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Leadership is the lifting of mans vision to higher sights, the rising of mans performance to higher standard, the building of mans personality beyond its normal limitation. Peter Drucker Meaning and definition Leader is a part of management and one of the most significant elements of direction. A leader may or may not be manager but a manager must a leader. A manager as a leader must lead his subordinate s and also inspire them to achieve organizational goals. Thus leadership is the driving force which gets the things done by others. Leadership represents an abstract quality in a man. It is a psychological process of influencing followers or subordinates and providing guidance to them. Thus the essence of leadership is follower ship. It is the followers who make a person as leader. An executive has to earn followers. He may get subordinates because he is in authority but he may not get a follower unless he makes the people to follow him only willing followers can and will make him a leader. Leadership is the ability to influence other people Lansdale Leadership is the ability of a manager to induce subordinate to work with zeal confidence. Koontz and O Donnell Leadership as the ability to secure desirable actions from a group of followers voluntary, without the use of coercion. Afford and Beaty Leadership is the process of influencing the behaviour and work of others in group effort towards the realization of special goal in a given situation Leadership is the activity to persuade others to seek defined objectives enthusiastically. It is the human factor which binds a group together and motivate it towards goals Keith Davis Leadership is interpersonal influence exercise in a situation and directed through communication process, towards the attainment of a special goal or goals Characteristics of leader 1. It is a personal quality of character and behavior in man which enables him to exert internal personal influence. 2. It is concerned with the lying down group objectives and polices for the followers, motivating them coordinating their efforts to accomplish the objectives.

3. It pre supposes the existence of a group followers. 4. Its style may differ from situation to situation. 5. It is the ability to perused others and motivate them to work for accomplishing certain objectives. 6. It is process of influencing exercised by leader on members of a group. 7. It involves an unequal distribution of authority among leaders and groups. Qualities of good leader Integrity: integrity is expected of health care professional. Patients, colleagues, and employers all expect nurses to be honest, law abiding and trust worthy. Courage: sometimes, being a leader means taking some risks. Initiative: good ideas are not enough. To be leader, you must act on those good ideas. This requires initiative on your part Energy: leadership also requires energy. Both leadership and management are hard satisfying endeavors that require effort on your part. Optimism: when the work is difficult and one crisis seems to follow another in rapid succession, it is easy to become discouraged. However it is important not to let discouragement keep you and your coworkers from seeking ways resolve your difficulties. Perseverance: effective leaders to not give up easily. In seated, they persist, continuing their efforts when others tempted to give up the struggle. Balance: in our effort to become the best nurses we be, we may forget that other aspects of life are equally important Ability to handle stress: there is some stress in almost every job. Coping with stress in as positive and healthy a manner as possible helps you conserve your energy model for others. Self awareness: people who do not understand themselves are limited in their ability to understand the motivations of other people. Difference between leadership and management From the above definitions and characteristics of leadership, it can be observed that leadership and management are related but they are not same. A person can be an effective manager, a leader, both or neither. 1. Leadership deals with vision keeping the mission in sight and with effectiveness and results. Management deals with establish structure and system to get those results. It focuses on efficiency, cost benefit analysis, logistics, methods procedures and politics. 2. Leadership focuses on the top line; management focuses on the bottom line leadership derives its power from values and correct principles. Management organizes resources to serve selected objectives to produce the bottom line.

3. Leadership inspires and motivates people to work together with a common vision and purpose. Management involves controlling and monitoring results against plans, identify deviations and then planning and organization to solve the problems. 4. Leadership emphasis transformational aspect and, therefore transformational leadership emerges. Factors Source of power Focus Approach Process Emphasis Futurity Type Importance of leadership
Motivating employee Importance Creating confidence

Leadership Personal abilities Vision and purpose Transformational Inspiration Collectively Proactive Formal and informal

Management Authority delegated Operating results Transactional Control Individualism Reactive Formal

Building morale

Leadership is an important factor for making any type of organization successful. Through the history, it has been recognized that the difference success and failure, whether in a war, a political movement, business or a team game, can be attributed largely to leadership. 1. Motivation employee: motivation is necessary for work performance. Higher the motivation, better would be the performance 2. Creating confidence: a good leader macerate confidence in his followed by directing them advice, and getting through the good results in the organization. 3. Building morale: morale is expressed as attitude of employee towards organization, management, and voluntary cooperation offers their ability to organization. Leaders & Revolutionaries Churchill

Roosevelt Gorbachev Hitler Gandhi Thatcher Lenin Mandela Mao Zedong Dr King Stalin

LEADERSHIP STYLE I. Based on behaviour 1. Power orientation 2. Leadership as continuum 3. Likert s management system 4. Managerial grid 5. Tridimensional II. Based on situation approach 1. Fielder contingency 2. Hersey Blanchards situational model 3. Path-goal model POWER ORIENTATION Power orientation approach of leadership styles is based on the degree of authority which a leader uses in influencing the behaviour of his subordinates. Based on the degree of use of power, there are three leadership style 1. Autocratic leadership 2. Participate leadership 3. Free rein leadership Autocratic leadership Autocratic leader is also known as authorization, directive, or monothetic style. In autocratic leadership style a manager centralize decision making power himself. He structures the complete situation for his employee and they do what they are told.

1. Strict autocrat: he follows autocratic style very strict sense. His method of influencing subordinates behaviors is through negative motivation. That is criticizing subordinate imposing penalty, etc. 2. Benevolent autocratic: he also centralizes decision making power in him, but his motivation style is positive. He getting efficiency in many situation 3. Incompetent autocratic: sometimes, superiors adopt autocratic leadership style just to hide their incompetence. The main advantage of autocratic style: 1.Centralized authority structure and strict discipline 2. It provide strong motivation and reward of decision taken person

3.Less competent subordinate also scope to working organization There are many disadvantage of autocratic style: 1. People in the organization dislike it is specially when it is strict. 2. Employee lack of motivation. Frustration low morale 3. There is more dependence. Participate leadership This is also called democratic, constitution or ideographic. Participation is as mental and emotional of person in a group situation which encourages him to contribute to group goals and share responsibility in them. Benefits of participate leadership 1. It is highly motivating technique to employee. 2. The employee productivity is high because they are party decision. 3. They share responsibility with superior and try safeguard 4. It provides organizational stability by rising morale and attitude. Free rein: leadership Free rein or laisseze fair means giving complete freedom to subordinate, in this style, manager once determine polices, programme, and limitations for action and the entire process is left to subordinate. LEADERSHIP AS A CONTINUUM There are, in fact a Varity of style of leadership behavior between two extremes of autocratic and free rein.

Likerts management system Rensis likert, along with his associates of university of Michigan, USA has studied the patterns and styles of manager for three decades and have developed certain concept and approach important to understanding leadership behavior. He has given a continuum of four systems of management. In his management, Likert has taken seven variables of different management. There variables include leadership, motivation, communication, interaction,-influencing, decision process, goal setting and control process. EMPLOYEE PRODUCTION ORIENTATION In the studies of the survey research centre at the University of Michigan, USA, an attempt was made to study the leadership behavior by locating clusters of characteristic that seemed to be each other and various indicators of effectiveness. The studies identified two concepts which were called employee orientation and production orientation The employee orientation stress the relationship aspects of employee jobs emphasizes that every individual is important and takes interest in every one, accepting their individuality and personal needs. This is parallel to democratic concept of leadership behavior. Production orientation emphasizes production and technical aspects of jobs and employees are taken as tools for accomplishing the jobs. This is parallel to the authoritarian concept of leadership behavior.

Low structure and high consideration Low structure and low consideration

High structure and high consideration High structure and low consideration

Figure: Ohio state university leadership quadrants MANAGERIAL GRID


One of the most widely knows approaches of leadership styles is the managerial grid developed by black and mouton. The emphasis that leadership style consists of factor of both task oriented and related behavior in varying degrees. Their concern for phrase has been used to convey how managers are concerned for people or production, rather than how production getting of group. Thus it does not represent real production or the extent to which human relationship needs are being satisfied.

1,1 exertion of minimum efforts is required to get work done and sustain organizational morale. 1,9 thoughtful attention to needs of people leads to a friendly and comfortable organizational atmosphere and work tempo. 9,1 efficiency results arranging work in such a way that human elements have little effect. 5,5 adequate performance through balance of work requirement and maintaining satisfactory morale.

9,9 work accomplished is from committed people with interdependence through a common stake in organizational purpose and with trust respect TRIDIMENSIONAL GRID Reddin conceptualized a three dimensional grid also know as 3-D management borrowing some of the ideas from managerial grid , three dimensional axes represent task orientation, relationship orientation and effectiveness. By adding an effectiveness dimension to taskoriented and relationship-oriented behavior dimensions, reddin has integrated the concept of leadership styles with the situational demand of a specific High Relationship orientation Low Low Task orientation Task orientation is defined as the extent to which a manager direct his subordinates efforts towards goal attainment. It is characterized by planning, organizing and controlling. Relationship orientation is defined as the extents which a manager has personal relationship. More effective style Developer Bureaucrat Executive Benevolent autocrat High Related Separated Integrated Dedicated

Basic style Less effective or Related Separated To Less effective style Missionary Deserter Compromiser Autocrat Integrated Dedicated more effective

According to this following are ineffective styles:

1. Deserter : he has both low task and low people orientation and completely alienated from organizational life. 2. Missionary : he shows only interest in harmony ; believes in easy life ;avoids confilit: and does not take initiative. 3. Autocract: he is concerded with only the immediate job and has no concern for others ; his decisions are unilateral and cernetrlized; believes in suppressing and demends obedience of authority; relies more on negative motivation. 4. Compromiser : he uses a high and relationship orientation in a situation that may not require a high concentration in either ; is a poor decision maker and avoids decisions is weak and yielding, allows various pressure in the situation to influence too much. The four corresponding effective style are as follows : 1. Bureaucrat : he has high orientation towards organizational rules and regulation : is impersonal and less task and relationship oriented ; produces only few ideas and does not take initiative. 2. Developer : he tends to display implicit trust in people ; relies on high relationship orientation and less task orientation ; believes in commintment to work, openness, freedom to act, self expression, and development of subordinate 3. Benevolent : he is a directive manager who knows what he wants and often gets it without creating resentment ; is high task less people oriented ; adopts positive economic motivation for getting things done and follows feudalistic approach in managing the organization. 4. Executive : he has a task and high relationship orientation in a situation where such behavior is appropriate ; emphasis team management ; task is regarded as interdependent and integrated. HERSEY BLACHARDS SITUTATIONAL MODEL Hersey blachards situational leadership models takes a different perspective of situational variables as compared to fielders model. Hursey and blanchard feel that the leader has match his leadership style according to the needs of maturaty of subordinates which moves in stage and has a cycle. Therefore, this theory is also known as life cycle theory of leadership. There are three basic considerations in this model: leadership style and subordinate maturity.

PATH GOAL MODEL OF LEADERSHIP Robert house and others have developed a path goal model of leadership initially presented by Evans. Though the concept of path goal was presented in 1957, it could not catch much attention. Path goal of leadership is basically a combination of situational leadership and vrooms expetency theory of motivation. Like other situational theories Application of leadership in nursing 1. Patient care coordination : Even new graduate nurses have leadership responsibilities when they begin in nursing. Nursing leadership begins with nursing care of the individual patient. The students are guide to organize nursing care. Establish good and priorities for each day. Establish time Establish success and failure 2. Employee responsibilities : Nurses have specific tasks or duties to perform. These tasks are determined by the plan and objective of the health care agency. It is important to read your job description carefully and to continue to evaluate how institutional factor s influences your own practice of nursing. Factors that compromise quality care should be noted and addressed in construction with experience nurses. 3. Guidelines for delegating nursing care : New graduate nurses use leadership techniques when they direct the work of nonprofessional staff and volunteers and consider delegating tasks to nonprofessional staff. 4. Mentorship:

It is a relationship in which an experienced individual advise and assist a less experienced individual. This is an effective way of easing a new nurse into leadership responsibilities 5. Preceptor ship: An alternative model is preceptor ship. The preceptor is selected to introduce an employee to new responsibilities through teaching and guidance. The relationship is limited by the new employee s needs. 6. Continuing needed CONCLUSION Till now we discuss regarding leadership style characteristics qualities, importance types of leadership, manager behaviour models effectiveness of leadership style application in nursing from this we can now leadership very essential in motivating peoples in all various fields and change their behavior . Abstract This paper presents our theoretical perspective over health management, particularly on managerial and health work. To face the complex problems related to public health services management and health care quality - important challenges of Brazilian Sanitary Reform - we study the group/inter-subjective and unconscious characteristic of organizational processes, which has important effects over health services dynamics and their quality. For this purpose, we attempt to articulate three theoretical perspectives:(1) the French Psycho sociology approach on organizations and contemporary society; (2) the psychoanalytical theory on inter-subjective and group processes; and (3) the Work Psychodynamics, which focuses the relations between pleasure and suffering in work processes. Through this research process, we explore links and mediations among psychic, inter-subjective, group and social realities that are present in health organizations, managerial work and health work. Also, limits and possibilities these mediations set to leadership, cooperation, collective projects and health care quality are identified. [Hospital management conflict: the leadership role] [Article in Portuguese] Vendemiatti M, Siqueira ES, Filardi F, Binotto E, Simioni FJ Hospital Nove de Julho, So Paulo, SP, Brazil. mavendemiatti@hotmail.com education : leadership , managerial and administrative skills are

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3) Jean barett, ward management and teaching, 14th edition, 2003, konark publishers, Newdelhi,. 4) Krishna Kumari Gulani, Community Health Nursing - Principles and Practices. 1st Edition. Pitum Pura, Delhi: Kumar Publishing House; 2005. 5) AH Suryakantha. Community Medicine- with recent advances 1st edition. New Delhi: Jaypee Brothers; 2009. 6) Ministry of health and family welfare government of india National Training Strategy for in-service training under national rural health mission 7) D.Elakkuvana Bhaskara raj ,Management of Nursing services and Education 1st edition Bangalore EMMESS MEDICAL PUBLISHERS ;2010