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OFFICE OF PLANNING, ASSESSMENT, RESEARCH AND QUALITY

Using SPSS for Data Analysis: Support Document for SPSS Output Tables

Prepared by: UW-Stout Office of Planning, Assessment, Research & Quality (PARQ)

Tynan Heller Susan Greene Revised on 8/29/12

DOCUMENT NO: BPA-900 APPROVAL: Susan Greene The user is responsible for ensuring this is the current revision. Thank you!

3 This document provides an explanation on how to read SPSS output tables for a range of analyses (Created using SPSS version 17.0)

To view a topic, please click the appropriate heading in the Table of Contents

Table of Contents

Frequency Analysis ......................................................................................................................... 5 Definitions associated with a frequency analysis ....................................................................... 5 Section 1: Frequencies without missing responses ..................................................................... 7 Section 2: Frequencies without descriptive & with missing responses ...................................... 8 Section 3: Frequencies with descriptive statistics ...................................................................... 9 Ordinal data ............................................................................................................................. 9 Interval/Ratio data ................................................................................................................. 10 Cross Tabulation Analysis with Chi-Square Analysis .................................................................. 12 Definitions associated with crosstab analysis ........................................................................... 12 Section 1: Example with large cell sizes................................................................................... 13 Section 2: example with small cell sizes................................................................................... 15 Section 3: Example with paired variables ................................................................................ 17 T-test Analysis .............................................................................................................................. 18 Definitions associated with t-test analysis ................................................................................ 18 Section 1: One sample t-test .................................................................................................... 19 Section 2: Paired sample t-test ................................................................................................. 20 Section 3: Independent samples t-test ...................................................................................... 21 One-Way ANOVA........................................................................................................................ 23 Definitions associated with one-way ANOVA analysis ........................................................... 23 Section 1: F-statistic was significant........................................................................................ 23 Section 2: F-statistic was not significant .................................................................................. 26 One-Way Repeated Measures ANOVA ....................................................................................... 28 Definitions associated with one-way repeated measures ANOVA analysis ............................ 28 Two-Way ANOVA ....................................................................................................................... 34 Definitions associated with two-way ANOVA analysis ........................................................... 34 Mixed Method ANOVA ................................................................................................................ 40 Definitions associated with mixed method ANOVA analysis .................................................. 40 Correlation .................................................................................................................................... 47 Definitions associated with correlation analysis ....................................................................... 47 Non-parametric ......................................................................................................................... 47 Nominal data phi and Cramers V ..................................................................................... 47 Ordinal data Spearmans rho ............................................................................................. 49 Parametric Pearson r .............................................................................................................. 51

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4 Table of Tables

Table 1. Frequencies without missing responses ............................................................................ 7 Table 2. Frequencies with missing responses ................................................................................. 8 Table 3. Frequencies and descriptive statistics for ordinal data ..................................................... 9 Table 4. Frequencies and descriptive statistics for interval data. ................................................. 10 Table 5. Descriptive statistics for ratio data (no frequency table) ................................................ 11 Table 6. Descriptive statistics for ratio data with missing responses (no frequency table) .......... 11 Table 7. Crosstabs and chi-square large cell sizes ........................................................................ 13 Table 8. Crosstabs and statistical testing for 2x2 table with small cell sizes................................ 16 Table 9. Crosstabs and statistical testing for paired variables ...................................................... 17 Table 10. One sample t-test .......................................................................................................... 19 Table 11. Paired sample t-test ....................................................................................................... 20 Table 12. Independent samples t-test ............................................................................................ 21 Table 13. One-way ANOVA, omnibus F was statistically significant ......................................... 24 Table 14. One-way ANOVA, omnibus F is not statistically significant ...................................... 27 Table 15. One-way repeated measures ANOVA .......................................................................... 30 Table 16. Two-way ANOVA ........................................................................................................ 35 Table 17. Mixed method ANOVA................................................................................................ 42 Table 18. Measure of association for nominal data ...................................................................... 48 Table 19. Measure of association for ordinal data ........................................................................ 50 Table 20. Measure of association for interval/ratio data............................................................... 51

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(Note: numbered textboxes are associated with same number definition within that analysis section)

1. Frequency - This number represents a count of the number of respondents that chose a specific answer for a question. 2. Descriptive - These are statistical figures that provide insight into a data set, such as distribution information. Descriptive figures are often used to examine the validity of a data sample, and should be reviewed before running any inferential statistical analysis (e.g. t-test, ANOVA). They include but are not limited to the definitions in 4 - 11 below. 3. Sample Size (N) (valid & missing) - The total sample size represents the number of people who were in the sample or were asked a question. A valid sample size is the total number of respondents for a question with the number of missing/invalid responses subtracted. Missing or invalid data can occur for a number of reasons. Persons will often miss or skip an item when responding; therefore, their response to this item is recorded as a missing value. Invalid information may be offered as a response; the researcher will also code these items as missing values. Based on response to previous items, the person may not need to answer a question; their response will then be recorded as a missing value. 4. Percent vs. Valid Percent vs. Cumulative Percent - These percentages represent the frequency of responses for a specific answer to a question divided by either the total sample size (Percent) or the valid sample size (Valid Percent). The cumulative percent is the accumulation of the valid percent from one questions response to another; to find the cumulative percent, add all the previous valid percentages to the valid percentage of the current row. Typically, use percent when reporting on demographic questions and valid percent when reporting on yes/no, Likert-scale, and other measurement-type questions. 5. Mean - This is the average of all responses for a given question. Means can only be computed for questions that are interval or ratio. For example: age, GPA, BMI, Likert-type scale questions. The mean is calculated by adding up all of the valid scores and dividing the total by the number of valid scores. 6. Median - This figure is the value that separates the higher half of a sample from the lower half. The valid data is sorted in ascending order, and if there is an odd number of data points, the median is the middle number; however if there is an even number of data points, the median is the average of the middle two numbers. The median is used for ordinal, interval or ratio data. 7. Standard Deviation (Std. Deviation) - This figure represents the distribution or spread of data points from the mean value. Standard deviation is a measure of the tendency of individual values to vary from the mean value. 8. Minimum - This figure represents the lowest chosen valid response from all responders.

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9. Maximum - This figure represents the highest chosen valid response from all responders. 10. Mode - This figure represents the most frequently chosen valid response from all responders. There may be more than one mode per question. 11. Quartiles - These figures represent the range of data broken down by percentiles. The lower quartile is the 25th percentile where 75% of the scores are above this number; the middle quartile is the median; the highest quartile is the 75th percentile where 25% of the scores are above this number. 12. Nominal data - Nominal data is data where the values assigned to responses are mutually exclusive, but the values have no order. Gender is an example of nominal data males can be assigned the value 1 and females the value 2 or vice versa and it would not impact the analysis results or interpretation. No descriptive statistics are needed; use the information from the frequency tables. 13. Ordinal data - Ordinal data is data where the numbering of the responses indicates the relative order but does not indicate the absolute strength/value of the responses. For example, class level the coding of freshman, sophomore, junior, and senior from 1 to 4 indicates relative rank but the absolute difference between the ranks may not have the same meaning. Simple arithmetic operations are not meaningfully applied to ordinal data. Ordinal data can use the mode, median, quartiles, minimum and maximum. 14. Interval or ratio data - Interval and ratio data are data where the numbering of responses indicates both relative and absolute strength/value of responses. Therefore, the difference between two values is a meaningful measurement. Interval/ratio data can use the mode, median, quartiles, minimum, maximum, mean and standard deviation.

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7 Section 1: Frequencies without missing responses Steps to follow when reading this output: 1. Review table titled Statistics for sample size (N) 2. Review the table with the variable name title for the counts of responses SPSS process SPSS Example data set: employee.sav SPSS analysis path: analyze>descriptive>frequencies and choose the variable employment category SPSS output Table 1. Frequencies without missing responses

Statistics Employment Category N Valid Missing 474 0

Employment Category Frequency Valid Clerical Custodial Manager Total 363 27 84 474 Percent 76.6 5.7 17.7 100.0 Valid Percent 76.6 5.7 17.7 100.0 Cumulative Percent 76.6 82.3 100.0

#1. For this output, 363 people reported that they work in a clerical job. This represented 76.6% of the total population. #3. The total sample size was 474. #4. Because there were no missing data points, the percent and valid percent were the same. The cumulative percent sums up the valid percent as you progress down the categories. o 76.6% of the total valid sample were clerical o 82.3% of the total valid sample were clerical & custodial o 100.0% of the total valid sample were clerical & custodial & manager

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8 Section 2: Frequencies without descriptive & with missing responses Steps to follow when reading this output: 1. Review table titled Statistics for sample size (N) 2. Review the table with the variable name title for the counts of responses SPSS process SPSS Example data set: demo.sav SPSS analysis path: SPSS output SPSS analysis path: analyze>descriptive>frequencies and choose the variable Internet SPSS output: Table 2. Frequencies with missing responses

Statistics Internet N Valid Missing 6145 255

Internet Frequency Valid No Yes Total Missing Does not know No Answer Total Total 4509 1636 6145 116 139 255 6400 Percent 70.5 25.6 96.0 1.8 2.2 4.0 100.0 Valid Percent 73.4 26.6 100.0 Cumulative Percent 73.4 100.0

#1. For this output, 4509 people reported that they did not have internet. #3. The total sample size was 6400 and the valid sample size was 6145. #4. Because there were missing data points, the percent and valid percent were not the same. o The total percent of people who responded no was 70.5% o The valid percent of people who responded no was 73.4% Typically, the valid percent is reported for this type of question.

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9 Section 3: Frequencies with descriptive statistics The following tables include frequency information and information on the chosen descriptive statistics. Recall the descriptive statistics that are based on summation or division (means and standard deviations) are only meaningful for data that are interval or ratio. Note: you may choose to omit any of these descriptive statistics depending on your particular project need. Ordinal data Steps to follow when reading this output: 1. Review table titled Statistics for sample size (N), and the chosen descriptive statistics 2. Review the table with the variable name title for the counts of responses SPSS process SPSS Example data set: demo.sav SPSS analysis path: SPSS output SPSS analysis path: analyze>descriptive>frequencies and choose the variable carcat, then click on the statistics button and choose quartiles, median, mode, minimum, maximum SPSS output: Note: you will need to know your coding scheme to interpret the output. In the output that follows, economy is coded as 1, standard is coded as 2, and luxury is coded as 3. Table 3. Frequencies and descriptive statistics for ordinal data

Statistics Primary vehicle price category N Median Mode Minimum Maximum Percentiles Valid Missing 6400 0 2.0000 3.00 1.00 3.00 1.0000 2.0000 3.0000 Primary vehicle price category Frequency Valid Economy Standard Luxury Total 1841 2275 2284 6400 Percent 28.8 35.5 35.7 100.0 Valid Percent 28.8 35.5 35.7 100.0 Cumulative Percent 28.8 64.3 100.0

#13. This table contains the descriptive statistics for the ordinal variable primary vehicle price category.

25 50 75

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10 Interval/Ratio data Steps to follow when reading this output: 1. Review table titled Statistics for sample size (N), and the chosen descriptive statistics 2. Review the table with the variable name title for the counts of responses Example with the frequency table SPSS process SPSS Example data set: demo.sav SPSS analysis path: analyze>descriptive>frequencies and choose the variable jobsat, then click on the statistics button and choose quartiles, median, mode, minimum, maximum, mean, standard deviation SPSS output: Rating scale for job satisfaction was 1=highly dissatisfied to 5=highly satisfied Table 4. Frequencies and descriptive statistics for interval data.

Statistics Job satisfaction N Mean Median Mode Std. Deviation Minimum Maximum Percentiles Valid Missing 6400 0 3.06 3.00 4 1.369 1 5 2.00 3.00 4.00 Job satisfaction Frequency Valid Highly dissatisfied Somewhat dissatisfied Neutral Somewhat satisfied Highly satisfied Total 1109 1268 1393 1406 1224 6400 Percent 17.3 19.8 21.8 22.0 19.1 100.0 Valid Percent 17.3 19.8 21.8 22.0 19.1 100.0 Cumulative Percent 17.3 37.1 58.9 80.9 100.0

#14. This table contains the descriptive statistics for the interval variable job satisfaction.

25 50 75

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11 Example without the frequency table SPSS process SPSS Example data set: demo.sav SPSS analysis path: analyze>descriptive>frequencies and choose the variable income, then click on the statistics button and choose quartiles, median, mode, minimum, maximum, mean, standard deviation. You will not want the frequency tables, so uncheck the display frequency tables box in the Frequency dialog window. SPSS output: Table 5. Descriptive statistics for ratio data (no frequency table)

Statistics Household income in thousands N Valid 6400 0 69.4748 45.0000 25.00 78.71856 9.00 1116.00 28.0000 45.0000 79.0000 Missing Mean Median Mode Std. Deviation Minimum Maximum Percentiles 25 50 75

#14. This table contains the descriptive statistics for the ratio variable household income in thousands.

Example with missing responses SPSS process SPSS Example data set: 1991 U.S. General Social Survey.sav SPSS analysis path: analyze>descriptive>frequencies and choose the variable sibs, then click on the statistics button and choose quartiles, median, mode, minimum, maximum, mean, standard deviation. Uncheck the display frequency tables box in the Frequency dialog window. SPSS output: Table 6. Descriptive statistics for ratio data with missing responses (no frequency table)

Statistics Number of Brothers and Sisters N Valid Missing Mean Median Mode Std. Deviation Minimum Maximum Percentiles 25 50 75 1505 12 3.93 3.00 2 3.047 0 26 2.00 3.00 5.00

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#14. This table contains the descriptive statistics for the ratio variable number of brothers and sisters. Note that there were 12 missing values; the statistics were calculated based on valid N.

12

Cross Tabulation Analysis with Chi-Square Analysis Definitions associated with crosstab analysis 1. Cross Tabulation (Crosstab) - a Cross Tabulation shows the combined distribution of two variables, where the data for each variable is in categories. Cross tabulations are only appropriate for data that is in categories; do not use for continuous data (i.e. age in years, household income in thousands, GPA). 2. Case Processing Summary SPSS provides a case processing summary with the crosstab output. This table is displayed before the crosstab table and provides a brief descriptive of variables included in the analysis along with their sample sizes. 3. Chi-Square - This analysis tests the statistical independence between the variables represented in the Crosstab. The chi-square examines differences between the expected and actual counts across the cells in the crosstabs. 4. Pearson Chi-Square - There are multiple Chi-Square tests that an individual can choose from when running the analysis. The Pearsons Chi-Square test is the best-known and most frequently used test. 5. Fishers Exact The Fishers Exact test can be used for statistical testing for independence in a 2x2 design. 6. McNemar-Bowker The McNemar-Bowker test is used for statistical testing for 2 related variables (e.g. pre/post responses). The McNemar-Bowker procedure is to be used to test the hypothesis that the responses in condition A do not differ from the responses in condition B. Steps to follow when reading output: 1. Review table titled Case Processing Summary for the valid sample size. This table will indicate if there were any missing responses. 2. Review the Cross Tabulation table -- this table will always be titled with the variables that you chose to analyze. Pay close attention to the differences between the counts and percentages in each cell of the table. 3. If chosen to do so, view the Chi-Square analysis table to review the statistical significance of the differences between the variables. First check to see if the chi-square is valid for your data. Look at the notes beneath the Chi-Square tests table. If 20% or more of the cells have expected count less than 5 or if the minimum expected count is less than 1 you cannot use the listed chi-square results. If you have a 2x2 table, you can use the Fishers exact 2-sided results. If you can use the chi-square, check the significance value {Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)}. If the significance value is <.05, then the result is statistically significant; if the significance value is >= .05 then the result is not statistically significant.

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13 Section 1: Example with large cell sizes SPSS process SPSS Example data set: demo.sav Hypothesis to test: the distribution of relative counts for type of vehicle is the same for the 2 gender groups (male and female) SPSS analysis path: analyze>descriptive>crosstabs then put carcat in the rows and gender in the columns. Click on the statistics button and choose chi-square; click on the cells button and choose row and column percentages SPSS output: Table 7. Crosstabs and chi-square large cell sizes

#2. Between these two variables there were a total of 6400 responses, there were no missing responses.

Case Processing Summary Cases Valid N Primary vehicle price category * Gender 6400 Percent 100.0% N 0 Missing Percent .0% N 6400 Total Percent 100.0%

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14 Table 7 continued

Primary vehicle price category * Gender Crosstabulation Gender Female Primary Economy vehicle price category Count % within Primary vehicle price category % within Gender Standard Count % within Primary vehicle price category % within Gender Luxury Count % within Primary vehicle price category % within Gender Total Count % within Primary vehicle price category % within Gender 909 49.4% 28.6% 1137 50.0% 35.8% 1133 49.6% 35.6% 3179 49.7% 100.0% Male 932 50.6% 28.9% 1138 50.0% 35.3% 1151 50.4% 35.7% 3221 50.3% 100.0% Total 1841 100.0% 28.8% 2275 100.0% 35.5% 2284 100.0% 35.7% 6400 100.0% 100.0%

#1. This table represents the Cross Tabulation Results. To read this table: The total column has the counts and percentages for each row of data (vehicle type). o 1841 total Economy or 28.8% of the all vehicles The total row has the counts and percentages for the columns of data (gender) o 3179 total females or 49.7% of the total sample

For this example: For the Economy vehicles: 909 females had Economy. This represented o 49.4% of all who had Economy and 28.6% of all females 932 males had Economy. This represented o 50.6% of all who had Economy and 28.9% of all males

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15 Table 7 continued

Chi-Square Tests Value Pearson Chi-Square Likelihood Ratio N of Valid Cases .154 .154 6400

a

df 2 2

#3. This table represents the output from a Chi-Square analysis run on the above Crosstab.

a. 0 cells (.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 914.46.

#4. The first row represents the Pearson Chi-Square analysis. The Chi-Square value was .154. There were 2 degrees of freedom. The significance value was .926. Results: because .926 > .05, this did not represent a statistically significant relationship between the two variables in the above Crosstab. Refer back to the crosstab table to explain this result. When you look at the crosstabs, the same % of males and females chose each car type 28.6% of all females & 28.9% of all males chose Economy; 35.8% of all females & 35.3% of all males chose Standard; 35.6% of all females & 35.7% of all males chose Luxury Note: If the expected count was less than 5 for 20% or more of the cells, or if the minimum expected count was < 1 do not use the chi-square results for interpreting statistical differences.

Section 2: example with small cell sizes SPSS process SPSS Example data set: demo.sav Hypothesis to test: the distribution of relative counts for owning a computer is the same for those who have and dont have newspaper subscriptions. SPSS analysis path: analyze>descriptive>crosstabs then put ownpc in the rows and news in the columns. Click on the statistics button and choose chi-square; click on the cells button and choose row and column percentages. SPSS output:

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16 Table 8. Crosstabs and statistical testing for 2x2 table with small cell sizes

Case Processing Summary Cases Valid N Owns computer * Newspaper subscription 31 Percent 100.0% N 0 Missing Percent .0% N 31 Total Percent 100.0%

Owns computer * Newspaper subscription Crosstabulation Newspaper subscription Yes Owns computer No Count % within Owns computer % within Newspaper subscription Yes Count % within Owns computer % within Newspaper subscription Total Count % within Owns computer % within Newspaper subscription Chi-Square Tests Value Pearson Chi-Square Continuity Correction Likelihood Ratio Fisher's Exact Test Linear-by-Linear Association N of Valid Cases .180 31 1 .672

b

df

a

.186

.000 .179

.642

.510

a. 1 cells (25.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 1.58. b. Computed only for a 2x2 table

Because the expected count was less than 5 for 20% or more of the cells do not use the chi-square results for interpreting statistical differences; instead use the Fishers Exact Test results. #5. The 4th row represents the Fishers Exact Test analysis. The last 2 columns list the significance values. We typically report the 2-sided results. Results: because .642 > .05, this does not represent a statistically significant relationship between the two variables in the above crosstab. Refer back to the crosstab table to explain this result. 71.4% of those who have newspaper subscriptions did not own a computer which compares to 79.2% of those who did not have a newspaper subscription. This difference was not large enough to be statistically significant.

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17 Section 3: Example with paired variables SPSS process SPSS Example data set: New drug.sav Hypothesis to test: the distribution of relative counts for Time 1 is the same for Time 2. SPSS analysis path: analyze>descriptive>crosstabs then put resp1 in the rows and resp2 in the columns. Click on the statistics button and choose McNemar; click on the cells button and choose row and column percentages. SPSS output: Table 9. Crosstabs and statistical testing for paired variables

Case Processing Summary Cases Valid N Respiratory, Time 1 * Respiratory, Time 2 12 Percent 100.0% N 0 Missing Percent .0% N 12 Total Percent 100.0%

Respiratory, Time 1 * Respiratory, Time 2 Crosstabulation Respiratory, Time 2 3.2 Respiratory, Time 1 3.2 Count % within Respiratory, Time 1 % within Respiratory, Time 2 3.3 Count % within Respiratory, Time 1 % within Respiratory, Time 2 3.4 Count % within Respiratory, Time 1 % within Respiratory, Time 2 Total Count % within Respiratory, Time 1 % within Respiratory, Time 2 Chi-Square Tests Value McNemar-Bowker Test N of Valid Cases .667 12 df 2 Asymp. Sig. (2sided) .717 2 50.0% 66.7% 1 20.0% 33.3% 0 .0% .0% 3 25.0% 100.0% 3.3 2 50.0% 40.0% 2 40.0% 40.0% 1 33.3% 20.0% 5 41.7% 100.0% 3.4 0 .0% .0% 2 40.0% 50.0% 2 66.7% 50.0% 4 33.3% 100.0% Total 4 100.0% 33.3% 5 100.0% 41.7% 3 100.0% 25.0% 12 100.0% 100.0%

Go to Table 7 for how to read and interpret the cross-tabs table. #6. The McNemar-Bowker Test results are listed in the Chi-Square Tests table. The last columns list the significance values. Results: because .717 > .05, this does not represent a statistically significant difference between the 2 BPA-900 distribution of results. Refer back to the crosstab table to explain this result.

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T-test Analysis Definitions associated with t-test analysis 1. What is a t-test analysis, and when to run the analysis- A t-test analysis is run in order to compare the means of two groups. To do mean testing, the data must be interval/ratio. There are three different tests that are all used for specific situations; one sample, paired sample, and independent sample (all defined below). 2. t Statistic - This number represents the computed test statistic. 3. Degrees of Freedom (df)- This number is based on the sample size and establishes which tdistribution to use when determining statistical significance. 4. Sig. 2-tailed (p value) - This number represents the significance level of the computed tstatistic. The standard criteria for statistical significance is if the Sig. (2-tailed) < .05. 5. One Sample t-test - This t-test is used when the researcher wants to compare a sample mean to a population mean or a known standard (e.g. U.S. national average or RDA requirements). The population mean or the standard value is represented as the Test Value. 6. Paired Sample t-test - This t-test is used when the researcher has one group and compares their average responses on two different variables, e.g. pre-post tests. You must be able to do a 1:1 match on the individual responses to use this test. 7. Independent Sample t-test - This t-test is used when the researcher compares the average responses of two groups on one variable/measure; for example, comparing the average differences in salary by gender group (men vs. women). To be independent, it must be the case that a person can only belong in one of the groups. 8. Levenes test for Equality of Variances This test is used with the independent sample t-test to determine whether the variances of the 2 variables are statistically similar. This test utilizes the F-distribution. 9. 95% Confidence Interval This represents and estimated range of values which, if repeated multiple times, will contain the true population parameter 95% of the time.

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19 Section 1: One sample t-test Steps to follow when reading this output: 1. Review table titled One-Sample Statistics for sample size (N) and the sample Mean 2. Review the table titled One-Sample Test for t statistic, degrees freedom (df), Sig. (2tailed) number, and Mean Difference SPSS process SPSS Example data set: employee.sav Hypothesis tested: Average current salary is at the national poverty level for a family of 4 ($22,050). SPSS analysis path: analyze>compare means>one-sample t test SPSS output

T-Test

One-Sample Statistics N Current Salary 474 Mean $34,419.57 Std. Deviation $17,075.661 Std. Error Mean $784.311

This table represents the descriptive statistics for the variable being tested.

One-Sample Test Test Value = 22050 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference Lower $10,828.40 Upper $13,910.73

df 473

#5. This table represents the results of the one-sample t-test. The testing value was $22,050 #2 The t-statistic value was 15.771. #3 The degrees of freedom was 473. #4 The 2-tailed significance value was 0.000. The difference between the 2 means was $12, 369. #9 The 95% confidence interval for the difference ranged from $10,828.40 to $13,910.73. Results: because 0.000 < .05, conclude that the average current salary was statistically significantly higher than the testing value by $12, 369.

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20 Section 2: Paired sample t-test Steps to follow when reading this output: 1. Review table titled Paired Samples Statistics for descriptive statistics 2. Review table titled Paired Samples Test for t statistic, degrees of freedom (df), and Sig. Note: your data must be set up so that a 1:1 match can be made between the starting and current salaries for each person in the sample with valid data. SPSS process SPSS Example data set: employee.sav Hypothesis tested: Average current salary is the same as average starting salary. SPSS analysis path: analyze>compare means>paired-samples t test SPSS output Table 11. Paired sample t-test

T-Test

Paired Samples Statistics Mean Pair 1 Current Salary Beginning Salary $34,419.57 $17,016.09 N 474 474 Std. Deviation $17,075.661 $7,870.638 Std. Error Mean $784.311 $361.510

This table has the descriptive statistics for the variables being tested. This table has the correlation between the variables being tested.

Paired Samples Correlations N Pair 1 Current Salary & Beginning Salary 474 Correlation .880 Sig. .000

Paired Samples Test Paired Differences Std. Deviation Std. Error Mean 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference Lower Upper t 35.036 df 473 Sig. (2tailed) .000

$17,403.481 $10,814.620

#6. This table represents the results of the paired-sample t-test. #2 The t-statistic value was 35.036. #3 The degrees of freedom was 473. #4 The 2-tailed significance value was 0.000. The difference between the 2 means was $17,403 with a standard deviation of $10,814. #9 The 95% confidence interval for the difference ranged from $16,427.407 to $18,379.555 Results: because 0.000 < .05, conclude that the average current salary was statistically significantly higher than the average starting salary by $17,403.

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21 Section 3: Independent samples t-test Steps to follow when reading this output: 1. Review table titled Group Statistics for descriptive statistics 2. Review table titled Independent Samples Test first for the Levenes Test for Equality of Variances: Follow these criteria If Sig for the Levenes Test is > .05 follow the upper row of statistics If Sig for the Levenes Test is < .05 follow the lower row of statistics 3. After identifying which row to follow identify the t-statistic, df, and Sig. (2-tailed) to determine if there was a significant difference between the means of the samples

SPSS process SPSS Example data set: employee.sav Hypothesis tested: Average current salary is the same for minority and non-minority workers. SPSS analysis path: analyze>compare means>independent-samples t test SPSS output

T-Test

Group Statistics Minority Classific ation Current Salary No Yes

N 370 104

This table has the descriptive statistics for both groups of the variables being tested.

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22 Table 12 continued

Independent Samples Test Levene's Test for Equality of Variances t-test for Equality of Means Sig. (2tailed) Mean Std. Error Difference Difference 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference Lower Upper

F Current Salary Equal variances assumed Equal variances not assumed 28.487

Sig. .000

t 3.915

df 472

.000 $7,309.369 $1,867.111 $3,640.491 $10,978.246 .000 $7,309.369 $1,460.936 $4,432.707 $10,186.030

5.003 262.188

#7. This table represents the results of the independent-samples t-test. #8. The Levenes results had an F-statistic of 28.487 with a significance value of .000. Because .000 < .05, the 2 variables had statistically different variance distributions. Therefore, use the 2nd row of t-test information to determine if the 2 means are statistically different from each other. #2 The t-statistic value was 5.003. #3 The degrees of freedom was 262. #4 The 2-tailed significance value was 0.000. The difference between the means was $7,309.369 and the standard error of this difference was $1,460.936. #9 The 95% confidence interval of the difference ranged from $4,432.707 to $10,186.030. Results: because 0.000 < .05, conclude that the average current salary was statistically significantly higher for non-minorities by $7,309.

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23 One-Way ANOVA Definitions associated with one-way ANOVA analysis 1. What is an One-Way ANOVA and when to run the analysis - A one-way ANOVA is used when a researcher wants to compare mean differences when the independent variable is nominal or ordinal and has 3 or more levels or groups and the dependent variable is interval/ratio. This analysis allows the researcher to run a comparison of means (averages) between the multiple groups at one time. 2. F- Statistic - This number represents the omnibus statistic asks the question, is there a statistical difference between any of the group means? 3. Significant (Sig.) - This number represents the significance level of the given F-statistic. When looking at this number follow these criteria: Sig. (2-tailed) < .05 there is a statistically significant difference in the group means Sig. (2-tailed) > .05 there is no statistically significant difference in group means 4. Post Hoc Tests - If the omnibus F-test is statistically significant, the post-hoc tests are run to answer the question, where are the statistically significant differences? This is an analysis that tests for the statistical significance differences between the individual group means. There are a variety of post hoc tests available. 5. Tukey HSD This is the post hoc test PARQ uses for one-way ANOVAs. Note: if you need an effect size for the F-test, run the analysis using the General Linear Model. The path would be: analyze>GLM>univariate; put educ in dependent variable and jobcat in fixed factors. Under options choose descriptive and estimates of effect size; under post hocs, select jobcat and the check the Tukeys box.

Section 1: F-statistic was significant Steps to follow when reading this output: 1. This ANOVA was run on the independent variable of Employment category, which has three groups -- manager, clerical, and custodial. These groups were tested for a difference in their Education Level (years). 2. Review table titled Oneway for the F statistic and Sig. number. If the F-statistic is significant, then go to step 3. If the F-statistic is not significant, stop. 3. Review the table titled Post Hoc Tests to determine the statistically significant differences between groups.

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24 SPSS process SPSS Example data set: employee.sav Hypothesis tested: Average education level in years is the same for clerical, custodial and managers. SPSS analysis path: analyze>compare means>one-way ANOVA. Choose educ as the dependent variable and jobcat as the factor. SPSS output Table 13. One-way ANOVA, omnibus F was statistically significant This table has the descriptive statistics of education level for each group in the employment category.

Descriptives Educational Level (years) 95% Confidence Interval for Mean N Clerical Custodial Manager Total 363 27 84 474 Mean 12.87 10.19 17.25 13.49 Std. Deviation 2.333 2.219 1.612 2.885 Std. Error .122 .427 .176 .133 Lower Bound 12.63 9.31 16.90 13.23 Upper Bound 13.11 11.06 17.60 13.75 Minimum 8 8 12 8 Maximum 19 15 21 21

Oneway

ANOVA Educational Level (years) Sum of Squares 1622.989 2313.477 3936.466 df 2 471 473 Mean Square 811.495 4.912 F 165.212 Sig. .000

#2 The F-statistic was 165.212 #3 The Sig value was 0.000 Results: because the Sig number of .000 was less than .05, there was a statistically significant difference between some of the average values. Therefore, run the Tukey HSD post hoc tests to see where the differences were. To run the Tukey HSD, go to analyze>compare means>one-way ANOVA, choose post hocs and check the Tukey HSD box.

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25 Table 12 continued

Multiple Comparisons Dependent Variable: Educational Level (years) Tukey HSD 95% Confidence Interval Std. Error .442 .268 .442 .490 .268 .490 Sig. .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 Upper Bound 1.64 -5.01 -3.72 -8.22 3.75 5.91 Lower Bound 3.72 -3.75 -1.64 -5.91 5.01 8.22

#5 The mean differences between the groups are reported in the multiple comparisons table. When there are 3 groups, there will be 3 unique comparisons: 1. Group 1 to group 2 2. Group 1 to group 3 3. Group 2 to group 3 However, the SPSS output will contain all of the possible comparisons per group group 1 to group 2 & group 3; group 2 to group 1 & group 3; group 3 to group 1 & group 2. Results: The first 2 rows compare Clerical to Custodial and Manager. The Clerical mean was 2.683 years higher than Custodial, and this difference was statistically significant (Sig. = .000 < .05). The Clerical mean was 4.382 years lower than the Manager, and this difference was statistically significant (Sig. = .000 < .05). For the final comparison, Custodial to Manager you can look in either row 4 or 6 The Custodial mean was 7.065 years lower than the Manager, and this difference was statistically significant (Sig. = .000 < .05). It can be helpful to review the information in the Descriptives table to see what the individual group means were. For this example, all of the mean differences between the three groups were statistically significant. This will not always be the case.

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Homogeneous Subsets

Educational Level (years) Tukey HSD

a,,b

Subset for alpha = 0.05 N 27 363 84 1.000 1.000 1 10.19 12.87 17.25 1.000 2 3

Means for groups in homogeneous subsets are displayed. a. Uses Harmonic Mean Sample Size = 58.031. b. The group sizes are unequal. The harmonic mean of the group sizes is used. Type I error levels are not guaranteed.

This table reflects the same information that was in the multiple comparisons table each of the categories was different from each other, so they were placed in separate groups. Note: because the sample size differed by group, SPSS used the harmonic mean for the sample size.

Section 2: F-statistic was not significant Steps to follow when reading this output: 1. This ANOVA was run on the independent variable of Employment category, which has three groups; manager, clerical, and custodial. These groups were tested for a difference in their months since hire. 2. Review table titled Oneway (Table 13) for the F- statistic and Sig. number. If the Fstatistic is significant, then go to step 3. If the F-statistic is not significant, stop. SPSS Example data set: employee.sav Hypothesis tested: Average months since hire is the same for clerical, custodial and managers. SPSS analysis path: analyze>compare means>one-way ANOVA. Choose jobtime as the dependent variable and jobcat as the factor. SPSS output

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Descriptives Months since Hire 95% Confidence Interval for Mean N Clerical Custodial Manager Total 363 27 84 474 Mean 81.07 81.56 81.15 81.11 Std. Deviation 10.110 8.487 10.410 10.061 Std. Error .531 1.633 1.136 .462 Lower Bound 80.02 78.20 78.90 80.20 Upper Bound 82.11 84.91 83.41 82.02 Minimum 63 67 64 63 Maximum 98 95 98 98

Oneway

ANOVA Months since Hire Sum of Squares Between Groups Within Groups Total 6.227 47872.068 47878.295 df 2 471 473 Mean Square 3.114 101.639 F .031 Sig. .970

Results: The F- statistic for this ANOVA analysis was not statistically significant because the Sig number of .970 was greater than .05. Therefore, the analysis stops here.

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One-Way Repeated Measures ANOVA Definitions associated with one-way repeated measures ANOVA analysis 1. What is a One-Way Repeated Measures ANOVA and when to run the analysis - A OneWay Repeated Measures ANOVA is used when a researcher wants to compare mean differences within a group across the same measure and when 3 or more measurements have been taken for each person in the sample. This analysis allows the researcher to run a comparison of means (averages) within groups at one time. 2. Sphericity Sphericity tests to see if the variability among the repeats is statistically equivalent. If the assumption of Sphericity is rejected, an adjusted F-statistic must be used to judge statistical differences between the means. 3. Mauchleys test This is the test that is used to judge Sphericity; the test statistic value is represented in the SPSS output by epsilon () 4. Huynh-Feldt correction Use this correction if Sphericity is significant and > .75 5. Greenhouse-Geisser correction - Use this correction if Sphericity is significant and < .75 6. F-Statistic - This number represents the omnibus statistic asks the question, is there a statistical difference between any of the repeats means? 7. Significant (Sig.) - This number represents the significance level of the given F-statistic. When looking at this number follow these criteria: Sig. (2-tailed) < .05 there is statistically significant difference in the group means Sig. (2-tailed) > .05 there is no statistically significant difference in group means 8. Partial Eta Squared - This is a measure of the effect size of the F-statistic. 9. Post Hoc Tests - If the omnibus F-test is significant, the post-hoc tests are run to answer the question, where are the statistically significant differences? This is an analysis that tests for statistically significant differences between the pairs of repeats. 10. Sidak Test - This is the post hoc test used by PARQ for one-way repeated measures ANOVA. Steps to follow when reading this output: This ANOVA was run on the weight taken for each person over three separate time periods. Reading initial output is a 2-stage process. First you must check for Sphericity, and then depending on the results of the Sphericity test, you will check for significance of the omnibus F. 1. Review table titled Mauchlys test of Sphericity for the Sig. number.

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29 a. If the Sig. 0.05, then you will use the uncorrected or Sphericity assumed statistics for the table titled Tests of Within-in Subjects Effects. b. If the Sig. < 0.05, then you will use one of the corrected statistics for the table titled Tests of Within-in Subjects Effects. To determine which correction to use, check the value of epsilon in the Mauchlys test of Sphericity table. i. If epsilon > .75 use Huynh-Feldt correction when you read the table titled Tests of Within-in Subjects Effects ii. If epsilon < .75 use Greenhouse-Geisser correction when you read the table titled Tests of Within-in Subjects Effects 2. Read the table Tests of Within-in Subjects Effects. a. If the Sig. value of the test statistic identified in Step 1 is < .05 then there was a statistically significant difference between some of the repeats; you will need to run post hocs to see where the differences were. Read Partial Eta Squared for measure of effect size. b. If the Sig. value of the test statistic identified in Step 1 is .05 then there was no statistically significant difference between the repeats and the analysis stops. 3. If the identified F-statistic was significant, read the table Pairwise Comparisons to see where the statistically significant differences were. SPSS Example data set: dietstudy.sav Hypothesis tested: There was no change in average weight across the 3 time periods. SPSS analysis path: analyze>general linear model>repeated measures where the factor had 3 levels. To produce the output that follows, these options were chosen: show means for all the choices, show an effect size, compare main effects, conduct Sidak post hoc tests. SPSS output

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Table 15. One-way repeated measures ANOVA

Within-Subjects Factors Measure:MEASURE_1 factor1 1 2 3 Dependent Variable wgt1 wgt2 wgt3

This table lists the number of factor levels and their corresponding variable names.

Multivariate Tests Effect factor1 Pillai's Trace Wilks' Lambda Hotelling's Trace Roy's Largest Root Value .708 .292 2.423 2.423 F 16.964 16.964 16.964 16.964

a a a a

a. Exact statistic b. Design: Intercept Within Subjects Design: factor1 Mauchly's Test of Sphericity Measure:MEASURE_1 Within Subjects Effect factor1 Epsilon Mauchly's W .718 Approx. ChiSquare 4.641 df 2 Sig. .098 GreenhouseGeisser .780

a b

Huynh-Feldt .854

Lower-bound .500

Tests the null hypothesis that the error covariance matrix of the orthonormalized transformed dependent variables is proportional to an identity matrix. a. May be used to adjust the degrees of freedom for the averaged tests of significance. Corrected tests are displayed in the Tests of Within-Subjects Effects table. b. Design: Intercept Within Subjects Design: factor1

#3 Test for Sphericity Results: the significance value for the test statistic was 0.098; because this was > .05, do not reject the assumption of Sphericity and use use the uncorrected F-statistic results.

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31 Table 14 continued

Tests of Within-Subjects Effects Measure:MEASURE_1 Source factor1 Sphericity Assumed Greenhouse-Geisser Huynh-Feldt Lower-bound Error(factor1) Sphericity Assumed Greenhouse-Geisser Huynh-Feldt Lower-bound Type III Sum of Squares 128.000 128.000 128.000 128.000 69.333 69.333 69.333 69.333 df 2 1.560 1.708 1.000 30 23.398 25.622 15.000 Mean Square 64.000 82.059 74.935 128.000 2.311 2.963 2.706 4.622 F 27.692 27.692 27.692 27.692 Sig. .000 .000 .000 .000 Partial Eta Squared .649 .649 .649 .649

#6 F-statistic was 27.692. # 7 significance value was .000. # 8 the effect size was 0.649. Results: the significance value for the test statistic was 0.000; because this was < .05, we conclude that there were statistically significant differences between some of the repeats. Will need to look at the Sidak corrected post hocs to see where the differences were.

Tests of Within-Subjects Contrasts Measure:MEASURE_1 Source factor1 Error(factor1) factor1 Linear Quadratic Linear Quadratic Type III Sum of Squares 128.000 .000 53.000 16.333 df 1 1 15 15 Mean Square 128.000 .000 3.533 1.089 F 36.226 .000 Sig. .000 1.000 Partial Eta Squared .707 .000

The Tests of Within-Subjects Contrasts table tells you whether or not there is a significant trend (pattern) in the data. For example it tests whether the means of Levels increase in a linear or in a quadratic fashion. This test is not always useful or necessary.

http://www.statsguides.bham.ac.uk/HTG/HTGtextonly/tfd/owwsanova.htm

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32 Table 14 continued

Tests of Between-Subjects Effects Measure:MEASURE_1 Transformed Variable:Average Source Intercept Error Type III Sum of Squares 1808856.750 51019.917 df 1 15 Mean Square 1808856.750 3401.328 F 531.809 Sig. .000 Partial Eta Squared .973

1. Grand Mean Measure:MEASURE_1 95% Confidence Interval Mean 194.125 Std. Error 8.418 Lower Bound 176.183 Upper Bound 212.067

2. factor1

Estimates Measure:MEASURE_1 95% Confidence Interval factor1 1 2 3 Mean 196.125 194.125 192.125 Std. Error 8.417 8.375 8.479 Lower Bound 178.184 176.275 174.053 Upper Bound 214.066 211.975 210.197

This table has the mean over each of the 3 time periods.

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33 Table 14 continued

Pairwise Comparisons Measure:MEASURE_1 (I) factor1 1 2 3 (J) factor1 2 3 1 3 1 2 Mean Difference (IJ) 2.000 4.000 -2.000 2.000 -4.000 -2.000

* * * * * *

95% Confidence Interval for a Difference Std. Error .447 .665 .447 .474 .665 .474 Sig.

a

Based on estimated marginal means *. The mean difference is significant at the .05 level. a. Adjustment for multiple comparisons: Sidak.

# 10 Sidak post hoc test results. The mean differences between the groups are reported in the multiple comparisons table. When there are 3 time periods (repeats), there will be 3 unique comparisons: 1. Time 1 to Time 2 2. Time 1 to Time 3 3. Time 2 to Time 3 However, the SPSS output will contain all of the possible comparisons per group time 1 to time 2 & time 3; time 2 to time 1 & time 3; time 3 to time 1 & time 2. Results: Time period 1 had statistically significantly higher weight than time period 2 by 2.000 lbs. Time period 1 had statistically significantly higher weight than time period 3 by 4.000 lbs. Time period 2 had statistically significantly higher weight than time period 3 by 2.000 lbs.

Multivariate Tests Value Pillai's trace Wilks' lambda Hotelling's trace Roy's largest root .708 .292 2.423 2.423 F 16.964 a 16.964 a 16.964 a 16.964

a

Each F tests the multivariate effect of factor1. These tests are based on the linearly independent pairwise comparisons among the estimated marginal means. a. Exact statistic

This table is only used if you do not assume Sphericity. The multivariate test is conducted on difference scores and evaluates whether the population means for the sets of difference scores are simultaneously equal to zero

(http://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Advanced_ANOVA/Repeated_measures_ANOVA )

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Two-Way ANOVA Definitions associated with two-way ANOVA analysis 1. What is a Two-Way ANOVA and when to run the analysis - A two-way ANOVA is used when a researcher wants to compare mean differences for two or more independent variables that are in categories, such as the difference in average scores between gender and minority status. This analysis allows the researcher to run a comparison of means (averages) between the multiple groups at one time. There are 3 hypotheses tested: H1: There are no differences in average value of dependent variable for the first independent variable H2: There are no differences in average value of dependent variable for the second independent variable H1*2: There is no differential or interaction effect of the 2 independent variables on the average value of the dependent variable 2. F- Statistic - This number represents the omnibus statistic asks the question, is there a statistical difference between any of the group means? 3. Significant (Sig.) - This number represents the significance level of the given F-statistic. When looking at this number follow these criteria: Sig. (2-tailed) < .05 there is statistically significant difference in the group means Sig. (2-tailed) > .05 there is no statistically significant difference in group means 4. Between Subjects effects This is the type of analysis that was conducted between subjects indicted that a given person was part of only one group (i.e. either male or female; either minority or non-minority). 5. Interaction effect This tests to see if there was a differential effect on the dependent variable depending on which set of groups the person belonged to. For example, was there different effect on average income for the gender groups based on their minority status? 6. Post Hoc Tests - If the omnibus F-test is statistically significant and one of the factors have 3 or groups, the post-hoc tests are run to answer the question, where are the statistically significant differences? This is an analysis that tests for the statistical significance differences between the individual group means. There are a variety of post hoc tests available. 7. Tukey HSD This is the post hoc test PARQ uses for ANOVAs. 8. Partial Eta Squared - This is a measure of the effect size of the F-statistic.

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Steps to follow when reading this output: 1. This ANOVA was run on the independent variables of Income category, which has 4 groups -- < $25, $25-$49, $50-$74, $75+, and gender -- female and male. These groups were tested for differences in their average job satisfaction. 2. Review table titled Tests of Between-Subjects Effects for the F statistic and Sig. number for the following : a. Overall, or omnibus F-test. If the F-statistic was not significant, the analysis stops. b. F-test for each of the 3 hypotheses being tested. If the F-statistic was significant for any of the 3 hypotheses, then go to step 3. 3. For variables with 3 or more groups, review the table titled Post Hoc Tests to determine the statistically significant differences between groups. If the interaction effects was statistically significant, review the table title Multiple Comparisons and the chart title Estimated Marginal Means of [dependent variable] to see where differences were. For variables with 2 groups, review the table Estimated Marginal Means to see where the differences were.

SPSS process SPSS Example data set: demo.sav Hypothesis tested: compare job satisfaction ratings across income categories and gender. This is a 3x2 ANOVA and has 3 associated hypotheses: Hgender: there are no differences in average ratings between males and females Hincome: there are no differences in average ratings between income categories Hgender*income: there is no interaction effect between gender and income category SPSS analysis path: analyze>General Linear Model>Univariate. To produce the output that follows, these options were chosen: show marginal means for all the choices, show an effect size, conduct Tukey post hoc tests for income category, and graph the interaction between gender and income category. SPSS output

Table 16. Two-way ANOVA

Between-Subjects Factors Value Label Income category in thousands 1.00 2.00 3.00 Gender 4.00 f m Under $25 $25 - $49 $50 - $74 $75+ Female Male N 1174 2388 1120 1718 3179 3221

This table details the coding and sample size for the independent variables.

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36 Table 15 continued

Tests of Between-Subjects Effects Dependent Variable:Job satisfaction Source Corrected Model Intercept inccat gender inccat * gender Error Total Corrected Total Type III Sum of Squares 1505.602 54201.036 1497.083 2.640 3.776 10479.238 71814.000 11984.840

a

#4 This table contains the statistical testing results for the hypotheses. Omnibus F-statistic = 131.196 with Sig = .000 and effect size of .126. Income category F-statistic = 304.391 with Sig = .000. Gender category F-statistic = 1.610 with Sig = .205. Interaction F-statistic = 0.768 with Sig = .512. Results: The omnibus F-statistic was statistically significant; indicating that there were statistically significant differences between some of the group averages satisfaction ratings. The interaction variable was not statistically significant. The income category was statistically significant. The gender variable was not statistically significant. Conclude o There was no differential effect on job satisfaction by gender and income so that job satisfaction by income category did not differ between males and females. o There were differences in average job satisfaction ratings across income groups, but not across gender. We need to look at the Tukey post hoc analysis to see where the statistical differences for the income categories were. Also, looking at the Marginal Means Plot will help to understand/explain the results.

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37 Table 15 continued

1. Grand Mean Dependent Variable:Job satisfaction 95% Confidence Interval Mean 3.051 Std. Error .017 Lower Bound 3.018 Upper Bound 3.084

This is the overall mean job satisfaction rating (the scale was from 1 to 5).

2. Income category in thousands Dependent Variable:Job satisfaction Income category in thousands Under $25 $25 - $49 $50 - $74 $75+ 95% Confidence Interval Mean 2.439 2.779 3.235 3.752 Std. Error .037 .026 .038 .031 Lower Bound 2.365 2.727 3.160 3.691 Upper Bound 2.512 2.830 3.310 3.812

3. Gender Dependent Variable:Job satisfaction 95% Confidence Interval Gender Female Male Mean 3.030 3.072 Std. Error .024 .024 Lower Bound 2.983 3.026 Upper Bound 3.076 3.119

4. Income category in thousands * Gender Dependent Variable:Job satisfaction Income category in thousands Under $25 $25 - $49 $50 - $74 $75+ 95% Confidence Interval Gender Female Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Mean 2.400 2.478 2.728 2.829 3.247 3.223 3.744 3.760 Std. Error .054 .052 .037 .037 .054 .055 .044 .043 Lower Bound 2.294 2.376 2.656 2.756 3.142 3.115 3.657 3.675 Upper Bound 2.505 2.579 2.801 2.902 3.351 3.330 3.831 3.844

These are the mean job satisfaction rating by income categories and gender.

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38 Table 15 continued

Multiple Comparisons Job satisfaction Tukey HSD (I) Income category in thousands Under $25 (J) Income category in thousands $25 - $49 $50 - $74 $75+ $25 - $49 Under $25 $50 - $74 $75+ $50 - $74 Under $25 $25 - $49 $75+ $75+ Under $25 $25 - $49 $50 - $74 95% Confidence Interval Mean Difference (IJ) -.34 -.79 .34 -.46 -.97 .79 .46 -.52 .97 .52

* * *

Std. Error .046 .053 .048 .046 .046 .041 .053 .046 .049 .048 .041 .049

Sig. .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000

Lower Bound -.45 -.93 -1.44 .22 -.58 -1.08 .66 .34 -.64 1.19 .87 .39

Upper Bound -.22 -.66 -1.19 .45 -.34 -.87 .93 .58 -.39 1.44 1.08 .64

-1.31

* * * * * * *

1.31

* *

Based on observed means. The error term is Mean Square(Error) = 1.639. *. The mean difference is significant at the .05 level.

#6 & #7. Post hoc tests for income categories. The mean differences between the groups are reported in the multiple comparisons table. When there are 4 categories, there will be 6 unique comparisons: Category 1 to category 2; Category 1 to category 3; Category 1 to category 3; Category 2 to category 3; Category 2 to category 4; Category 3 to category 4 However, the SPSS output will contain all of the possible comparisons per group, so there will be redundant information. Results: The differences between each of the 6 comparisons were all statistically significant: For under $25 group, the average job satisfaction rating was statistically lower than o $25-49 by .34 points o $50-74 by .79 points o $75+ by 1.31 points For the $25-49 group, the average job satisfaction rating was statistically lower than o $50-74 by .46 points o $75+ by .97 points For the $50-74 group, the average job satisfaction rating was statistically lower than by .52 points compared to the $75+ group Review the Estimated Marginal Means tables to see what the individual group means were. For this example, all of the mean differences between the three groups were statistically significant. This will not always be the case.

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39 Table 15 continued

Homogeneous Subsets

Job satisfaction Tukey HSD Income category in thousands Under $25 $25 - $49 $50 - $74 $75+ Sig.

a,,b,,c

Subset N 1174 2388 1120 1718 1.000 1.000 1.000 1 2.44 2.78 3.23 3.75 1.000 2 3 4

Means for groups in homogeneous subsets are displayed. Based on observed means. The error term is Mean Square(Error) = 1.639. a. Uses Harmonic Mean Sample Size = 1456.941. b. The group sizes are unequal. The harmonic mean of the group sizes is used. Type I error levels are not guaranteed. c. Alpha = .05.

This table reflects the same information that was in multiple comparisons table (above) each of the categories was different from each other, so they were placed in separate groups.

Figure A

This is a chart of the mean job satisfaction ratings for gender in each of the 4 income categories. #5 This chart is useful for interpreting interaction effects. There do not appear to be differences across groups, but higher income is associated with higher levels of satisfaction & vice versa. Note: this chart is for preliminary diagnostic purposes only. The default SPSS charts do not use the entire score scale and so can be misleading Figure As scale should run from 1 to 5, rather than 2.4 to 3.6.

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40 Mixed Method ANOVA Definitions associated with mixed method ANOVA analysis 1. What is a Mixed Method ANOVA and when to run the analysis - A mixed method ANOVA is used when you have both between subjects and within subjects (repeated measures) independent variables. The independent variables must be in categories and the dependent variable must be interval/ratio. 2. Sphericity Sphericity tests to see if the variability among the repeats is statistically equivalent. If the assumption of Sphericity is rejected, an adjusted F-statistic must be used to judge statistical differences between the means. 3. Mauchleys test This is the test that is used to judge Sphericity; the test statistic value is represented in the SPSS output by epsilon (). 4. Huynh-Feldt correction Use this correction if Sphericity is significant and > .75. 5. Greenhouse-Geisser correction - Use this correction if Sphericity is significant and < .75. 6. F-Statistic - This number represents the omnibus statistic asks the question, is there a statistical difference between any of the repeats means? 7. Significant (Sig.) - This number represents the significance level of the given F-statistic. When looking at this number follow these criteria: Sig. (2-tailed) < .05 there is statistically significant difference in the group means Sig. (2-tailed) > .05 there is no statistically significant difference in group means 8. Partial Eta Squared - This is a measure of the effect size of the F-statistic. 9. Post Hoc Tests - If the omnibus F-test is significant, the post-hoc tests are run to answer the question, where are the statistically significant differences? This is an analysis that tests for the statistical significance differences between the individual groups. 10. Sidak Test - This is the post hoc test used by PARQ for repeated measures ANOVA. 11. Tukeys HSD - This is the post hoc test used by PARQ for between-subjects effects when there are 3 or more groups. Steps to follow when reading this output: This 2x2 mixed method ANOVA compares starting and current salaries across gender. Reading initial output is a 2-stage process. You must check for statistical significance of the within-subjects variable and then for the statistical significance of the between-subjects variable. For the within subjects variable, first you must check for Sphericity, and then depending on the results of the Sphericity test, you will check for significance of the omnibus F.

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41 1. Within Subjects: Review table titled Mauchlys test of Sphericity for the Sig. number a. If the Sig. 0.05, then you will use the uncorrected or Sphericity assumed statistics for the table titled Tests of Within-in Subjects Effects. b. If the Sig. < 0.05, then you will use one of the corrected statistics for the table titled Tests of Within-in Subjects Effects. To determine which correction to use, check the value of epsilon in the Mauchlys test of Sphericity table. i. If epsilon > .75 use Huynh-Feldt correction when you read the table titled Tests of Within-in Subjects Effects. ii. If epsilon < .75 use Greenhouse-Geisser correction when you read the table titled Tests of Within-in Subjects Effects. 2. Read the table Tests of Within-in Subjects Effects a. If the Sig. value of the test statistic identified in Step 1 is < .05 then there was a statistically significant difference between some of the repeats; you will need to run post hocs to see where the differences were. Read Partial Eta Squared for measure of effect size. b. If the Sig. value of the test statistic identified in Step 1 is .05 then there was no statistically significant difference between the repeats and the analysis stops. 3. Read the table Tests of Between-Subjects Effects to see if there was a statistically significant difference for the between-subjects variable. 4. If the identified F-statistic was significant, read the table Pairwise Comparisons to see where the statistically significant differences were, and view the Estimated Marginal Means chart. SPSS process SPSS Example data set: Employee data.sav Hypothesis tested: Hgender: there are no differences in average salaries between males and females [between subjects effect] Htime: there are no differences in average salaries across time (start and current) [within subject effect] Hgender*time: there is no interaction effect between gender and time SPSS analysis path: analyze>general linear model>repeated measures. To produce the following output, these options were chosen: show marginal means for all the choices, show an effect size, and graph the interaction between gender and income category. Note: no post hoc tests were needed because both of the comparisons had only 2 groups; post hoc tests are needed for groups of 3 or more. SPSS output

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Table 17. Mixed method ANOVA

Within-Subjects Factors Measure:MEASURE_1 factor1 1 2 Dependent Variable salbegin salary

This table lists the between-subjects factor coding and sample sizes.

Multivariate Tests Effect factor1 Pillai's Trace Wilks' Lambda Hotelling's Trace Roy's Largest Root factor1 * gender Pillai's Trace Wilks' Lambda Hotelling's Trace Roy's Largest Root a. Exact statistic b. Design: Intercept + gender Within Subjects Design: factor1 Value F

a a a

Hypothesis df Error df 1.000 472.000 1.000 472.000 1.000 472.000 1.000 472.000 1.000 472.000 1.000 472.000 1.000 472.000 1.000 472.000

Partial Eta Squared .742 .742 .742 .742 .143 .143 .143 .143

.742 1359.373 .258 1359.373 2.880 1359.373 2.880 1359.373 .143 .857 .167 .167 78.705 78.705 78.705 78.705

a a a

This table is only used if you do not assume Sphericity. The multivariate test is conducted on difference scores and evaluates whether the population means for the sets of difference scores are simultaneously equal to zero.

(http://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Advanced_ANOVA/Repeated_measures_ANOVA )

BPA-900

43 Table 16 continued

Mauchly's Test of Sphericity Measure:MEASURE_1 Within Subjects Effect factor1 Epsilon Mauchly's W 1.000 Approx. ChiSquare .000 df 0 Sig. . GreenhouseGeisser 1.000

a b

Huynh-Feldt 1.000

Lower-bound 1.000

Tests the null hypothesis that the error covariance matrix of the orthonormalized transformed dependent variables is proportional to an identity matrix. a. May be used to adjust the degrees of freedom for the averaged tests of significance. Corrected tests are displayed in the Tests of Within-Subjects Effects table. b. Design: Intercept + gender Within Subjects Design: factor1

#3 Test for Sphericity Results: because there were only 2 levels of the within-subjects factor, we dont need to look at Sphericity. If you have more than 2 repeated levels, see the section on Sphericity in the One-way repeated measures.

Tests of Within-Subjects Effects Measure:MEASURE_1 Source factor1 Sphericity Assumed Greenhouse-Geisser Huynh-Feldt Lower-bound factor1 * gender Sphericity Assumed Greenhouse-Geisser Huynh-Feldt Lower-bound Error(factor1) Sphericity Assumed Greenhouse-Geisser Huynh-Feldt Lower-bound Type III Sum of Squares 6.828E10 6.828E10 6.828E10 6.828E10 3.953E9 3.953E9 3.953E9 3.953E9 2.371E10 2.371E10 2.371E10 2.371E10 df 1 1.000 1.000 1.000 1 1.000 1.000 1.000 472 472.000 472.000 472.000 Mean Square 6.828E10 6.828E10 6.828E10 6.828E10 3.953E9 3.953E9 3.953E9 3.953E9 5.023E7 5.023E7 5.023E7 5.023E7 F 1359.373 1359.373 1359.373 1359.373 78.705 78.705 78.705 78.705 Sig. .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 Partial Eta Squared .742 .742 .742 .742 .143 .143 .143 .143

#6 , #7, # 8 For the factor Time: F-statistic was 1359.373; significance value was .000; the effect size was 0.742. For the interaction between time and gender: F-statistic was 78.705; significance value was .000; the effect size was 0.143. Results: the significance value for both test statistics was 0.000; because this was < .05, we conclude that there were statistically significant differences between the time periods and there were differential effects across gender. See the post hoc tables and charts for interpretation of all of the results.

BPA-900

44 Table 16 continued

Tests of Within-Subjects Contrasts Measure:MEASURE_1 Source factor1 factor1 * gender Error(factor1) factor1 Linear Linear Linear Type III Sum of Squares 6.828E10 3.953E9 2.371E10 df 1 1 472 Mean Square 6.828E10 3.953E9 5.023E7 F 1359.373 78.705 Sig. .000 .000 Partial Eta Squared .742 .143

The Tests of Within-Subjects Contrasts table tells you whether or not there is a significant trend (pattern) in the data. For example it tests whether the means of Levels increase in a linear or in a quadratic fashion. This test is not always useful or necessary.

http://www.statsguides.bham.ac.uk/HTG/HTGtextonly/tfd/owwsanova.htm

Tests of Between-Subjects Effects Measure:MEASURE_1 Transformed Variable:Average Source Intercept gender Error Type III Sum of Squares 5.981E11 3.008E10 1.095E11 df 1 1 472 Mean Square 5.981E11 3.008E10 2.320E8 F 2578.498 129.666 Sig. .000 .000 Partial Eta Squared .845 .216

#6 , #7, # 8 For the factor gender: F-statistic was 129.666; significance value was .000; the effect size was 0.216. Results: the significance value for the test statistics was 0.000; because this was < .05, we conclude that there were statistically significant differences between the 2 gender groups. See the post hoc tables and charts for interpretation of results.

BPA-900

45 Table 16 continued

1. Grand Mean Measure:MEASURE_1 95% Confidence Interval Mean 25216.767 Std. Error 496.599 Lower Bound 24240.948 Upper Bound 26192.586

2. Gender Measure:MEASURE_1 95% Confidence Interval Gender Female Male Mean 19561.944 30871.589 Std. Error 732.751 670.461 Lower Bound 18122.086 29554.131 Upper Bound 21001.803 32189.047

3. factor1 Measure:MEASURE_1 95% Confidence Interval factor1 1 2 Mean 16696.681 33736.852 Std. Error 323.224 703.953 Lower Bound 16061.546 32353.582 Upper Bound 17331.817 35120.122

4. Gender * factor1 Measure:MEASURE_1 95% Confidence Interval Gender Female Male factor1 1 2 1 2 Mean 13091.968 26031.921 20301.395 41441.783 Std. Error 476.929 1038.710 436.386 950.411 Lower Bound 12154.801 23990.853 19443.896 39574.223 Upper Bound 14029.134 28072.990 21158.895 43309.343

BPA-900

46 Figure B Note: this chart is for preliminary diagnostic purposes only. The default SPSS charts do not use the entire score scale and can be misleading Figure Bs scale should run from the reported minimum salary to the reported maximum salary.

This is a chart of the mean salary for gender in each of the 2 time periods. #5 This chart is useful for interpreting interaction effects. Results: Interaction effect: while salaries for both male and females increased in the 2nd time period, the rate of increase was greater for males. Gender effect: regardless of the time period, males had higher salaries than females.

BPA-900

47 Correlation Definitions associated with correlation analysis 1. What is a correlation analysis, and when to run the analysis- A correlation analysis is run in order assess the amount and direction of the relationship between 2 variables. 2. Nonparametric Correlations These are correlations that do not assume an underlying distribution of the data. 3. phi A chi-square based measure of association used for the 2x2 design. Phi is a symmetrical measure. This statistic is used for nominal variables. Phi varies between 0 and 1. 4. Cramers V - A chi-square based measure of association used for the designs larger than 2x2. This statistic is used for nominal variables. Cramers V varies between 0 and 1. 5. Spearmans rho This statistic is used for testing the relationship between ordinal variables. For each variable, a score is assigned a rank, where the smallest observation is assigned the rank of 1. The Spearman rho correlation is based on the difference between ranks of the 2 variables. The Spearman correlation can range from -1 to +1. 6. Pearson correlation This statistic is used for testing the relationship between interval/ratio variables. The Pearson correlation can range from -1 to +1.

7. Sig. 2-tailed (p value) - This number represents the significance level of the computed statistic. The standard criteria for statistical significance is if the Sig. (2-tailed) < .05.

Non-parametric Nominal data phi and Cramers V Steps to follow when reading this output: 1. Review table titled Chi-square tests to see if the two distributions are independent (i.e. not related to each other). 2. Review the table titled Symmetric Measures to see the level of association between the 2 variables. SPSS process SPSS Example data set: employee.sav Hypothesis tested: There is no relationship between employment category and gender. SPSS analysis path: analyze>descriptive>crosstabs then put jobcat in the rows and gender in the columns. Click on the statistics button and select chi-square and select phi and Cramers V; click on the cells button and choose row and column percentages. SPSS output

BPA-900

48

Crosstabs

Table 18. Measure of association for nominal data

Case Processing Summary Cases Valid N Employment Category * Gender 474 Percent 100.0% N 0 Missing Percent .0% N 474 Total Percent 100.0%

Employment Category * Gender Crosstabulation Gender Female Employment Category Clerical Count % within Employment Category % within Gender Custodial Count % within Employment Category % within Gender Manager Count % within Employment Category % within Gender Total Count % within Employment Category % within Gender 206 56.7% 95.4% 0 .0% .0% 10 11.9% 4.6% 216 45.6% 100.0% Male 157 43.3% 60.9% 27 100.0% 10.5% 74 88.1% 28.7% 258 54.4% 100.0% Total 363 100.0% 76.6% 27 100.0% 5.7% 84 100.0% 17.7% 474 100.0% 100.0%

BPA-900

49

Chi-Square Tests Value Pearson Chi-Square Likelihood Ratio N of Valid Cases 79.277 95.463 474

a

df 2 2

The chi-square statistic indicates that the 2 variables were related to each other (Sig < .05).

a. 0 cells (.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 12.30. Symmetric Measures Value Nominal by Nominal N of Valid Cases Phi Cramer's V .409 .409 474 Approx. Sig. .000 .000

#4 The Cramers V statistic indicates that the level of association was 0.409. Suggestions for interpreting the statistics magnitude can be found at

http://faculty.quinnipiac.edu/li barts/polsci/Statistics.html and http://homes.chass.utoronto.ca /~josephf/pol242/LM3A#STANDARDS

Ordinal data Spearmans rho Steps to follow when reading this output: 1. Review table titled Correlations to see the level of association between the 2 variables. SPSS process SPSS Example data set: demo.sav Hypothesis tested: There is no relationship between any 2 pairs of income category, level of education, or years with current employers. SPSS analysis path: analyze>correlate>bivariate then choose your variables, select Spearman SPSS output

BPA-900

Correlations Income category in thousands Spearman's rho Income category in thousands Correlation Coefficient Sig. (2-tailed) N Level of education Correlation Coefficient Sig. (2-tailed) N Years with current employer Correlation Coefficient Sig. (2-tailed) N **. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed). .108 1.000 . 6400

**

**

**

**

**

**

.000 6400

.000 6400

The correlations appear in the off-diagonal positions. The table is symmetrical, so the same information that is the top-right is also in the bottom left. #5 Spearmans rho indicates the direction and the strength of the relationship. #7 The Sig. value indicates if this relationship is statistically different from 0. Income and years with current employer had a statistically significantly positive relationship, the strength is .554. Income and level of education had a statistically significantly positive relationship, the strength was .108. Level of education and years with current employer had a statistically significantly negative relationship, the strength was .209.

BPA-900

51 Parametric Pearson r Steps to follow when reading this output: 1. Review table titled Correlations to see the level of association between the 2 variables SPSS process SPSS Example data set: employee.sav Hypothesis tested: There is no relationship between any 2 pairs of education in years, current salary, or months since hire. SPSS analysis path: analyze>correlate>bivariate then choose your variables, select Pearson SPSS output

Correlations Educational Level (years) Educational Level (years) Pearson Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) N Current Salary Pearson Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) N Months since Hire Pearson Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) N **. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed). 474 .661

**

**

.000 474 1

474 1

474

The correlations appear in the off-diagonal positions. The table is symmetrical, so the same information that is the top-right is also in the bottom left. #6 The Pearson correlation statistic indicates the strength of the relationship. #7 The Sig. value indicates if this relationship is statistically different from 0. Education level and current salary had a statistically significantly positive relationship, the strength was .661. Education level and months since hire did not had a statistically significant relationship. Current salary and months since hire did not had a statistically significant relationship. For the classical interpretation of Pearson r magnitude, please see http://www.researchmethodsinpsychology.com/wiki/index.php?title=Section_8.5:_Correlation

BPA-900

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