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Know: Natural Selection and Intelligent Design Mutations Variation o normal gene shuffling in sexual reproduction.

. o Mutation - only source Gene - Stretch of DNA coding for distinct type of RNA or protein product Allele - variation of same gene Mutation - any change in basic sequence of DNA Point mutation - any single base substitution in DNA sequence Ex. - sickle cell - mutated hemoglobin molecule A sub for T at #6 of 146 Changed from glutamic acid to valine Point mutation caused by: Random error in DNA synthesis Random error in repair of siles by machinery. Transition - sub purine for purine Or pyrimidine for pyrimidine Transversion - sub purine for pyrimidine or vice versa Transition is most common b/c they are less disruptive in DNA & repair doesnt catch. Mutation Rates: Loss of function mutations - inactuate a gene o Base pair sub > chain terminating codon o Insertion of a mobile genetic element into a genome o Chromosome rearrangement o Addition or deletion of one or two base pairs - frame shift mutation Ex. - hemophilia A Overall - mutation rate/genome/gen - similar across taxa - however, new studies that say different Logic - if mutations cause new alleles, then data on mutation rates should tell us how many new alleles occur in each individual that enters a population in single cell species, 2 or 3 cells in every 1000 carry a new mutation each new human carries an average of 1.6 new alleles o ex. Roundworm 1 ind. > 50 lines independent of each other > 396 generations And of experiment - 30 mutations Mutation rate - 2.1*10^-8 per site per gen. Over half were insertion / deletion Overall - 2.1 mutations per genome per generation

Mutation introduces a great deal of variation into th population at each generation. Mutations are subject to natural selection Discover that DNA polymerase varied in accuracy of translation Some mutations increased/decreased the rate at which polymerase made errors In E.coli - is population is well adapted to eni most mutations were deleteuous Individuals with high mutation rates appear to be formed when population is in a novel or changing form, and mutation likely to be beneficial. Roundworms - most deletions and if allowed to accumulate, fitness declined Where do new genes come from? Gene duplications - from 2 sources Retrotranspositions - mRNA - after lost introns, duplicated and reinserted into DNA Unequal Crossover Creates a redundant stretch of DNA in one cele, deletion in another If one copy produces the normal product, then the other copy is free to accumulate mutations w/o consequence to phenotypes Over time, dup gene will have changed so much that new function.