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# Distance Relays (ANSI type 21)

Past time considered for only transmission lines Applied to distribution radial feeders Advantage - protection under widely varying source impedance conditions.
Bus S Es1 Zs1 Relay Es2 Zs2 Fault Load

Distance Relays
Greater instantaneous trip coverage Lower sensitivity to source impedance changes Better sensitivity to fault currents Reduced sensitivity to load Easier coordination with other distance relays

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## Impedance Based Distance Relays

Use current to create operating torque Use voltage to generate restraining torque I/Z Really are MHO relays

Impedance Relays
V I = K1 K2 =Z

T = K 2 Z 2 I 2 V 2

T = K1 I 2 K 2 V 2 K 2 V 2 = K 1 I 2 if torque = zero
V
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Balance Beam

Trip Contacts

## EE526 Power System Protection II Lecture 19

Impedance Relays
Plot of all possible values of voltage and current that produce zero torque on an R-X diagram Generates a circle with the center at the origin and a radius of Z The ratios of voltage to current that produce zero torque and the line impedance vector is called the reach of the relay
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Impedance Relays
Impedance relays are inherently nondirectional
Add directional control with a type 32 Use directional control

T = K1 V I cos( )

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## EE526 Power System Protection II Lecture 19

Impedance Relays
No Trip Area jX Line length = Zl Relay reach = nZl Trip Area

Impedance Relays
Limitations and sensitivities
Fault resistance Infeed from remote end
load into the source behind the relay makes relays under-reach load current out of this source makes impedance relays overreach

## Trip Area Directional characteristic line 90

o

R Forward Direction

No Trip Area

Reverse Direction
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Impedance Relays
Limitations and sensitivities

## Modified Impedance Relays

Shift center of the characteristic circle along the line impedance
reduces the sensitivity to load currents reduces the sensitivity to reverse faults
T = K1 I 2 K 2 (V + CI ) 2
Z =V I = C K1 K2

C determines how far the center of the circle shifts from the origin.

## Effects of Load Flow and Fault Resistance on Apparent Impedance

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## Modified Impedance Relays

jX No Trip Area Line length = Zl Relay reach = nZl

## Modified Impedance Relays

Starting units
Problem: Impedance relay can operate for large reactive loads Solution: Add directional element to rejects reactive loads Using direction with voltage-restraint

Trip Area

90

Line angle R

T = K 3 V I cos ( ) K 2 V 2 K 4
K K4 V = Z = 3 cos ( ) I K2 K2 V I
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## (K4 = spring restraint

No Trip Area
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Starting units
jX

## Mho Distance Relay

Characteristics identical to the starting unit
Z= K3 cos ( ) K2

## K Set K4 = 0 results in: Z = 3 cos ( ) K2 Line length

= Zl Relay reach = nZl T2 T1

No Trip Area

S X1

No Trip Area

Trip Area

Problem

## Faults very close to the relay Voltage collapse circle collapse

90

Line angle R

Solution
Voltage memory
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No Trip Area

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