arc wielding usually cause lights to flicker. 9. What is meant by power quality monitoring? This is the process of collecting, analyzing and interpreting raw measurement data in to useful information. The measurements can be compared and the level of power quality in the system can be determined. 10. What are the specifications of power quality measuring equipments? The number of channels (for instance, single-phase or three-phase) The input voltage range The current measurement range Isolation Communication capabilities (For example, can the instrument be networked or tied to a standalone computer?) 11. What are the necessary measurements to be made to know about the power quality of a product? Loose connections and overheating of conductors Magnetic field strength and electric field strength of conductors Static electricity of sensitive equipment 12. What is meant by online power quality monitoring? On-line power quality data assessment analyzes data as they are captured. The analysis results are available immediately for rapid dissemination. Complexity in the software design requirement for on-line assessment is usually higher than that of off-line. 13. What is the need for FFT Spectrum analyzer in power quality analyzers? a. They have the capability to measure both the voltage and current simultaneously so that harmonic power flow information can be obtained. b. They have the capability to measure both magnitude and phase angle of the individual harmonic components. c. Synchronization and a sampling rate fast enough to obtain accurate measurement of harmonic components up to at least 37th harmonic. d. They have the capability to characterize the statistical nature of harmonic distortion levels. Part B 1. Explain the harmonic analyzer and disturbance analyzer. (16) 2. Write in detail about a. Flicker meter b. Application of expert system for power quality monitoring 3. With help of a block diagram, explain the applications of expert system for power quality monitoring. (16) 4. Explain various power quality monitoring equipments. (16) 5. Discuss the factors to be considered in power quality monitoring. (8)

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