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Management of ageing London Underground tunnels: - Applying new technologies to old problems

Peter Wright Tube Lines

Who are Tube Lines?


Infrastructure consortium responsible for the Jubilee, Northern and Piccadilly Lines. PPP Contract over 30 years to improve London's Underground system. Required to improve knowledge and understanding of deep tube tunnels, which were in an uncertain condition (grey). In practice over 200km of tunnels and shafts have to be structurally assessed. Also required to make grey assets safe

Typical conditions in deep tubes

City and South London Railway


First cast iron tube railway completed in 1889 From King William Street to Stockwell Completed in 4 miles in 4 years Compressed air working, Greathead shield, JH Greathead was the engineer Original concept cable-hauled but changed to electric power Not a single life lost

The Greathead Shield

Compressed Air Working

The Padded Cells

Northern Line Tunnel expansion in 1920s

11ft 8.25 CI Lining

A closer look at a tunnel length..


Distorted rings Cracked segments Pump sump Cross passage opening, cross passage Ventilation opening

Stn
Disused station Varying separation, but normally less than 1 diameter Shield chamber Cross tunnel

Stn

Generic studies
Investigate on a global basis, rather than asset specific, wherever possible Apply results of these studies Examples: - Lining circularity - Cast iron lining thickness & strength - Geotechnical parameters

1.Development of In situ stress measurement techniques in CI and Concrete 2. In situ stress measurement in CI and Concrete 19. Adoption of suitable FE and other software

3. M/N interaction diagrams for CI and calculation of safety factors

4.Investigation of Failure Mechanisms

5. Soil Parameters and their variation

6. Study of Radar and other geophysical methods

7. Critical Situations and Parameter Sensitivity

8. Supplementary investigations

JNP tunnel assessment manual & toolkit


22. Guidance on Overall Assessment Procedure

18. Study of Bomb locations

9. Adatptation of Totaline or expert system for assessment

20. Databases and other software

21. Exemplar Assessments

17. Study of Historical Construction methods

Future Amendments to LUL Standards

10. Concrete Tunnel Lining durability and residual life assessments 16. CI deterioration mechanisms and degradation model 15. Defects model for CI rings 12. Investigation of nondestructive testing methods

14. Defects model for Concrete rings

13. Grey CI transverse stress research

11. FE model of CI joints

K & P Projects Concept

Inspection/Assessment Options
Confidence?

Factors Affecting Failure Behaviour


Significance?

Failure Behaviour
Consequence

What Tools are (or could be) Available?


How Good? Mature?

What are the Engineering Factors that Influence Failure?


Linkage?

How will the Failure Happen?


So What?

Development

Inspection/Assessment Options
Confidence?

Factors Affecting Failure Behaviour


Significance?

Failure Behaviour
Consequence

Bolted Visual Expanded Material Quality Survey (Depth/Circularity) Existing Damage Manufacturing Quality Radar Build Quality Water Acidity Core Sampling Voids Outside Tunnel External Contamination Electro-Magnetic Outside Party Works Internal Environment In Situ Stress Analysis Component Degradation Other Structure Proximity Desk Top Study EMC/Electrical Discharge Openings Distortion Safety Related Impact
1000 300 50 6 2 0 1000 300 50 6 2 0

Immediate Complete Collapse

1000 300 50 6 2 0

Ultrasonics

Partial Collapse

Tunnel Analysis & Design


1. Elastic Continuum Method
Morgan, Muir Wood, Curtis, Peck, Arends etc We use TOTALINE program (Curtis full bond).

Geotechnical FE

LH tunnel constructed first

Ground loss at excavation = 1.93% first tunnel, 1.69% second tunnel

Initial, long term squat = -1mm, 6mm

Long term deformed mesh

Stresses along tunnel axis range from 54MPa in tension to 41 MPa in compression

3D structural FE

3D structural FE

Looking at invert, with LH segment removed

Site inspection and measurement


Inspection by bio-mechanical devices (inspectors with long handled hammers) or remote photography if possible Lining thickness and loss of section Strength of cast iron London Clay strength and stiffness Pore water pressures Tunnel circularity Tunnel stresses

Coring and ultrasonics in grey cast iron

Typical coring and ultrasonic readings


Position of Coring & Ultasonic Inspection Results
NORTHBOUND RUNNING TUNNEL:
R1930 R1940 R3260

Position of cores relative to each other (in all cases):

23.12 27.45 27.05

23.33 27.60 27.45

21.91 22.57 23.80

22.94 24.05 23.58

24.30 26.00 27.70

23.00 24.77 27.80

DIRECTION OF RUNNING

DIRECTION OF RUNNING

R3241 Average measured thickness of core: R1930 19.10 20.20 21.77 20.20 20.75 24.60 R1940 R3260 R3241 22.88 mm 20.10 mm 25.08 mm 20.38 mm

NORTHBOUND

SOUTHBOUND

Grey cast iron strength testing

Grey cast iron strength testing

Grey cast iron strength testing

CPT and soil testing

CPT and soil testing

CPT and soil testing

Circularity measurement
Circularity carried out using Leica 3000 track trolley

Best-fit Perfect Circle Circularity Survey Data Deformation exaggerated x 10 Estimated Centre

Typical circularity measurement, showing approx 1% squat

Circularity measurement
Southbound Ring Number 2560 2520 2480 2440 2400 2360 2320 2280 2240 2200 2160 2120 2080 2040 2000 1960 1920 1880 1840 1800 1760 1720 1680 1640 1600 1560 1520 1480 1440 1400 1360 1320 1280 2.0 1.0 0.0 -1.0 -2.0 860 900 940 980 1020 1060 1100 1140 1180 1220 1260 1300 1340 1380 1420 1460 1500 1540 1580 1620 1660 1700 1740 1780 1820 1860 1900 1940 1980 2020 2060 2100 2140 2.0 % ooc (squat +ve)

1.0

0.0

-1.0

-2.0

Northbound Ring Number

Typical longitudinal plot showing tunnel deformations between Golders Green and Hampstead

Direct Stress Measurement

ACSM - StressProbe

Basics of Stressprobe
Stress in a material causes changes in magnetic domain behaviour The altered domain distribution causes changes in the permeability of the material Stressprobe measures the changes in permeability using an induced magnetic field and pickup coils Often a demag cycle is needed to remove magnetic hysteresis

ACSM - StressProbe
Stress across CI pan (N/mm2)

Hoop Load adjacent to Opening

Summary of Assessment Work


Tunnel assessment work now nearly complete Tube Lines Tunnels team have used a combination of in house and external expertise to carry out
Analysis Investigation Inspection Assessment Reporting Classification

Risk Assessment and Remediation


Inspection Further Analysis Monitoring and Survey Strengthening

Openings in Tunnels
Support by lintel and bolts

BOLTS SHEARED

SEGMENT PUSHING FORWARD BY 30mm

LINTEL COMPRESSING & DISTORTING

FRACTURE NOTE TO LINTEL

LINTEL ENDS COMPRESSED & DISTORTED

SEGMENTS FRACTURED

30mm PUSH INWARD TO SEGMENT & BOLTS ARE SHEARED.

FRACTURE TO EDGE OF SEGMENT

Covent Garden
GENERAL VIEW

MANY BOLTS MISSING AROUND THE OPENING

LINTEL COMPRESSED AND DISTORTED LINTEL BUCKLING

GENERAL VIEW

BRAKE DUST BUILD UP HAS FALLEN OF A POTENTIAL REASON MAY BE LINTEL MOVEMENT

Euston Photographs

APPARENT SHEAR MISS-ALIGNED SEGMENTS

Acid attack at Old Street

Acid attack at Old Street

Cracked Lining at Old Street

Acid attack at Bond St?

Outside Party Developments

Expanded Concrete Linings


Significant face spalling of segments

BOTDR Monitoring

Photo No. 45 Protection of the Cable

Fibre Optics Strain Measurement

Average strain over 1m every 5cm Range ~5-10km Resolution 30 (0.003%) Low cost sensors - optical fibre 5 - 25 minutes per measurement Can link or switch between fibres

Monitoring of existing ThamesLink tunnel

Tunnelling obliquely under Victorian masonry tunnel


Existing tunnel loaded by canal basin retaining wall Directly below Midlands Main Line (MML)

MML
above

8.5m

Existing ThamesLin k tunnel


3.6m 6.5m

Canal basin New tunnel


Reproduced from Ordnance Survey of Northern Ireland mapping with the permission of the Director and Chief Executive, Crown Copyright.

Thameslink Tunnel at Kings Cross

Underground M3 Aims of the project


Develop Micro-detection - computer vision Micro-monitoring - MEMS sensors (Micro-electromechanical systems) Micro-communication Wireless communication and power harvesting Data analysis and expert systems Industry Application System Safety, adaptation and field application Business Plan and Integration
http://www-civ.eng.cam.ac.uk/underground/index.html

Tube Lines Role Associate Partner


Attend quarterly meetings Advice and guidance from an industry point of view Facilitate visits and pilot studies in our tunnels Benefit from developments made by the project

Concluding Remarks
Increasing demand (Why?) for sensor systems to monitor civil infrastructure? For what purpose?
To monitor structures with reduced/indeterminate assessed safety factors, and, in connection with an Emergency Preparedness System, to prevent vehicles entering the danger area in the event of failure. To monitor structures where new construction works affect existing infrastructure, and in connection... Ditto As part of a temporary works system to control and reduce the effects of construction movements To better understand the behaviour of structures to improve assessment accuracy.