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Practical Welltest

Analysis




Advanced Reservoir Engineering

Hassan Bahrami
2013
Pressure vs Time in Transient Tests
Wellbore effect
Reservoir response
Boundary effect
Pressure
Time
Pi
Pressure propagation, radial into formation
Boundary effect
Wellbore storage analysis
Taking Logarithm of the equation:
General form of equation for WBS effect:
For pressure data related to
wellbore storage region:
Plot of P vs. time in a Log-log
plot, results in a unit slope line
Plot of P : dp/d[ln(t)] vs.
time in a Log-log plot, results in
a unit slope line
t P A = c
c) ( ] [ L ) 1 ( P) Log( Log t og + A + = A
c) ( ] [ L 1 t))] P)/d(ln( Log[d( Log t og + A = A A
And by taking the derivatives :
Log(dt)
P
P
Log(dP)
+1
slope
Pressure Draw-Down Test Analysis
Time
Flow rate
Pressure
Pressure Derivative Method / Drawdown Test
AP = m (log[At]) + b
m 3 . 2
t) (ln d
P) ( d
=
A
A
] 3 . 2 log[ ] [ log 0 ]
t) (ln d
P) ( d
[ m t Log + A =
A
A
P
P
)) t ln( - ) t P1)/(ln( - (P2 : P'
1 2
A A
RF

AP
&
AP
r


At
Permeability and Skin from Pressure
derivative
m
IARF
) log( * ) * 3 . 2 (
1 RF RF hr
t m P P A A = A
h m
B Q
k
o
* ) * 3 . 2 (
* * * 6 . 162
=
] 23 . 3 ) log(
) * 3 . 2 (
[ * 1513 . 1
2
1
+
A
=
w t
hr
r c
k
m
P
S

AP
&
AP
r

At
Pressure Build-Up Analysis
Pwf


Pws
t=0
Pi
t=tp
Pressure Derivative Method / Build-Up Test
AP = m (log[ tp+At / At ]) + b
m
t
p
3 . 2
)
t
t
(ln d
P) ( d
=
A
A +
A
] 3 . 2 log[ ] t [ log 0 ]
t]) t)/ ( (ln[ d
P) ( d
[ m
t
Log
p
+ A =
A A +
A

t]) t)/ ( (ln[ d


P) ( d
'
A A +
A
=
p
t
P
h m
B Q
k
o
* ) * 3 . 2 (
6 . 162
=
] 23 . 3 ) log( )
1
log(
* 3 . 2
[ * 1513 . 1
2
1
+
+
+
A
=
w t
p
p
hr
r c
k
t
t
m
P
S

Permeability and Skin from Pressure


derivative
m
)
) 1 (
log( * ) * 3 . 2 (
1
p RF
RF p
RF hr
t t
t t
m P P
+ A
A +
A = A
AP
&
AP
r


At
Well Models
Well Models
Hydraulic (Vertical) Fracture
Infinite conductivity
Finite (low) conductivity

Partial completed/perforated

Horizontal well
Infinite-Conductivity or Uniform Flux
Vertical (Hydraulic) Fracture
Infinite-Conductivity or Uniform Flux Vertical (Hydraulic)
Fracture
+1/2
Example of Linear Flow Regime Analysis
Finite-Conductivity Vertical
(Hydraulic) Fracture
+1/4
+1/2
Example of Finite Conductivity Response
Partial Completion (Limited Entry)
Example of Spherical Flow Regime Analysis
Limited Entry Response
-1/2
K
r
K
s
Horizontal wells
Horizontal wells
0 slope
+1/2 slope
0 slope
Multi-lateral wells
Question: Flow regimes in Slanted wells? Plot a typical
P and P curves vs time for the following case.
Reservoir Models
Homogeneous Reservoirs
Composite Systems
Gas-Condensate Reservoirs
Layered Reservoirs (Dual Permeability Model)
Welltest analysis using IARF line provides average permeability
and skin for multi-layered systems
Welltest in 2-Layered Reservoirs
Welltest in 2-Layered Reservoirs
Welltest in 2-Layered Reservoirs
Welltest in 2-Layered Reservoirs
Multi-Layered Reservoirs
Welltest Analysis
Naturally fractured Reservoirs
Dual porosity
Dual permeability
Model
e bulk volum Matrix
volume d Matrix voi

m
=
e bulk volum Total
volume void Fracture

f
=
Dual Porosity - Dual Permeability Reservoirs

Naturally Fractured
Reservoirs
(NFRs)
Fracture radial
flow
Total system
radial flow
K
m
, PHI
m
K
f
, PHI
f
Fracture Parameters
2
w
f
m
r
K
K
o =
m m f f
f f
C C
C
. .
.


e
+
=
) / 1 / 1 / 1 ( 4
2 2 2
Z Y X
a a a + + = o
K Permeability
C Compressibility
rw Wellbore radius
Porosity
a Fracture spacing (block size)
o Shape factor
Interporosity flow coefficient
e Fracture storativity

f fracture
m matrix
Image Logs
Petrophysical Logs
a
b
Image Logs may provide
fracture aperture (b) and
fracture spacing (a)
NFRs welltest analysis
SPE 104056
2
w
m
f
r
K
K

o =
Question: Predict flow regimes for the following case, and
make plot of P&P vs time on Log-Log plot
water injection
Perf
Heavy Oil (API 15)
Water
(Salinity 20000
PPM)
Boundary Models
Type of Boundaries
Fault ( Sealing fault Leaky fault )

Closed Systems (No flow Boundary)

Constant Pressure Boundary
(Aquifer - Gas Cap)

Effect of Fault
Fault:
In early time: DP = m1 * log(Dt) + b
In late time: DP = m2 * log(Dt) + b
Where : m2 = 2 * m1


Closed Systems : DP = m * Dt + b
Result:
Log [ dP/d[log(Dt)] ] vs Log (Dt) Slope: +1
Effect of Fault
Leaky Fault
Closed System: No flow boundary
Constant
Pressure
Boundary

Aquifer
Gas cap
Question: Predict flow regimes
Well
Boundary
Question:

Provide your interpretation on the pressure build-up data
given below.
-Well model?
-Reservoir model?
-Boundary model?



Welltest Analysis Using ECRIN
Hassan Bahrami

Production time
Production rate
60 1000
24 0
60 hrs production with 1000 STBD oil rate,
followed by 24 hrs build-up
60
1000
Flow Regimes Prediction

using

Ecrin Numerical
Add girds, then double click on well location
Results
1 2
How to remove grids:
Right click:
Example of different time steps
5 hrs 20 hrs
Linear & Elliptical flow
Gradually changing to
radial flow
Thank you