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Skill B: Observing Measuring and Reading Title: Drawing a Leaf Aim: To make an accurate presentation of the leaf drawn

to scale Materials: Hand Lens A Whole Leaf Method: Step 1: I observed the leaf using a hand lens

Step 2: A drawing of the leaf was drawn to its actual size

Step 3: The structure of the leaf was labeled

Skill B2: Observing Measuring and Recording Title: Heat Loss Aim: To compare the rate of heat loss from two organisms of different sizes Materials: Two Bottles (1large and 1 small) Measuring Cylinders Hot Plate Water Thermometer Method: Step 1: Two bottles were obtained one large and one small

Step 2: 400ml of water was measured and heated

Step 3: 150ml of hot water was measured and poured into each bottle

Step 4: Every minute for ten minutes the temperature was measured and recorded

Step 5: The temperature was recorded on the table given

Time Small Large

Minute one 70C 70C

Minute two 68C 64C

Minute three 66C 61C

Minute four 63C 57C

Minute five 60C 54C

Minute six 58C 51C

Minute seven 56C 50c

Minute eight 54C 49c

Minute nine 52C 47C

Minute ten 50C 45C

Skill C: Handling Experimental Observation and Data Title: Temperature and Control in Animals Aim: To compare the rate of heat loss from two organisms of different sizes Materials: Two Bottles (1large and 1 small) Measuring Cylinders Hot Plate Water Thermometer Stop Watch Flat Bottom Flask Funnel Method: Step 1: I obtained two bottles one large and one small

Step 2: Measured and heated 400ml of water

Step 3: Measured and recorded the temperature to the minute for ten minutes

Step 4: I then recorded the temperature of the water in the table given

Step 5: I plotted the temperature of the water on a graph

Step 6: Finally I compared the result of the water temperature to show how the size affects the rate of heat loss.

Table Time Small Large 9:57 9:59 10:01 10:03 10:05 10:07 10:09 10:11 10:13 10:15 70C 68C 66C 70C 64C 61C 63C 57C 60C 54C 58C 51C 56C 50c 54C 49c 52C 47C 50C 45C

Discussion: At the beginning of the experiment for the small bottle, the temperature decreased steadily by two degrees. By the third minute, it decreased by three degrees. Then it continued on by two degrees until the end of the experiment. For the large bottle, it began decreasing by six degrees then by three degrees and then onto four. By the four minute mark, the degrees reduced by three degrees consecutively. Then by one degree, and onto two degrees until the end of the experiment. In this experiment both the large and small bottles started out at seventy degrees. At the four minute interval both the large and small bottle reduced by three degrees. Also at the seven minute interval they both reduced by two degrees which contributed on until the end of the experiment. From this experiment I learnt that small organisms retain more heat opposed to larger organisms.

Skill C2: Handling Experimental Observation and Data Title: Osmosis Aim: To investigate the effects of potato tuber tissue Materials: Potato Cutting Board Three test tubes Knife Ruler (cm) Triple beam balancer Concentrated glucose solution Distilled water Marker Method: Step1: Acquired 50ml of distilled water and poured it into a test tube that was labeled A

Step 2: 50ml of concentrated glucose solution was poured into a test tube and labeled B

Step 3: A third test tube was labeled C and was left empty

Step 4: Three equal strips of potato were cut so they had the same mass and length.

Step 5: The potato strips were placed in the test tubes and were observed for 30 minutes.

Step 6: After observation, they were removed then dried and their final length and mass were recorded.

Step 7: A percentage change in length were calculated and recorded.

Potato Strips Strip A Strip B Strip C

Water Distilled Glucose Empty

Length 6.3cm 6.3cm 6.3cm

Width 1.4cm 1.4cm 1.4cm

Mass 7.3g 7.3g 7.3g

After leaving the strips in the solution. Potato Strip Strip A Strip B Strip C Water Distilled Glucose Empty Length 6.8cm 6.3cm 6.34m Width 1.2cm 1 cm 1.5cm Mass 7.9g 7.1g 7.0g

Percentage Change Strip A 6.8-6.3= 0.5 0.5 6.8 = 0.0735

0.0735 X 100 = 7.35% 7%

Strip B 6.3-6.3=0 0 6.3 =0

0 X 100 = 0% No percentage change was present

Strip C 6.4- 6.3 X 100 6.4 0.01 X 100 = 1.56% =2%

Discussion: From this experiment I observed that the potato that was in the distilled water remained the same in length but increase in width. Also mass for this potato increased by .6 grams. While the one that was in the glucose solutions increased in length and decreased in width however the mass decreased. In addition, the potato that was left in an empty test tube remained the same in length, increased in width and decreased in mass.

Skill D2: Testing and Evaluating Title: Starch Aim: To design an experiment to find out which food contains starch Materials: Iodine Pipette Petri dishes Bread Egg Flour Tangerine Banana Potato Cheese Small bowl Method: Step 1: I placed the bread, tangerine, banana, potato and cheese on separate petri dishes the raw egg was cracked and placed in a small bowl.

Step 2: The iodine was mixed and drawn up with the pipette.

Step 3: A few drops of the iodine solution were dropped onto the foods.

Step 4: The reaction of the food by the iodine were observed and recorded.

Table Foods Tested Bread Egg Flour Tangerine Banana Potato Cheese Color Blue/Black Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Yes

Discussion: This experiment shows which foods contained starch, through the use of iodine. The foods which contained starch were identified by having a blue/blackish color when they came into contact with the iodine. In my experiment, when the iodine came into contact with the bread, the blue/blackish color appeared in the spot of the iodine to prove it does contain starch. However, when the egg was tested, there was no blue/blackish color change, the iodine simply mixed with the egg showing that it housed no starch. When flour was tested for starch, the blue/blackish color again replaced that of the red/yellow iodine. Also, a tangerine was tested and the red/yellow color was not changed to show starch, therefore it was deemed starch less. In addition, a potato and cheese were tested for starch and in both cases they became blue/black to prove that they housed starch.From my experiment I learnt that anything that comes into contact with iodine that has starch, a blue/blackish color will replace that of the iodine.

Skill D: Planning Carrying Out and Evaluating Investigations Title: The Heart Aim: To investigate how exercising increases the heart rate Materials: Stop Watch Person Calculator Plan: 1. Record the pulse before starting the exercises 2. Perform exercises 3. Record pulse after exercises

Skill D: Planning Carrying Out and Evaluating Investigations Title: The Heart Aim: To investigate how exercising increases the heart rate Materials: Stop Watch Person Calculator Method: Step 1: Recorded the pulse before the exercises for 15 seconds. Step 2: Performed jumping jacks for 2 minutes Step 3: Recorded my pulse after the exercises for 15 seconds Step 4: Rested to bring pulse back to normal Step 5: Recorded pulse once again Step 6: Ran in place for 2 minutes Step 7: Took the pulse for 15 seconds Step 8: Rested to reduce pulse Step 9: Recorded pulse before the start of a new exercise

Step 10: Walked in place for 2 minutes Step 11: Took the final recording of the pulse for 15 seconds Step 12: Recorded the experiment in a table Table Two minutes worth of exercising is equivalent to the recording of you pulse for 15 seconds multiplied by four. Pulse Before 26 X 4= 104 26 X 4=104 26 X 4= 104 32 X 4= 104 Exercise Standing Still Jumping Jacks Jogging in place Walking Pulse After 26 X 4= 104 48 X 4= 192 40 X 4= 160 38 X 4= 152

Source of Error: Throughout this experiment the time used to calm the rate was not monitored.

Discussion: From this experiment, it shows that any form of exercise speeds up the heart rate. As shown through the experiment, the intensity of the exercise will increase the heart rate. From performing jumping jacks the heart rate increased by 88 pulses from its regular rate. However, while jogging in place only increased the pulses by 56, and walking in place increase it by 48. This evidently showed that the jumping jacks was the most intense exercise and required the most energy. Also, this shows that the more vigorous the exercise the more work the heart would have to do.

Skill A: Using and Organizing Techniques and Apparatus Title: Transpiration Aim: To find out if the speed of wind increases the rate of transpiration Materials: Water Measuring Cylinder Young Plant Cooking Oil Fan Method: Step 1: Acquired a plant with its roots still attached

Step 2: Washed the soil from the roots

Step 3: Poured 100ml of water into a measuring cylinder

Step 4: Poured a thin layer of oil over the water

Step 5: Placed the plant into the cylinder

Step 6: Turned the fan on low speed for ten minutes

Step 7: Turned off the fan, and recorded the mass of the cylinder

Step 8: Turned the fan on, on medium speed for ten minutes

Step 9: Turned off the fan, and recorded the mass of the cylinder

Step 10: Turned the fan on high speed for ten minutes

Step 11: Turned off the fan, and recorded the mass of the cylinder

Step 12: Recorded the information into a table

Table: Starting Mass 155.4 grams 100 ml of water 10 ml of oil

Time 1st 10 minutes 2nd 10 minutes 3rd 10 minutes

Speed Low Medium High

Mass 155.2 grams 155.2 grams 154 grams

Skill A: Using and Organizing Techniques and Apparatus Title: Transpiration Aim: To find out if the speed of wind increases the rate of transpiration Materials: Water Measuring Cylinder Young Plant Cooking Oil Fan Plan: 1. Get a young plant with the roots still attached 2. Wash the soil from the roots 3. Pour 100 ml of water into a measuring cylinder 4. Pour a thin layer of oil over the water 5. Place the plant into the cylinder 6. Turn the fan on low speed for ten minutes 7. Turn off the fan and record the mass 8. Turn the fan on medium speed for ten minutes 9. Turn off the fan and record the mass 10.Turn the fan on high speed 11.Turn off the fan and record the mass

Skill A2: Using and Organizing Techniques and Apparatus Title: Model of the Human Respiratory System Materials: Straw Masking tape Plastic cup Scissors Balloons (2 small 1 large) Rubber Bands Plan: 1. Cut one straw approximately in half but at an angle 2. Use masking tape to join the two halves of the cut straw to the whole straw 3. Place the two small balloons at the end of the two short pieces of straw using the rubber bands 4. Blow into the straw to inflate the balloons to check for leakage 5. Use a pen to place a hole in the middle of the bottom of the cup 6. Place the whole straw through the upper and lower part of the cup 7. Cut the large balloon and place it over the top of the cup using the rubber band 8. Pull down on the balloon, what do you observe?

Skill A2: Using and Organizing Techniques and Apparatus Title: Model of the Human Respiratory System Materials: Straw Masking tape Plastic cup Scissors Balloons (2 small 1 large) Rubber Bands Method: Step 1: Cut a straw in half at an angle

Step 2: Using masking tape I joined the two halves to the whole straw

Step 3:

Placed the two small balloons at either end of the short pieces using the rubber band

Step 4: Blew into the straw to inflate the balloons to check for leakage

Step 5: Using a pen I made a hole in the middle of the cup

Step 6: Then placed the whole straw through the hole on the cup

Step 7: Cut out the large balloon and placed it over the top of the cup securing it with a rubber band.

Discussion: From this experiment I have observed that when the diaphragm which is shown through the large balloon is pulled on the small balloons that represent the lungs would be inflated. However, when it is not pulled on there would be no air in the lungs.