Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 18

CHAPTER 1.

0: INTRODUCTION In this case, the building condition surveys and measured surveys is stages of 3 main

criteria which is surveying, assessment and evaluation, which will cover the historical background,

Building Surveying emerged in the 1970s as a profession in the United Kingdom by a group research, the diagnosis of defect in the structure, fabric and services along with the building

of technically minded General Practice Surveyors. Building Surveying is a recognized profession construction method, the technology and the material itself. By taking into consideration, the

within Britain but not widely recognized overseas although there is growth of the profession within building measurement and analysis need to be conducted accurately to get great results at the end.

Australia. The Services that Building Surveyors undertake are broad but include:

1.1 AIM

• Construction design and building works

• Project Management and monitoring In order of achieving several objectives that have been planned for the building ahead of the

• Planning Supervisor under CDM Regulations survey works start its operation, this report was produced. To make it a success, aims as a

• Property Legislation adviser guidance to ensure all the works planned will be accomplished within the given period with the

• Insurance assessment and claims assistance limitations that will arise throughout the survey works. The aim for this project is to gain as much

information about Aula Timur located at the Bandung Institute of Technology, Bandung, Indonesia
• Defect investigation and maintenance adviser
with earlier overview that the building was historical structure with uniquely design by a Dutchmen
• Building Surveys and measured surveys
architect on 1918. Besides that, the aim is to produce a professional overview report of building
• Handling Planning applications
conditions with a prioritized list of recommended repairs provide an objective framework for action
• Building Inspection to ensure compliance with building regulations
that need to be taken as a preservation alternative followed by maintenance plan for a certain
• Undertaking pre-acquisition survey
period that has to be under the owner’s responsibility.
• Negotiating dilapidations

1.2 OBJECTIVE
Building Surveyors also act as an advisor on many aspects of construction including:

A conditions survey is the main objective for this inspection and study report of the building
• Design
that will includes a written and visual report with the actual condition for the building itself and some
• Maintenance minor part surroundings the area with prioritized recommendations according to the inspection
• Repair works that has been done.

• Refurbishment

• Restoration

1
There are numerous of objectives that include: This is as a way in ensuring each individual are well known with all sorts of information

regarding the work need to be done before the arrival in Bandung, Indonesia. In order to achieve a

• To get the idea of keeping the historic character of the building with appropriates good report, the group has also form an objective that is compromise few criteria on each of the

actions that will be prioritized list. group members that is to be fully responsibility on their task given, to improve communication skill

• To record the condition of the building prior to the commencement and after the on gaining the information from the community surround as well as among the group members and

completion of construction works, tenancy period, renovation works etc, as a also to compete each other in the group to reach as much data needed.

precautionary measure to prevent disputes on damage caused by the above-

mentioned activities; 1.4 METHODOLOGY

• To identify the root cause of problem that lead to the existence of building defects

and to advise client on the appropriate method to rectify the defect without This kind of task need to be done properly according to the specific method that’s been

recurrence; taught during the lecture and some extra refeences for building measurement and analysis from

• To inspect building as part of maintenance program and up keeping of building for external building surveyor firms.

maximum performance;

• To provide technical information on a building for client’s consideration prior to their 1.5 SCOPE

decision to acquire a new building, rent a property, commence interior design, The scope of the building condition survey can be cover both exterior and interior or even an

addition and alteration works etc. element alone. For this task, the work that had been planned is going to covered part of the

subjects from the Building Surveying program such as Building Defect and Analysis, Construction

1.3 GROUP OBJECTIVE Engineering, Building Services, Building Practice, Environmental Physics, Building Maintenance

and also Structure. The scope of building condition report was also to enclose all of the following

The group objective is to produce a building condition report that will cover the building principles:

measurement and analysis, measured drawings, defect investigations and recommendation for the
• inspection methodology;
case study, Aula Timur, Bandung Institute of Technology, Bandung, Indonesia. Other than that, the
• brief history of construction and maintenance;
group would like to gain as much information and hands on measuring the building with the
• summary of findings;
technical equipment given as well as define all the deficiency that takes place on the building. More
• description of existing conditions, including causes of problems;
important, the method or technique on collecting data will be assessing to get the accurate
• annotated photographs;
information for the case study.
• prioritized recommendations;

• drawings

2
1.6 LIMITATIONS the lecturers and building’s owner will help a lot to the group in completing the report

before the due date.


During the survey works, there are a few of limitation arising and part of it has been

overcome with using some of the equipment provided. The limitations that come out throughout the The survey works must be also within in the Building Surveying program subject to make

site survey were; the information gain in this process can be useful in the class later on. Furthermore, this practical

will be a view for the students for their next career after they’re graduated. So, it’s important to
• Inaccessible ceiling space for the Aula Timur building including surau and Cultural Centre
make sure that the objective of this works successfully achieved. The method of measurement in
area.
the site study must be synchronize in all part of the building.
• Inaccessible loft of cultural centre and a room between Main Hall and the Cultural Centre

area.

• Permission denied to measuring the internal part of the building due to a day event held at

the building.

• The differentiate figure by laser distance meter and teodolite during the calculation of

building height.

• Lack of information about building’s material as it was a major different from Malaysia’s

construction material and some of the material was imported from outside Indonesia.

• Lack of information about the size of beams and joints inside the building as it can’t be reach

without suitable equipment to get to higher distance.

1.7 SUMMARY OF CHAPTER

The summary of this chapter is to generate the aim of the survey works

throughout several objectives within the scope of work given. This aim will be major

depend on the group objectives that have been decided before the work started,

despite of right methodology and preparation to overcome all the limitations at the

site. An earlier planning will determine either the survey works will completed in the

range of time given. Though the work will be difficult due to lack of information and the

limitations expected to be come forward on the site, any additional information from

3
CHAPTER 2.0: BUILDING BIODATA

2.1 Historical Background of Locality and Case Studies

In the early 16-os, Bandung town is just a small city known as West Oedjoeng Broeng. Road

access had been widening bit by bit as the year passes by for the accessibility of vehicles routes.

The rapid increase in the citizens’ population strengthens Bandung’s reputation as a city of

‘perkebunan’. Plus, its strategic geographical condition attracts the colonization of the Europeans

previously.

ITB or previously known as its origin name, de Technische Hoogeschool te Bandung (THB)

was administrate by the Dutch colonial during their years of colonizing. It was officiated and opened

on the 3rd of July 1920 by Mr. J.P. Graaf van Limburg Stirum, Jeneral Gabenor of the Dutch.

ITB’s main campus basically covers up of 770,000 square meters of the whole area. The

main campus consists of two main building, which is Barakgebouw A (Aula Barat) and

Barakgebouw B (Aula Timur). Ir. Henri Maclaine, the architect, planned it as an experimental

architectural building in compromising the traditional architecture with the west advanced

construction techniques.

Figure 1: Location plan of ITB

Source:

4
Ir. Henri Maclaine was famous known for his precise knowledge in the local history, used to 2.2 Architectural Influences

reinvent the development for later use. Maclaine Pont uses his knowledge in implementing it in

widening his design for construction. The design stage started in the year 1918, and it was used as Aula Timur’s architecture reflects the diversity of cultural, historical and geographic

Barakgebouw meeting point, later it was changed to the purpose of library. influences that have shaped the building as a whole. With the existing of Dutch colonizing brought

cultural changes that had profound effect on the building styles and techniques.

The roof construction of Barakgebouw, is mainly influenced by the traditional Java

architecture. Material being used for the roof construction was ‘kayu sirap’. The unique construction As the presence of the Dutch colonial during their stay in Bandung, had become an

of Barakgebouw is mainly focused on its “ability to develop proportionally with the flow of influence contribution in many aspects. Henri Maclaine Pont, combine the mixture of his hybrid

educational knowledge.” This is to ensure its changes and development can be constructed easily architecture, which consist of traditional elements, the decorations and constructions with colonial

and cheap in terms of costing, as well it does not require any composition of architecture ‘ketat’. wood and brick architecture. The existence of this hybridization draws people to enter a discourse

on the colonial presence as being manifested in one major corporeal dimensions of society of

In his architectural works, traditional roof forms, complex wood construction system and architecture.

figurative vernacular building typologies were creatively reworked and reinvented. What he

produced are not only sophisticated architectural designs, but also highly modern, technologically

efficient, tropical and eloquent interpretations of modern Indies architecture.

Addition to that, it was said that ITB’s Barakgebouw brings harmony in unity between the

design of its traditional architecture and the west knowledge of construction.

Barakgebouw B also known as Aula Timur, once functioned as experimental laboratory in

experimenting the building materials and as lecture hall for the learning process of the building

material. With the building age more than 88 years, ITB’s Barakgebouw has become a legendary

landmark influenced by the colonization in Indonesia.


Figure 2: Architectural Influence

Source: Field Study

5
This hybridization between two domain cultures creates clashes between it. While

maintaining the bound of the historical past (traditional), the politics of the present (colonialism) was Previously, along the east bank of Cikapundung River located in Upper area of Dago, was

born. the campus of ITB. Now, ITB main campus, to the north of the town centre and its other campuses,

cover a total area of 770,000 square meters.

2.3 Style & Concept

Development in terms of economy is to develop platforms for high-tech venture business by

The Dutch learnt to adapt their architectural style with local building features such as large strengthening the linkage between private sectors and universities. To develop a formal and non-

windows and ventilation openings. Besides that, the Dutch creates a colonial building to incorporate formal labour market- oriented education system as Institute Technology Bandung holds a prestige

Indonesian architectural elements and attempt adapting to the climate. record in the education system.

Art deco style was implemented in the architectural values, being expressed in essentially The surrounding developments consist of several varieties. As shown in the location map,

Europeans buildings with Indonesian trim, e.g.: high pitched roof. Art Deco is the contemporary the institute is located in the center area Dago town that acts as an attraction from geographical

modern design, architecture and a broad spectrum of decorative arts. It drew renewed inspiration aspect. A main mosque for the Muslims to perform their prayer located at the south area of Aula

from ancient arts and primitive arts, and was purified by ideas of the colonizers. Art Deco style was Timur. This act as a public amenity for the students itself. It was build for public use. Other than

purely decorative; this style was seen as elegant, functional and modern. The decorative art and the that, there are several shops can be found that surrounds the main campus. Inside the mosque

architectural development shows how the acceptance of the later and best of western architecture area, there are amenities of playground for the usage of public. Without realizing, it brings harmony

allowed the Dutch influence to be absorbed without destroying the city’s long term identity. in the community surrounding ITB.

There are also developments of hotels and a clinic being provided around the campus.

These help the rapid number of population in Dago town. An infrastructure purpose is to seek an

efficient and optimize utilization of development budget. Develop and manage surface water

resources for domestic and industrial use, and agricultural development.

There are no main type of infrastructure can be found around the campus of ITB than be

specified. From the surveying and observing work being done, main infrastructure such as water
Figure 3: Local Java striking roof Figure 4: Column
sewerage does not exist around the ITB main campus.
Source: Field Study Source: Field Study

2.4 Surrounding Developments & Infrastructure

6
A proper water sewerage system is needed in order to develop and implement an effective A present public transport for the student’s usage is provided by conventional bus services,

law enforcement system for discharge of waste water. This is due to improve living environment of paratransits (angkots), taxis and minibuses. Minibuses and paratransists are operated by

urban kampong areas. independent private owner and comprise the majority of the transport services, due to the operation

of various public transport in these crowded parts, traffic congestion happen everywhere even on

There is a growing concern in Indonesia and other parts of the world about insufficient artery roads.

capacity and poor condition of infrastructure. Indonesia faces major challenges in its infrastructure

sectors as it seeks to consolidate and accelerate its still fragile economic recovery, improve its There is extensive use of one-way streets in ITB’s area. In general the existing circulation

international competitiveness, and increase access to basic public services including health, patterns are satisfactory and traffic keeps moving reasonable well. However, the one-way systems

communications, construction, transportation, energy, manufacturing and education. Global have been developed piecemeal over a period of time and result in excessive journey times and

experience has shown that infrastructure is an important factor for improving health, education, and distance for many movements and particularly poor conditions for pedestrians crossing wide

environment, fostering economic growth, and reducing poverty streams and continuously moving traffic.

2.5 Traffic Flow & Accessibility

The significant impact of urbanization in ITB’s location brings problems of the increasing

mobility and infrastructure demand. One of the infrastructures that are very important is

transportation infrastructure which determines the level of accessibility of the people and

commodities from one place to another.

Due to the rapid development in ITB’s surroundings, eg: increased number of populations

and students, traffic problem is considerably becoming very serious. There are traffic congestions

not only on every access road but also on road networks within the campus. This is due to the road

space is very limited and inefficient public transport services, unlike in Malaysia. In developing a

mass transit system, restructuring bus routes of public transportation for the greater Bandung is a

compulsory.

7
Figure 5: Road Network surrounds ITB main campus

Source: http://wikitravel.org/en/Bandung

8
CHAPTER 3.0: BUILDING ELEMENTAL ANALYSIS

Building elemental analysis covers the analysis for all the elements in generally, which

mainly consist of building structure, fabrics and finishes, openings and services.

3.1 GENERAL

Aula Timur is a traditional building which is located in Bandung Institute of Technology. It is

designed by Henri Maclaine Pont, an architect from Netherlands and established on 1920’s. It has a

traditional design and become one of the most popular buildings in Bandung.

From observations, the building consists of hall, surau, VIP room, store room and Cultural Figure 6: Surau at the west of Aula Timur.

centre. The elements in the building are doors, windows, columns, beams, roofs, ceiling, floor, Source: Field Study

staircases, external wall, internal wall and partition wall. While the materials used in this building are

timber, masonry, concrete and glass. It used teak timber type from Java Island. The material of floor

is concrete and it used tiles as its finishes. Aula Timur use pitch roof system and it’s covered with

kayu sirap (iron wood shingle). The masonry walls are well-plastered internally and externally. All

the beam joists are made of timber. The main structure in this building is the timber arches that

support the most percentage of loads for the whole building.

Figure7: VIP room.

Source: Field Study

There were a lot of extensions has been done to this building. The extensions have been

made at the certain parts of Aula Timur but it did not change the original structure of the building.

9
Overall, Aula Timur needs to have a proper maintenance works to ensure that the originality

and uniqueness of the building is conserve.

3.2 BUILDING ELEMENTS

Identified building elements in Aula Timur as follows:

i. Roofing

ii. Columns

iii. Walls

iv. Beams
Figure 8: Roofing at Aula Timur
v. Flooring
Source: Field Study
vi. Staircases

Overall roof condition in Aula Timur is in satisfactory condition, where there are no leakages
3.2.1 Roofing
spotted during rainy days. However it is discovered that some of the shingles need immediate

replacement as it start to crumble in several location.


Aula Timur roofing is pitched roof type and uses sirap (Iron wood shingle) as its roof cover.

Sirap roof is originally come from Kalimantan and introduced by Dutch architects in Indonesia
3.2.2 Column
including Henri Maclaine Pont. This shingle known as one of the most durable type of wood in the

world and has serviceable at least thirty years lifespan. This type of roof also have four overlapping
In Aula Timur there are two types of column being used in its structure which is stone
layer of shingles. The shape of this roof is a type of Minangkabau roof which represents the
column and timber column. Stone column is used for all external purposes while timber column is
indigenous rationality of Indonesia. This kind of roof has some dramatic curve and high class
used vastly as the main type of column in the internal part.
decorative which showed the building status.

Teak is the type of timber that is used as columns in Aula Timur because of its well known

quality and high strength. Teak type of timber is well known for its quality type of timber due to its

durable characteristic and less maintenance needed afterwards.

10
Teak has its own oil substance which does not need further treated oil and varnish but it is

believed that all internal columns has already been treated by oil due to its black colour surface. As

teak is hard type of timber, the architect used twenty five thin layer of teak to make the curve style

column and its clipped with metal clipper at every 350mm along the column. Stone column is used

as external column at Aula Timur, combination of different size of river stone glued by mortar. Stone

column is one of the unique symbols of ITB as all the external column in this institute is made up

from stone. There is no information available about any maintenance has been done to the

columns.

Figure 10: Stone columns outside the building.

Source: Field Study

Generally, column in Aula Timur is in good condition where there is no serious defect

detected, but there are hairline cracks can be found on external column need to be monitored to

Figure 9: Timber column inside the building. prevent further defects occur.

Source: Field Study

3.2.3 Wall

Aula Timur uses masonry as its wall which is located just below the window level for the

external wall while internal partition wall is made up from plywood. External wall (masonry wall) is

painted with white colour, 1350 mm height and 150mm thickness.

11
Overall condition of the wall in the building is in satisfactory condition where there are no 3.2.5 Floor

serious defects detected at the wall. However, as the building functions as an official hall for ITB, it

is highly recommended that the wall should be well insulated with the sound proof insulation and Floor in Aula Timur is fully covered by white granite tile with 300mmx300mm in dimension.

some altering in design need to be done to minimize sound reflection. Floor for Aula Timur is made up from concrete with 250mm thickness floor slab. There are no

source available to determine whether the floor is originally designed with the tile finishes or there is

3.2.4 Beam renovation have been done to the floor. Floor in this building is generally flat but in the ‘surau’, there

is four drop at the floor, which is 150mm height each.

The building uses teak timber for its beam and from the observation, all beams structure are

recognized as an original structure where there are no additional beams or changes being made. 3.2.6 Staircase

However, the beam structure above the ceiling level is excluded from the observation due to

inaccessible and unreachable location. Beams in this building are generally in good condition but There are 6 staircases in Aula Timur. It is divided into 2 types which are the 1 way staircase

minor defect at the beam structure cannot be observed as it is too high to observe. and 2 ways staircase. 5 of them are located at the access doors while the other one is in the

cultural centre store. (Refer Drawing No. BSES2208/ITBAT/DET/04-08: Detail of Staircase.)

Material used in the staircases is concrete, which contains lime and cement. All the staircases are

different to each other. The different of staircases are listed in a table below:

Types Size
Length Width Depth
SC-1 8238 1660 1440
SC-2 2175 1050 790

Table 1: Types of staircases

Figure 11: Beams


Source: Field Study
Figure 12: Types of staircase at Aula Timur.

12
Source: Field Study Figure 13: Types of doors at Aula Timur.

Source: Field Study


3.3 OPENINGS

3.3.2 Window
Openings at Aula Timur consist of doors, windows and ventilations. These openings are important

for lighting, ventilation and access into this building.


Few years ago, this building used fixed timber louvered windows. These kinds of windows are

generally used for latrines and bathrooms of residential and public buildings. These windows were
3.3.1 Door
partly louvered to the wall height. The louvers were arranged at such an inclination that vision is

obstructed while they permit free passage of air. This is achieved by fixing the upper back edge of a
There are 19 doors in Aula Timur and it is divided into 7 types. 10 doors are played as an
louver higher than the lower front edge of the louver just above it.
access into the building, while the other 9 doors are inside the building. However, there are 2 doors

at grid B1/6E and B2/5B that are locked and cannot be opened. Types of doors are listed as
Nowadays, Aula Timur has windows that surround the building and this give the building
follows:
adequate amount of lighting. It uses glass and they were separated with mine while the frame is
Types Location Size
made of timber. As can be seen from observation, at each end of the glass window, these glasses
D1 K/4B 1145 x 2180
D2 F/7A, G/7A, H/7A, H1/7A, J1/7A 950 x 2200 are well decorated that bonded with the timber frame. These decorative glasses give higher
D3 J3/3A, C1/6E 879 x 2200
D4 L/6A 790 x 2200 expectation to the viewers and make this building has higher value for now and in the future.
D5 B1/6E, B1/4A 950 x 2090
D6 N/5, N/6, E/4A, B2/5B 900 x 2200 However, the windows were not maintained properly. This is because there were broken glasses
D7 J2/7, D1/3A, K1/6B, E2/7A 1550 x 2200
here and there as it represents a bad view for outsiders.
Table 2: Types of doors

13
Figure 15: Ventilation holes at the bottom of the wall.

Source: Field Study

Figure 14: Types of windows at Aula Timur.

Source: Field Study 3.4 SERVICES

3.3.3 Ventilation Services provided in Aula Timur are electrical services, piping system and drainage system.

However, inspection works for electrical system faced some problem because there were

Ventilation is defined as supply of fresh outside air into an enclosed space, or the removal of inaccessible locations like above the ceiling and locked room.

inside air from the enclosed space. For building type such as halls, canteens, restaurant and etc.

the minimum rate of fresh air in the building is 30m3 per person per hour to ensure the human 3.4.1 Electrical system

comfort in the building.

This building has only one consumer unit located in a room at the south-west of the building.

In Aula Timur, there is an area about 346mm and 925mm height between the ceiling and (Refer Drawing No: BSES2208/ITBAT/DET/03-08: Services Plan). For earthing system, there are

the wall surrounds the building. This area is covered with net and it functions as ventilation to the three lighting rods found at the top of the roof top. However, the conductor that directs the lightning

building. There are also several holes at the bottom of the walls that played as an access for fresh to the ground is not found.

air into the building. It is also covered by net. With these ventilation plus low temperature in

Bandung make the occupants of Aula Timur stayed in comfort and fresh although this building does

not have any fan or air-conditioner.

14
There is no information about the electrical test or rewiring in this building, but the condition information were not helping much. Furthermore, the time given for the research is very limited and

of electrical power points and wiring circuit is very poor. These shows lack of maintenance services not enough to complete the tasks. However, from the observation, interviewing with the people

and no rewiring has been done to this building for the past 20 years. A few power points are not whom in charge the building and done some research at the library, the construction techniques for

functioning anymore and some of the electrical wiring is uncovered. The location of the electrical Aula Timur can be predicted.

system can be referred to Drawing No: BSES2208/ITBAT/DET/03-08: Services plan.

3.4.2 Drainage system

Drainage is provided to maintain healthy conditions in the building, to collect and remove

waste matters systematically and to dispose off waste water as early and quickly as possible.

Drainage system for Aula Timur is surrounds the building. Material used in the drains is

concrete and it is covered with cement render. The condition of the drains is very poor. There are

thick soil precipitate in the drain that affects water flow during rainy day. Some parts of the drains

are cracked and broken that make the drains are not functioning well.
Figure 16: The construction works on Aula Timur on 1918.

Source: Ben F. van Leerdam, Henri Maclaine Pont architect tussen twee werelden, 1988
3.4.3 Piping system

The columns in this building were entirely made from teak wood with special joint cut at
From the observation, the piping system in this building only consists of gutter and rain
certain part of the column for beam and roof construction. The column was also. The major type of
water down pipe. Rain water down pipe is a pipe which carries only the rain water. There is about
Aula Timur wall is masonry wall type. The wall is constructed by array the clay bricks and attached
40 rain water down pipes surround this building and it is 100mm in diameter. However, the gutters
them with cement mortar. The wall is plastered before it is painted in white as for its finishes.
and rain water down pipes are mostly rusted and broken. Decorative landscape has been planted

near to the gutters and rain water down pipes but it blocked the system.
Arches in the building are curved structural construction that spans an opening between two

points. There are 25 layers of teak wood arrayed layer by layer and specially designed irons hold
3.5 CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUES
them together before they were tied with bolt and nat. These block arches carry only in-plane forces

that cause the woods to compress tightly together, forming a strong unit. The arches had been
Construction is a process that consists of the building or assembling. There is lack of
erected by using ropes and bamboo.
information about the construction techniques for Aula Timur because this building is built in 1918,

which is about 90 years ago. All the aids and methods that have been used to search for the

15
Figure 17: Type of roofs in Indonesia’s houses.

Source: Assorted traditional house (after Indonesian Heritage: Architecture, 1998)

Roof is the most upper part of this building that covered the building to keep out rain, sun

and wind. The roof is framed with widely spaces beams or some form of truss. Kayu sirap were

arranged overlaid to each other until it covered entirely completely the roof.

16
CHAPTER 4.0: BUILDING MEASUREMENT 1 Measuring Tape Measuring tape is the most important tool in this

stage of measurement. It is flexible and used to

Building measurement were done by measuring all parts of the building to get the actual measure length and give an accurate reading

size, to give a clear picture of the design, structural and elements of the building. All the data compared to the other equipment. However, this unit

collected are converted into graphic form. can’t be used to measure the unreachable points.
2 Laser Dimension Master It uses a narrow ultrasonic beam to measure fast

and efficiently. After aim and press a button, the unit


4.1 METHODOLOGY
beeps and the measurement can be easily obtained.

This unit can only be used for 90° angle ceiling level.
There are a few methodologies that have been used in order to complete the building 3 Distance Meter Distance meter is used for fast and easy

measurement. Overalls, the methodologies can be divided into 3 main stages. measurements of lengths, squares and volumes. It

is added with trigonometric function and automatic

4.1.1 First stage calculation which is very useful to calculate

unreachable height. However, this tool are more

First stage started 2 weeks before the measurement. In this period of time, Internet had prone to error compared to measuring tape and the

become the main source of providing information regarding the work. The information about the laser point can’t be seen on very sunny day.
4 Spirit Level Spirit level is designed to indicate whether a surface
case study has been searched by surfing the internet. Beside that, information about defects in
is level or plumb. It is used to determine whether the
general also gained from books at library. All the information was gathered to get an early view and
floor and wall is level or not in order to set a datum
knowledge about Aula Timur.
line to avoid error in measurement.
5 Theodolite This equipment is used to determine angle of

4.1.2 Second stage targeted point, usually done to determine vertical

height. (Provided by ITB)


6 Tripod Tripod is used to level the theodolite to avoid error in
Building measurement and analysis have been done at this stage. A lot of aids have been
measurement. (Provided by ITB)
used to complete the measurement and analysis. The measurement tools and equipments that 7 Staff Staff is used to determine height from 90° level of
been using during the works are listed in the table as follows with their usage: theodolite to the datum line of the building. It is

provided with bubble vial to avoid plumb positioning.

(Provided by ITB)
8 Magnetic Compass Compass is an instrument containing a freely

suspended magnetic element which displays the


NO TOOLS / EQUIPMENTS USAGE

17
direction of the horizontal component of Earth’s LIST OF DRAWINGS DRAWING NO
Floor Plan BSES2208/ITBAT/FP/01-08
magnetic field at the point of observation. It is used North Elevation BSES2208/ITBAT/ELEV/02-08
South Elevation BSES2208/ITBAT/ELEV/02-08
to determine the North field of Earth. East elevation BSES2208/ITBAT/ELEV/01-08
9 Binoculars Binoculars are 2 identical or mirror-symmetrical South Elevation BSES2208/ITBAT/ELEV/01-08
Roof Plan BSES2208/ITBAT/RP/01-08
telescopes mounted side-by-side and aligned to Cross Section A - A BSES2208/ITBAT/SEC/01-08
Cross Section B - B BSES2208/ITBAT/SEC/01-08
point accurately in the same direction, allowing the Details of Doors BSES2208/ITBAT/DET/01-08
Details of Window BSES2208/ITBAT/DET/02-08
viewer to use both eyes when viewing distant Services Plan BSES2208/ITBAT/DET/03-08
Details of Staircase BSES2208/ITBAT/DET/04-08
objects. It is very useful to determine the type of
Details of Column BSES2208/ITBAT/DET/05-08
material and condition of unreachable places such

as roof and upper window. Table 4: List of drawings


10 Moisture Meter Moisture meter is used to measure the percentage

of water in a substance. When the metal point of the

moisture meter is put to the element, the reading

can be taken automatically. It is very useful to

determine causes of defect.


11 Magnifying Glass Magnifying glass is a convex lens which is used to

produce a magnified image of an object. It is very

useful to analyze and categorize defects such as

crack and wet rot.

Table 3: Measurement tools and equipments.

4.1.3 Third Stage

As all the measurement data’s had been obtained, these data’s were converted into graphic

form. The important aid at this stage is computer aided AutoCAD software to portray plans,

elevations, cross-sections and details. All the measured drawings are listed below and followed by

the drawings.

18