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Human Becoming Theory

Rosemarie Rizzo Parse

Dr. Parse is a graduate of Duquesne University in Pittsburgh and received her master's and doctorate from the University of Pittsburgh. She was a member of the faculty of the University of Pittsburgh, Dean of the Nursing School at Duquesne University, Professor and Coordinator of the Center for Nursing Research at Hunter College of the City University of New York (1983-1993), and Professor and Niehoff Chair at Loyola University Chicago (1993-2006). Since January 2007 she has been a Consultant and Visiting Scholar at the New York University College of Nursing. Dr. Parse is founder and current Editor of Nursing Science Quarterly, and President of Discovery International, Inc. She is also founder of the Institute of Humanbecoming.

Nursing Paradigms and Parse's Theory


o

Person Open being who is more than and different from the sum of the parts

o o o o

Environment Everything in the person and his experiences Inseparable, complimentary to and evolving with Health Open process of being and becoming. Involves synthesis of values Nursing A human science and art that uses an abstract body of knowledge to serve people

Joyce Fitzpatrick and Rhythm Model (Nursing Theory)

Joyce J. Fitzpatricks Rhythm Model includes four content concepts and they are: person, health, wellness-illness and metaparadigm. According to experts, the primary purpose of nursing is the promotion and maintenance of an optimal level of wellness. The professional nurse participates in a multi-disciplinary approach to health in assessing, planning, implementing, and evaluating programs in regards to how they affect optimum wellness for patients. When assessing health care needs, the professional nurse incorporates the physical, emotional, social, environmental and spiritual aspects of the profession into her daily routine. Person: The term person integrates the concepts of both self and others, and recognizes individuals as having unique biological, psychological, emotional, social, cultural, and spiritual attitudes. They thrive on honor and dignity, self-evaluation and growth and development. Throughout a persons life, many factors develop within a social setting and interact with a multitude of environments that can significantly influence that persons health and wellness. Health: Health is a dynamic state of being that results from the interaction of person and the environment. Optimum health is the actualization of both innate and obtained human potential gleaned from rewarding relationships with others, goal directed behavior, and expert personal care. Adjustments can be made on an as needed basis in order to maintain stability and structural integrity. A persons state of health can vary from wellness to illness, disease, or dysfunction, and it changes continuously throughout the persons life span. Wellness-Illness: Professional nursing is rooted in the promotion of wellness practices, the attentive treatment of those who are acutely or chronically ill or dying, and restorative care of people during convalescence and rehabilitation. Other dimensions of professional nursing include the teaching and evaluation of those who perform or are learning to perform nursing functions, the support and conduction of research to extend knowledge and practice, and the management of nursing practice in health care delivery systems. Nursing is a practice discipline and a profession that is based upon a synthesized body of knowledge, which is derived from inquiry and clinical evaluation promoting wellness and diminishing illness. Professional nurses acquire and maintain current knowledge, are willing to participate in peer review and other activities that insure quality of care, and communicate effectively with recipients of care and other health care providers. Thus the nursing practice centers on the application of this body of knowledge in an effort to maintain, restore, or enhance the interactions between people and their environment. Metaparadigm: Transition is one of the core concepts of nursing theory, derived from and related to the basic
metaparadigm concepts of person, environment, health and nursing. While much of the research in nursing

has been focused on assisting individuals in their life transitions, whether through phases of growth and development, or experiences with health and illness, the conceptualizations of the nursing profession as focused on transitions has not been adequately researched

Anne Boykin and Sarvina O. Schoenhofer


Nursing As Caring The theory of Nursing As Caring is a general or grand nursing theory that can be used as a framework to guide nursing practice. The theory is grounded in several key assumptions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. persons are caring by virtue of their humanness persons live their caring moment to moment persons are whole or complete in the moment personhood is living life grounded in caring personhood is enhanced through relationships with caring others participating in nurturing

nursing is both a discipline and a profession

Health

as

Expanding

Consciousness

Dr. Margaret A. Newman

The theory of health as expanding consciousness stems from Rogers theory of unitary human beings. Rogers assumptions regarding patterning of persons in interaction with the environment are basic to the view that consciousness is a manifestation of an evolving pattern of person-environment interaction. Consciousness is defined as the informational capacity of the system (in this case, the human being); that is, the ability of the system to interact with the environment (Bentov, 1978). Consciousness includes not only the cognitive and affective awareness normally associated with consciousness, but also the interconnectedness of the entire living system, which includes physiochemical maintenance and growth processes as well as the immune system. This pattern of information, which is the consciousness of the system, is part of a larger, undivided pattern of an expanding universe.

Humanistic Nursing Theory

Josephine Paterson and Loretta Zderad Dr. Josephine Paterson is originally from the east coast and Dr. Loretta Zderad is from the mid-west. They both were graduates of diploma schools and subsequently earned their bachelor's degree in Nursing Education. Dr. Paterson did her graduate work at Johns Hopkins and Dr. Zderad did hers at Catholic University. In the mid-fifties they were both employed at The Catholic University and were assigned the task of working together to create a new program that would encompass the community health component and the psychiatric component of the graduate program. Subsequently they developed a collaboration and dialogue and friendship that have lasted for almost 40 years. Josephine Paterson and Loretta Zderad retired in 1985 and moved South where they are currently enjoying life. Although they are no longer active, they are pleased at the on going interest in their theory. Humanistic nursing practice theory proposes phenomenology, a descriptive approach to participants in the nursing situation as a method for studying, interpreting, and attesting the nature and meaning of the lived events...Words and conceptualized ideas are the tools of phenomenology. Protection of distinct persons and meaningful communications can be augmented through the utilization of abstractions, metaphors, analogies, and parables. So humanistic nurses, as practitioners and researchers, are inherently responsible for their manner of being, responding, and consciously sculpturing knowledge into words.