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Subnetting

E-2 Appendix E–Subnetting

OBJECTIVES
After completing this chapter you will
• Understand the difference between major classes of IP addresses.
• When given an IP address, be able to identify its IP class.
• Determine the appropriate mask to use with each IP class.
• Understand and be able to subnet IP addresses.

KEY TERMS
broadcast
ISP
subnet
useable host numbers
useable subnets
Subnetting Overview E-3

SUBNETTING OVERVIEW
Any company that needs IP addresses can lease them from an ISP (Internet Service
Provider. ISPs are organizations that provide individuals and businesses access to the
Internet. If your company decides to connect to the Internet, a network administrator
would contact an ISP and make arrangements for a connection to the Internet. Your
connection to the Internet would be through the ISPs own network. You would have to
provide the ISP with the number of IP addresses the company needs. ISPs have a limited
number of IP addresses available to give out to their customers. The ISP will ask how
many computers your company presently has and how many computers are planned for
the near future.
Public IP addresses are in short supply due to the overwhelming popularity and
success of the Internet. ISPs are reluctant to lease more IP addresses than a customer
needs. The ISP may have 100 Class C IP addresses available to lease, but that does not
mean that the ISP will lease an entire Class C just because it was requested.
What if your company doesn’t have enough computers to warrant a full Class C? For
example, the Smiley Company has 30 computers and needs Internet access. The
company predicts a growth of 20 additional computers over the next two years. If the
Smiley Company contacts an ISP and asks for a full Class C block of addresses, the
request would probably be denied. Remember that a full Class C contains 256 host
addresses, and the Smiley Company needs only 50 addresses. The ISP would probably
lease a portion of the Class C to Smiley.
As another example, the WebBook Company has more than 450 computers on its
network with expected growth of 50 new computers this year. The ISP has 100 Class Cs
available for its customers and will have to dedicate at least two Class Cs for the
WebBook Company. The WebBook Company is not centralized in one building; it has
several offices throughout the city. Each office has 30–60 computers that need Internet
access. The ISP gives the company two full Class Cs to organize as the network
administrator sees fit. The network administrator can subdivide the Class C addresses to
enable all external sites to have access to the Internet. The ISP does not care if the Class
C is broken into smaller segments to fit a company’s needs. When an IP addresses range
is subdivided like this, it is called subnetting. Although the above examples are very
simplified, this gives you a basic understanding of the process involved in acquiring and
using IP addresses.
A subnet is a method used that divides the IP address into three parts rather than two.
A normal IP address consists of two parts—a network number and a host number.
Remember from the Network chapter that the number of bits used for the two parts
depends on the class of IP address. Refer back to Network Figure #14 to refresh your
memory. When subnetting is used, the IP address has three parts—a network number, a
subnetwork number, and a host number.
Subnetting involves borrowing bits from the host portion of the IP address and
creating the third part of the IP address—the subnetwork number, which is commonly
called the subnet. Take a Class C IP address of 192.168.10.4. Because it is a Class C
E-4 Appendix E–Subnetting

address, the first three octets are the network number—192.168.10. The last octet is the
host or network device located on network 192.168.10. In this example, the host number
is 4. Without subnetting, this IP address has one network number and 256 different host
numbers. If this IP address is subnetted, the network 192.168.10 can be divided into more
than just one network. It can have a varying number of subnetworks.
Subnetting has three primary functions: (1) efficient use of one or more IP addresses,
(2) reduces the money spent to lease IP addresses, and (3) divides the network into easier
to manage portions. The effects of these three functions will be seen in the sections on
how to subnet and why to subnet.

HOW TO SUBNET
When subnetting, bits are borrowed from the host portion of the IP address.
Borrowing bits from the host creates a new number called a subnet.

0 When subnetting, always borrow bits from the left-most host bits. Subnetting
reduces the number of hosts, but allows more networks using a single IP address.
Take the example of a standard Class C IP address, 207.193.204.0. The number
207.193.204 is the network number, and the last octet is used for host numbers. Subnet
Figure #1 shows the bit positions for the last octet (Octet 4) for a standard Class C IP
address.
Subnet Figure #1
bit positions

Class
s C Network No. Hosts
Octet 1 Octet 2 Octet 3 Octet 4
128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1䊴
207. 193. 204.

In order to subnet, bits are borrowed from the host bits to create a subnet field. The
borrowed bits make up the subnet field. Subnet Figure #2 shows two bits borrowed from
the hosts field for subnetting.
Subnet Figure #2

Class C Network No. Subnet Hosts


Octet 1 Octet 2 Octet 3 Octet 4
128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1
207. 193. 204.
Subnetwork Numbers E-5

Remember that bits are always borrowed from the left-most bits in the octet. Since
two bits are being borrowed, bit positions 128 and 64 now represent subnet numbers. In
Subnet Figure #2, you can see that the IP address still contains a network number and
host numbers. The new addition to the IP address is called the subnet and is formed by
taking left-most bits away from the host field. The standard Class C has eight bits that
represent hosts, but now only six host bits remain because two bits were borrowed to
create subnets.

SUBNETWORK NUMBERS
The subnet portion of an IP address can have varying combinations of 1s and 0s. For
example, if two bits are borrowed for subnetting, the combinations of 1s and 0s are four
different numbers—00, 01, 10, and 11. Subnet Figure #3 shows this concept.
Subnet Figure #3

Class C Network No. Subnet Hosts


Octet 1 Octet 2 Octet 3 Octet 4
128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1
207. 193. 204. 0 0
207. 193. 204. 0 1
207. 193. 204. 1 0
207. 193. 204. 1 1

A mathematical formula can be used to determine how many subnets are formed
when borrowing bits.
The number of subnets can be found by taking 2X where x is the number of bits
0 borrowed. For example, if two bits are borrowed, 22 = 4 or four subnetworks. If
three bits are borrowed, 23 = 8 or eight subnetworks.
Look back at Subnet Figure #3. The 00 combination in the subnet field represents
Subnetwork 0. The 01 combination in the subnetwork column designates it as
Subnetwork 64. The 64 is obtained by a 1 being set in the 64 bit position. What
subnetwork number is designated by a bit combination of 10 in the subnetwork column?
The answer is 128 because there is a 1 set in the 128 bit position. Subnet Figure #4 shows
how the various combinations of 1s and 0s create different subnetwork numbers.
E-6 Appendix E–Subnetting

Subnet Figure #4

Class C Network No. Subnet Hosts


Subnet
Octet 1 Octet 2 Octet 3 Octet 4
No.
128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1
207. 193. 204. 0 0 0
207. 193. 204. 0 1 64
207. 193. 204. 1 0 128
207. 193. 204. 1 1 192

Now that subnetwork numbers are understood, let’s see how this applies to networks.
Subnet Figure #5 shows two networks connected by a router. The networks are subnetted.
Subnet Figure #5

192.168.10.64 Router 192.168.10.128

In Subnet Figure #5, one network is 192.168.10.64 and the other network is
192.168.10.128. Even though a company purchased one Class C IP address, two
networks can be created because of subnetting.

NUMBER OF HOSTS
An IP addressing rule is that every device on the network must have a unique IP
address. How does this rule affect subnetting? Each subnet can have a varying number of
hosts. The number of hosts on each subnet depends on how many host bits have been
borrowed to subnet. The more bits borrowed for subnetting, the fewer host bits remain for
network devices. Subnet Figure #6 shows how this works in a Class C IP address with
two bits borrowed for subnets.
Number of Hosts E-7

Subnet Figure #6

Class C Network No. Subnet Hosts


Subnet
Octet 1 Octet 2 Octet 3 Octet 4
No.
128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1
207. 193. 204. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
207. 193. 204. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
207. 193. 204. 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
207. 193. 204. 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1
207. 193. 204. 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
207. 193. 204. 0 0
207. 193. 204. 0 0
207. 193. 204. 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1
207. 193. 204. 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 64
207. 193. 204. 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1
207. 193. 204. 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0
207. 193. 204. 0 1
207. 193. 204. 0 1
207. 193. 204. 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
207. 193. 204. 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 128
207. 193. 204. 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
207. 193. 204. 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
207. 193. 204. 1 0
207. 193. 204. 1 0
207. 193. 204. 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1
207. 193. 204. 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 192
207. 193. 204. 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1
207. 193. 204. 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0
207. 193. 204. 1 1
207. 193. 204. 1 1
207. 193. 204. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
E-8 Appendix E–Subnetting

The easiest way to determine the total number of hosts is to count the number of bits
that are left for hosts and raise the number 2 to that power. For example, in Subnet Figure
#6, there are six hosts bits remaining. Take the number 2 and raise it to the number of host
bits—26 = 64. This means that there are 64 different combinations of 1s and 0s in the host
field for each subnetwork. One of the most important rules about subnetting concerns the
first and last subnet and the first and last host addresses.

0 When subnetting, the first and last subnetwork numbers and the first and last host
numbers within each subnet cannot be used.
As previously discussed in the Network chapter, a network has an IP address that
cannot be used by any network device. An example of a Class C network address is
192.107.10.0. A Class B network address is 152.124.0.0 and a Class A example is
11.0.0.0. When all of the host bits are 0s, that is considered the network or subnetwork
number and that number cannot be assigned to a network device as a host number. Look
back to Subnet Figure #7. The first subnetwork shown is 0. When all host bits are 0, that
is considered the subnetwork number. Some people call it the wire. Each combination of
1s and 0s after that point is a host number on that subnetwork until the subnetwork
number changes. The only exception to this is when all host bits are set to 1. When all of
the host bits are a binary 1, this designates a broadcast for that network or subnetwork.
Using the same network numbers given above as examples, the broadcast addresses
would be 192.107.10.255 for the Class C network, 152.124.255.255 for the Class B
network, and 11.255.255.255 for the Class A network. The broadcast address cannot be
assigned to a network device. The broadcast address is used to communicate with all
network devices simultaneously.
When borrowing two host bits from a Class C IP address, subnetworks 0, 64, 128,
and 192 were created. Based on the rule stated above, subnetworks 0 and 192 cannot be
used, so all that are left are subnetworks 64 and 128. These subnetworks that can be used
are known as useable subnets. The first and the last subnet are considered unuseable
because they contain all 0s and all 1s in the host bits. Subnet 0 contains all 0s in the host
bits. Subnet 192 can contain all 1s in the host bits.
On subnetwork 64, the host numbers that are possible are 64 through 127. On
subnetwork 64, the host numbers that are useable are 65 through 126. The host numbers
that can be assigned to network devices are known as useable host numbers. For
subnetwork 128, the possible host numbers are 128 through 191, but only 129 through
190 are used. This is found by using varying combinations of 1s and 0s through the host
bits. Subnet Figure #7 illustrates this concept.
Number of Hosts E-9

Subnet Figure #7

Class C Network No. Subnet Hosts


Subnet
Octet 1 Octet 2 Octet 3 Octet 4 Host No.
No.
128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1
207. 193. 204. 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 64
207. 193. 204. 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 65
207. 193. 204. 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 66
207. 193. 204. 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 67
207. 193. 204. 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 68
207. 193. 204. 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 69
207. 193. 204. 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 70
207. 193. 204. 0 1
207. 193. 204. 0 1
207. 193. 204. 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 126
207. 193. 204. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Broadcast
207. 193. 204. 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 128
207. 193. 204. 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 129
207. 193. 204. 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 130
207. 193. 204. 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 131
207. 193. 204. 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 132
207. 193. 204. 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 133
207. 193. 204. 1 0
207. 193. 204. 1 0
207. 193. 204. 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 190
207. 193. 204. 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 191
E-10 Appendix E–Subnetting

One of the hardest concepts for students to grasp is that, when determining what the
decimal number is for an octet, you must use all eight octet bits in the number. Ignore the
line drawn for the subnet bits. For example, in Subnet Figure #7, for subnetwork 64, the
first useable host number is 65. Eight bits designate the number 65—01000001. Since
there is a 1 in bit position 64 and a 1 in bit position 1, 64 + 1 = 65. The subnetwork
number is 64 because the subnetwork columns have a 01 combination. The 1 is set in the
64 column. The host number is 67 because the decimal IP number represents all eight bits
in an octet.
Subnet Figure #8 illustrates how a subnetted network has host numbers assigned to
each network device. Notice that each device has numbers that relate to the range valid
for each subnetwork.
Subnet Figure #8
Host Addresses on a Subnetted Network

192.168.10.64 .65 .129 192.168.10.128


Router

.67 .68 .69 .70 .130 .131 .132 .133

Notice in Subnet Figure #8 how the router received two host numbers. This is
because, inside the router, there are two Ethernet ports. Each of these ports receives a
host number just as if it were a network card inside a computer. The host number assigned
to the router’s Ethernet port corresponds to a host number on the subnetwork the Ethernet
port attaches to. Since the left side of the router is connected to Subnetwork 64, the
router’s port host address is .65, the first available host number on the subnetwork. The
router’s port does not have to receive the first host number in the subnetwork, but it is
done this way in the figure to illustrate how a host number is assigned.
When subnetting, each device still has a unique IP address. The only difference
0 that subnetting makes is that each subnetwork has a range of valid host numbers
for that individual subnetwork.

MASK REVIEW
In order to subnet, the subnet mask is used and is very important to understand. In the
Network chapter you learned that a Class A IP address has a standard mask of 255.0.0.0.
A Class B IP address has a standard mask of 255.255.0.0, and a Class C IP address has a
mask of 255.255.255.0. For example, consider a computer that has an IP address of
150.150.150.150. The IP address is a Class B address. If the computer uses a standard
mask, the mask entered would be 255.255.0.0.
Solving IP Subnetting Problems E-11

Keep in mind that the mask distinguishes the network number from the host number.
Using the same example used above of 150.150.150.150 and a mask of 255.255.0.0
yields the network number of 150.150.0.0 because of the mask used. An IP address of
193.206.52.4 with a mask of 255.255.255.0 has a network address of 193.206.52.

THE MASK WHEN SUBNETTING


The way that any network device knows that a subnet is being used is through the
mask. This is why the mask is sometimes known as the subnet mask. The mask number
stays the same up to the point that bits are borrowed. Then, in the octet where bits are
borrowed, the new mask number is found by adding the bit positions together that are
borrowed to create the subnet number. Look back to Subnet Figure #3. Since this is a
Class C address, the normal mask is 255.255.255.0. However, since subnetting is
implemented, the mask changes to 255.255.255.192. The 192 is found by adding the
value of the bit positions being borrowed—bit position 128 and bit position 64 (the two
bit positions borrowed to create the subnet number). 128 + 64 = 192. So, the new mask is
255.255.255.192. If three bits are borrowed in a Class C IP address, the last octet mask
would be 224 (128 + 64 + 32). If four bits are borrowed in a Class C IP address, the last
octet mask would be 240 (128 + 64 + 32 + 16). Examples of the new mask with each IP
class are given later in the chapter.

SOLVING IP SUBNETTING PROBLEMS


When asked a subnetting problem, you can be presented with several pieces of
information that describe the situation. Given that information, it will be up to you to
figure out the remaining pieces of information to solve the problem. The types of
information that you must be able to identify are as follows:

Information
Class of IP address
Network number
Mask
Total no. of networks/subnetworks
Total no. of hosts per network/subnetwork
Subnet numbers
Broadcast addresses
No. of bits borrowed
Useable hosts per network/subnetwork
Useable subnets
E-12 Appendix E–Subnetting

Class C Problem 1
Let’s do one example without subnetting to make it simple and to explain how the
chart works. Given the XYZ Company’s Class C address of 201.15.6.0 and a mask of
255.255.255.0, you should be able to fill in the following information:

Information Value
Class of IP address C
Network Number 201.15.6.0
Mask 255.255.255.0
Total no. of networks/subnetworks 1
Total no. of hosts per network/subnetwork 256
Subnet numbers N/A because there are no subnets
Broadcast addresses 201.15.6.255
No. of bits borrowed N/A because there are no subnets
Useable hosts per network/subnetwork 254
Useable subnets N/A because there are no subnets

Now that the purpose of the chart is clear, let’s try an example with subnetting.
Suppose the XYZ Company has four different networks throughout its factory, but only
one full Class C address. One option the company can do is to divide the Class C address
into four different subnetworks. The Class C IP address is 201.15.6.0. The network
administrator decides that the new subnet mask is 255.255.255.224. The following
information is what we know so far:

Information Value
Class of IP address C
Network Number 201.15.6.0
Mask 255.255.255.224
Total no. of networks/subnetworks ??
Total no. of hosts per network/subnetwork ??
Subnet numbers ??
Broadcast addresses ??
No. of bits borrowed ??
Useable hosts per network/subnetwork ??
Useable subnets ??
Solving IP Subnetting Problems E-13

If the mask is given, you can solve the rest of the unknowns and fill in the chart. The
mask in this problem is 255.255.255.224. Since this is a Class C network and the default
mask is 255.255.255.0, we know that some bits are being borrowed in the last octet
because the number in the last octet has changed to 255.255.255.224. The first step is to
break the last octet into binary to see how many bits are being borrowed for the
subnetting. Subnet Figure #9 shows the last octet broken down into bits.
Subnet Figure #9
224 broken into bits

Class C Network No. Subnet Hosts


Octet 1 Octet 2 Octet 3 Octet 4
128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1
255. 255. 255. 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0䊴

Notice in Subnet Figure #9 how the first three bits are set to 1. Since there is a 1 in
the 128 column, a 1 in the 64 column, and a 1 in the 32 column, 128 + 64 + 32 = 224.
This is just the process of converting decimal to binary as shown in earlier chapters.
The next step is to draw a vertical line between the 1s and the 0s. In the case of the
224 mask, a vertical line is drawn between the 32 and the 16 column. See Subnet Figure
#10 to see where the vertical line is placed.
Subnet Figure #10

Class C Network No. Subnet Hosts


Octet 1 Octet 2 Octet 3 Octet 4
128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1
255. 255. 255. 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0

Once you have figured out where this line goes, you can answer many questions.
Now you know that the number of bits borrowed is three because there are three 1s set
when you translate 224 into binary. Let’s update the chart.
E-14 Appendix E–Subnetting

Information Value
Class of IP address C
Network Number 201.15.6.0
Mask 255.255.255.224
Total no. of networks/subnetworks ??
Total no. of hosts per network/subnetwork ??
Subnet numbers ??
Broadcast addresses ??
No. of bits borrowed 3
Useable hosts per network/subnetwork ??
Useable subnets ??

Once you know the number of bits borrowed, you can determine the number of
subnetworks using the formula 2x = number of subnetworks where x is the number of bits
borrowed. So 23 = 8 meaning that there are eight subnetworks. Again, update the chart
with the new information.

Information Value
Class of IP address C
Network number 201.15.6.0
Mask 255.255.255.224
Total no. of networks/subnetworks 8
Total no. of hosts per network/subnetwork ??
Subnet numbers ??
Broadcast addresses ??
No. of bits borrowed 3
Useable hosts per network/subnetwork ??
Useable subnets ??

Also, since you know the number of bits borrowed, you can determine how many bits
are left for hosts (network devices). Since three of the eight bits in the octet are borrowed
for subnetworks, there are five bits left for hosts. The number of hosts per subnetwork
can be found by using the formula 2x = number of hosts where x is the number of host bits
remaining after bits have been borrowed for subnetting. In our example, three bits were
borrowed for subnetting. Five bits were left for hosts. 25 = 32 hosts per subnetwork.
Updating the chart shows the following:
Solving IP Subnetting Problems E-15

Information Value
Class of IP address C
Network Number 201.12.6.0
Mask 255.255.255.224
Total no. of networks/subnetworks 8
Total no. of hosts per network/subnetwork 32
Subnet numbers ??
Broadcast addresses ??
No. of bits borrowed 3
Useable hosts per network/subnetwork ??
Useable subnets ??

Once you have determined the total number of subnets and the total number of hosts
per subnet, you can determine the number of useable subnets and useable hosts per
subnet. The number of useable subnets is the number of subnets minus 2. Since there are
eight possible subnetworks, 8 – 2 = 6 useable networks. The number of useable hosts is
the number of hosts per subnetwork minus 2. Since there are 32 possible hosts per
subnetwork, 32 – 2 = 30.

Information Value
Class of IP address C
Network Number 201.15.6.0
Mask 255.255.255.224
Total no. of networks/subnetworks 8
Total no. of hosts per network/subnetwork 32
Subnet numbers ??
Broadcast addresses ??
No. of bits borrowed 3
Useable hosts per network/subnetwork 30
Useable subnets 6

We have determined that there are eight subnetworks available using the subnet mask
of 255.255.255.224. Subnet Figure #11 shows the eight different subnetworks converted
into decimal values.
E-16 Appendix E–Subnetting

Subnet Figure #11

Class C Network No. Subnet Hosts


Subnet
Octet 1 Octet 2 Octet 3 Octet 4
No.
128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1
201. 15. 6. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
201. 15. 6. 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 32
201. 15. 6. 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 64
201. 15. 6. 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 96
201. 15. 6. 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 128
201. 15. 6. 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 160
201. 15. 6. 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 192
201. 15. 6. 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 224

Notice in Subnet Figure #11 that the subnetworks are grouped into multiples of 32.
Also notice that the first column to the left of the line (the darker gray area) has a value
of 32. The total subnetworks are as follows: 0, 32, 64, 96, 128, 160, 192, and 224. These
are all multiples of 32.
Now, we can update our list and put in the subnet numbers as shown below:

Information Value
Class of IP address C
Network Number 201.15.6.0
Mask 255.255.255.224
Total no. of networks/subnetworks 8
Total no. of hosts per network/subnetwork 32
201.15.6.0, 201.15.6.32, 201.15.6.64,
Subnet numbers 201.15.6.96, 201.15.6.128, 201.15.6.160,
201.15.6.192, 201.15.6.224
Broadcast addresses ??
No. of bits borrowed 3
Useable hosts per network/subnetwork 30
Useable subnets 6
Solving IP Subnetting Problems E-17

Instead of running 1s and 0s in the subnet columns, you can determine that the
0 subnetworks are in groups of 32, which is the value in the column left of the
subnet line.
Now let’s determine the broadcast addresses for each subnetwork. The broadcast
address can be found by placing all 1s in the host bits for each subnetwork. Subnet Figure
#12 shows the broadcast address calculation.

Subnet Figure #12


4th Octet in Binary
Subnet IP Address Range 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1
1 (201.15.6.0) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
1 (201.15.6.31) 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1
2 (201.15.6.32) 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
2 (201.15.6.63) 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1
3 (201.15.6.64) 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
3 (201.15.6.95) 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1
4 (201.15.6.96) 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0
4 (201.15.6.127) 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
5 (201.15.6.128) 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
5 (201.15.6.159) 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1
6 (201.15.6.160) 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
6 (201.15.6.191) 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1
7 (201.15.6.192) 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
7 (201.15.6.223) 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1
8 (201.15.6.224) 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0
8 (201.15.6.255) 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Notice in Subnet Figure #12 how each subnetwork is shown with the subnetwork
number and the broadcast address for that subnetwork. Now for the final chart update.
E-18 Appendix E–Subnetting

Information Value
Class of IP address C
Network Number 201.15.6.0
Mask 255.255.255.224
Total no. of networks/subnetworks 8
Total no. of hosts per network/subnetwork 32
201.15.6.0, 201.15.6.32, 201.15.6.64,
Subnet numbers 201.15.6.96, 201.15.6.128, 201.15.6.160,
201.15.6.192, 201.15.6.224
201.15.6.31, 201.15.6.63, 201.15.6.95,
Broadcast addresses 201.15.6.127, 201.15.6.159, 201.15.6.191,
201.15.6.223, 201.15.6.255
No. of bits borrowed 3
Useable hosts per network/subnetwork 30
Useable subnets 6

Class C Problem 2
The Hi-IQ Company has leased one Class C address—200.200.200.0. The company
has ten networks with 12 computers on each network. With this information, the chart
appears as follows:

Information Value
Class of IP address C
Network Number 200.200.200.0
Mask ??
Total no. of networks/subnetworks (10 needed)
Total no. of hosts per network/subnetwork (12 needed)
Subnet numbers ??
Broadcast addresses ??
No. of bits borrowed ??
Useable hosts per network/subnetwork ??
Useable subnets ??
Solving IP Subnetting Problems E-19

To solve this problem, the first step is to determine the mask and, from there, the rest
is the same as the first example. To determine what mask is needed, you must discover
how many bits to borrow. Remember to use the formula 2x = total number of subnets – 2
= the number of useable subnets, where x is the number of bits borrowed. If two host bits
are borrowed (the minimum number for a Class C network), only two subnets are created
(22 = 4 – 2 = 2). That number of subnets is not enough for the Hi-IQ Company. If three
host bits are borrowed, six subnets are useable (23 = 8 – 2 = 6). Again, there are not
enough subnets. If four host bits are borrowed, 14 subnets are useable (24 = 16 – 2 = 14).
This is the correct number of bits to borrow for the Hi-IQ Company; however, the mask
must still be determined.
When borrowing four host bits to create the subnets, the mask is found by adding the
bit values for the highest most bits. See Subnet Figure #13.
Subnet Figure #13

Class C Network No. Subnet Hosts


Octet 1 Octet 2 Octet 3 Octet 4
128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1
255. 255. 255. 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0

The normal Class C mask is 255.255.255.0, but we are borrowing bits from the last
octet, so we know the mask is going to be different. By adding the bit values for the bits
being borrowed, the mask is found—128 + 64 + 32 + 16 = 240. The mask for this
subnetted Class C address is 255.255.255.240. Updating the chart shows the following:

Information Value
Class of IP address C
Network Number 200.200.200.0
Mask 255.255.255.240
Total no. of networks/subnetworks 16
Total no. of hosts per network/subnetwork (12 needed)
Subnet numbers ??
Broadcast addresses ??
No. of bits borrowed 4
Useable hosts per network/subnetwork ??
Useable subnets 14
E-20 Appendix E–Subnetting

Since the number of bits borrowed has been determined, it is easy to see how many
host bits are left to determine the total number of hosts per subnetwork. Look back at
Subnet Figure #13. At a quick glance, it is apparent that four bits remain for hosts. Using
the formula 2x = total number of hosts – 2 = the number of useable hosts where x is the
number of host bits remaining, if four host bits are remaining, 14 host addresses are
useable (24 = 16 – 2 = 14). This works well for the Hi-IQ Company since they have 12
computers on each network. Updating the chart with this information provides the
following:

Information Value
Class of IP address C
Network Number 200.200.200.0
Mask 255.255.255.240
Total no. of networks/subnetworks 16
Total no. of hosts per
16
network/subnetwork
Subnet numbers ??
Broadcast addresses ??
No. of bits borrowed 4
Useable hosts per
14
network/subnetwork
Useable subnets 14

The only thing left to do is to figure out the subnetwork numbers and the broadcasts.
Subnet Figure #14 shows only the subnetwork numbers by placing 0s in each of the host
bits.
Solving IP Subnetting Problems E-21

Subnet Figure #14

Class C Network No. Subnet Hosts


Subnet
Octet 1 Octet 2 Octet 3 Octet 4
No.
128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1
201. 15. 6. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
201. 15. 6. 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 16
201. 15. 6. 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 32
201. 15. 6. 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 48
201. 15. 6. 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 64
201. 15. 6. 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 80
201. 15. 6. 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 96
201. 15. 6. 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 112
201. 15. 6. 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 128
201. 15. 6. 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 144
201. 15. 6. 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 160
201. 15. 6. 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 176
201. 15. 6. 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 192
201. 15. 6. 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 208
201. 15. 6. 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 224
201. 15. 6. 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 240

Notice that the first subnet has all 0s in the last octet. This is why none of the first
subnets cannot be used as a useable subnet. Now let’s get the broadcast numbers. Subnet
Figure #15 shows only the broadcasts by placing 1s in each of the host bits.
E-22 Appendix E–Subnetting

Subnet Figure #15

Class C Network No. Subnet Hosts


Broadcast
Octet 1 Octet 2 Octet 3 Octet 4
Address
128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1
201. 15. 6. 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 15
201. 15. 6. 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 31
201. 15. 6. 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 47
201. 15. 6. 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 63
201. 15. 6. 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 79
201. 15. 6. 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 95
201. 15. 6. 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 111
201. 15. 6. 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 127
201. 15. 6. 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 143
201. 15. 6. 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 159
201. 15. 6. 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 175
201. 15. 6. 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 191
201. 15. 6. 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 207
201. 15. 6. 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 223
201. 15. 6. 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 239
201. 15. 6. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 255

Notice how the last subnet has all 1s in the last octet. This is why the last subnet
cannot be used as a useable subnet. Now let’s update the chart with the subnetwork
numbers and their associated broadcast addresses.
Solving IP Subnetting Problems E-23

Information Value
Class of IP address C
Network Number 200.200.200.0
Mask 255.255.255.240
Total no. of networks/subnetworks 16
Total no. of hosts per network/subnetwork 16
200.200.200.0, 200.200.200.16,
200.200.200.32, 200.200.200.48,
200.200.200.64, 200.200.200.80,
200.200.200.96, 200.200.200.112,
Subnet numbers
200.200.200.128, 200.200.200.144,
200.200.200.160, 200.200.200.176,
200.200.200.192, 200.200.200.208,
200.200.200.224, 200.200.200.240
200.200.200.15, 200.200.200.31,
200.200.200.47, 200.200.200.63,
200.200.200.79, 200.200.200.95,
200.200.200.111, 200.200.200.127,
Broadcast addresses
200.200.200.143, 200.200.200.159,
200.200.200.175, 200.200.200.191,
200.200.200.207, 200.200.200.223,
200.200.200.239, 200.200.200.255
No. of bits borrowed 4
Useable hosts per network/subnetwork 14
Useable subnets 14

All important pieces of information needed to set up the network are now provided.

Class C Problem 3
A network administrator for the Total Cool Company is working on a computer. The
computer’s IP address is 204.210.179.142 with a mask of 255.255.255.192. The network
administrator needs to know on which subnet the computer belongs. The information
found by looking at the computer is the Class of IP address, the network portion of the IP
address, and the mask. The following chart shows this information.
E-24 Appendix E–Subnetting

Information Value
Class of IP address C
Network Number 204.210.179.0
Mask 255.255.255.192
Total no. of networks/subnetworks ??
Total no. of hosts per network/subnetwork ??
Subnet numbers ??
Broadcast addresses ??
No. of bits borrowed ??
Useable hosts per network/subnetwork ??
Useable subnets ??

The first step in solving this problem is to discover how many bits are borrowed. A
normal Class C mask is 255.255.255.0, but the one on this computer is 255.255.255.192.
Finding out how many bits are borrowed requires you to put 1s in Octet 4’s bits until the
bit positions add up to 192. Look at Subnet Figure #16 to see how this is done.
Subnet Figure #16

Class C Network No. Subnet Hosts


Octet 1 Octet 2 Octet 3 Octet 4
128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1
255. 255. 255. 1 1

Bit position 128 plus bit position 64 added together gives you 192. So, two bits are
borrowed. Updating the chart with the number of bits borrowed shows the following:
Solving IP Subnetting Problems E-25

Information Value
Class of IP address C
Network Number 204.210.179.0
Mask 255.255.255.192
Total no. of networks/subnetworks ??
Total no. of hosts per network/subnetwork ??
Subnet numbers ??
Broadcast addresses ??
No. of bits borrowed 2
Useable hosts per network/subnetwork ??
Useable subnets ??

Now that the number of bits borrowed is solved, you can determine the number of
subnetworks using the formula 2x = number of subnetworks where x is the number of bits
borrowed and subtracting 2 because you cannot use the first or the last subnetworks. So
22 = 4 minus 2 equals 2, meaning that there are two subnetworks. You can also determine
the number of hosts on each network using the same method. 2x = number of hosts where
x is the number of host bits remaining after bits have been borrowed for subnetting. Then
subtract 2 for the number of useable hosts. In our example, two bits were borrowed for
subnetting. Six bits are left for hosts. 26 = 64 hosts per subnetwork minus 2 for the
subnetwork number and broadcast leaves 62 hosts per subnetwork. Updating the chart
shows the following:

Information Value
Class of IP address C
Network Number 204.210.179.0
Mask 255.255.255.192
Total no. of networks/subnetworks 4
Total no. of hosts per network/subnetwork 64
Subnet numbers ??
Broadcast addresses ??
No. of bits borrowed 2
Useable hosts per network/subnetwork 62
Useable subnets 2
E-26 Appendix E–Subnetting

Now, the only thing left to do is to determine the subnet numbers. Look back to
Subnet Figure #16. You can see that the line is drawn between the 32 and 64 bit positions.
A shortcut is to look at the number to the left of the line and you can tell that the
subnetwork numbers will be incremented in steps of 64, but filling in the chart with 0s in
the host bits proves this shortcut. Subnet Figure #17 shows the subnetwork numbers.
Subnet Figure #17

Class C Network No. Subnet Hosts


Octet 1 Octet 2 Octet 3 Octet 4 Subnet No.
128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1
204. 210. 179. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
204. 210. 179. 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 64
204. 210. 179. 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 128
204. 210. 179. 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 192

A shortcut for finding the broadcast address is to subtract 1 from the subnetwork
below the one you are working on because the broadcast address is always 1 less than the
subnetwork number. Also remember that the last subnet will always have a broadcast
address of 255. However, filling in the chart shows the full version. Subnet Figure #18
shows broadcasts for each of the subnetworks by putting 1s in the host positions.
Subnet Figure #18

Class C Network No. Subnet Hosts


Broadcast
Octet 1 Octet 2 Octet 3 Octet 4
Address
128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1
204. 210. 179. 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 63
204. 210. 179. 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 127
204. 210. 179. 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 191
204. 210. 179. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 255

Now, update the chart to include the subnetwork numbers and broadcast addresses:
Solving IP Subnetting Problems E-27

Information Value
Class of IP address C
Network Number 204.210.179.0
Mask 255.255.255.192
Total no. of networks/subnetworks 4
Total no. of hosts per network/subnetwork 64
204.210.179.0, 204.210.179.64,
Subnet numbers
204.210.179.128, 204.210.179.192
204.210.179.63, 204.210.179.127,
Broadcast addresses
204.210.179.191, 204.210.179.255
No. of bits borrowed 2
Useable hosts per network/subnetwork 62
Useable subnets 2

Now that the chart is complete, look at the sequence of network numbers or back at
Subnet Figure #17 to determine in what subnetwork IP address 204.210.179.142 falls.
Subnetwork 0 is IP addresses 204.210.179.0 through 204.210.179.63. This does not
include .142, so look at the next subnetwork. Subnetwork 1 is IP addresses
204.210.179.64 through 204.210.179.127. Again, .142 is not in this range. Subnetwork 2
is IP addresses 204.210.179.128 through 204.210.179.191. This range of addresses does
include .142, so IP address 204.210.179.142 is on subnetwork 204.210.179.128. Another
way of solving for the subnetwork number is to “and” the IP address with the mask.
Remember when “anding” that two 1s together make a 1. All other combinations of 1s and
0s make a 0. Subnet Figure #19 shows the “anding” of the IP address 204.210.179.142
with the mask—255.255.255.192 with the result being the subnetwork number.
Subnet Figure #19
1 1 1 1
2 6 3 1 2 6 3 1 2 6 3 1 2 6 3 1
8 4 2 6 8 4 2 1 8 4 2 6 8 4 2 1 8 4 2 6 8 4 2 1 8 4 2 6 8 4 2 1
IP in
1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0
binary
Mask in
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
binary
Subnet in
1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
binary
E-28 Appendix E–Subnetting

CLASS B SUBNETTING
Class B IP addresses are handled the same as Class Cs with the exception of how
many host bits can be borrowed for subnetting. With Class B IP addresses, the first two
octets (16 bits) represent the network number and the last two octets (16 bits) represent
host bits. Subnet Figure #20 shows this concept.
Subnet Figure #20

Class B Network No. Hosts

Octet 1 Octet 2 Octet 3 Octet 4

When subnetting, host bits are borrowed to create subnets, and they are always
borrowed from the left-most host bits. Subnet Figure #21 shows a Class B IP address
with three bits borrowed.
Subnet Figure #21
Class B
Subnets Hosts
Network No.
Octet Octet
Octet 3 Octet 4
1 2
1 1
2 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 2 64 32 16 8 4 2 1
8 8

The number of subnets is still found using the formula 2x = total number of subnets
where x is the number of bits borrowed. The useable subnets is found by subtracting 2
from the result just like it is done with Class C addresses. Look back to Subnet Figure
#21. When 3 bits are borrowed, there are eight subnets and six useable subnets possible
because 23 = 8 and 8 – 2 = 6.
To determine the total number of hosts, the same formula used when working with
Class C addresses is applied: 2x = number of hosts where x is the number of host bits
remaining after bits have been borrowed for subnetting. Subtract the number 2 from this
result to obtain the useable number of hosts per subnetwork. Look back to Subnet Figure
#21. With three bits borrowed to perform subnetting, 13 bits remain. 213 = 8,192, which is
the total number of hosts. To find the useable number of hosts per subnetwork, subtract 2
from 8,192. 8,192 – 2 = 8,190. So, 8,190 hosts are allowed on each subnet when
borrowing three bits from a Class B address.
Solving IP Subnetting Problems E-29

The normal subnet mask used with Class B IP addresses is 255.255.0.0. When
implementing subnets, the third (and possible fourth) octet number changes. The mask is
found by looking at the octet(s) where host bits are borrowed and adding the bit values
together. Subnet Figure #22 shows how the mask is obtained when borrowing three bits
from a Class B address.
Subnet Figure #22
Mask

Class B
Subnets Hosts
Network No.
Octet Octet
Octet 3 Octet 4
1 2
1 1
6 3 1 6 3 1
2 8 4 2 1 2 8 4 2 1
4 2 6 4 2 6
8 8
䊴 255 255 1 1 1

When three bits are borrowed, the mask has 1s set in the first three bits of the third
octet. These bit positions are 128, 64, and 32. Add these bit values together to get 224
(128 + 64 + 32 = 224). The mask for a Class B network with three bits borrowed is
255.255.224.0.
Now, for some more practice. The best way to learn Class B IP address subnetting is
to practice, practice, practice.

Class B Problem 1
The PDQ, Inc. company has ten different networks located throughout the country,
but has leased only one Class B address, 180.10.0.0. One option for the company is to
divide the Class B address into subnetworks. The network administrator must determine
how many bits to borrow by looking at how many subnets the company needs. Since the
company has ten networks, a minimum of four bits must be borrowed. 24 = 16 and 16 – 2
= 14 useable subnet numbers. (If three bits were borrowed, there would not be enough
subnets because 23 = 8 and 8 – 2 = 6.) The network administrator has heard that a merger
is imminent, so, playing it safe, she decides to borrow five bits for subnetting. Borrowing
five bits allows for 30 subnetworks because 25 = 32 and 32 – 2 = 30. Subnet Figure #23
shows how the mask is determined.
E-30 Appendix E–Subnetting

Subnet Figure #23


Mask

Class B
Subnets Hosts
Network No.
Octet Octet
Octet 3 Octet 4
1 2
1 1
6 3 1 6 3 1
2 8 4 2 1 2 8 4 2 1
4 2 6 4 2 6
8 8
䊴 255 255 1 1 1 1 1

1s are placed in all subnetwork bit positions and those bit values are added together:
128 + 64 + 32 + 16 + 8 = 248. The mask used in the PDQ, Inc. network is 255.255.248.0.
The chart below shows the information gathered thus far:

Information Value
Class of IP address B
Network Number 180.10.0.0
Mask 255.255.248.0
Total no. of subnetworks 32
Total no. of hosts per network/subnetwork ??
Subnet numbers ??
Broadcast addresses ??
No. of bits borrowed 5
Useable hosts per network/subnetwork ??
Useable subnets 30
Solving IP Subnetting Problems E-31

The number of hosts can be determined by looking at how many host bits remain.
Look back to Subnet Figure #13 and see that the number of remaining host bits is 11. 211
= 2,048 total number of hosts for each subnet. Subtract 2 to obtain the number of useable
hosts on each subnet: 2,048 – 2 = 2,046 useable hosts on each subnet. The updated chart
shows the following:

Information Value
Class of IP address B
Network Number 180.10.0.0
Mask 255.255.248.0
Total no. of subnetworks 32
Total no. of hosts per subnetwork 2,048
Subnet numbers ??
Broadcast addresses ??
No. of bits borrowed 5
Useable hosts per subnetwork 2,046
Useable subnets 30

Now for the real work—determining subnet numbers and broadcast addresses.
Subnet Figure #24 shows the 1 and 0 patterns for determining subnetwork numbers. Due
to the lack of space, not all subnetworks are shown, but enough subnets are shown to
illustrate the pattern.
E-32 Appendix E–Subnetting

Subnet Figure #24


Class B
Subnets Hosts
Network No.
Octet Octet Subnet
Octet 3 Octet 4
1 2 No.
1 1
6 3 1 6 3 1
2 8 4 2 1 2 8 4 2 1
4 2 6 4 2 6
8 8
180 10 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0
180 10 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 8.0
180 10 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 16.0
180 10 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 24.0
180 10 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 32.0
180 10 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 40.0
180 10 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 48.0
180 10 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 56.0
180 10 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 64.0
180 10 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 72.0
180 10 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 80.0
180 10 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 88.0
180 10 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 96.0
180 10 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 104.0
180 10 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 112.0
180 10 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 120.0
180 10 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 128.0
180 10 • •
180 10 • •
180 10 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 248.0

Notice how the subnetwork numbers are in increments of eight. When doing Class A
and B subnetting, there is normally not enough time to write every combination of 1s and
0s. When first learning subnetting, you should definitely write out a few, but once you
see the pattern emerge, you should do the first couple of subnets and the last subnet.
Updating the chart with the subnetwork numbers yields the following:
Solving IP Subnetting Problems E-33

Information Value
Class of IP address B
Network Number 180.10.0.0
Mask 255.255.248.0
Total no. of subnetworks 32
Total no. of hosts per subnetwork 2,048
180.10.0.0, 180.10.8.0, 180.10.16.0,
180.10.24.0, 180.10.32.0, 180.10.40.0,
180.10.48.0, 180.10.56.0, 180.10.64,0,
180.10.72.0, 180.10.80.0, 180.10.88.0,
180.10.96.0, 180.10.104.0, 180.10.112.0,
Subnet numbers 180.10.120.0, 180.10.128.0, 180.10.136.0,
180.10.144.0, 180.10.152.0, 180.10.160.0,
180.10.168.0, 180.10.176.0, 180.10.184.0,
180.10.192.0, 180.10.200.0, 180.10.208.0,
180.10.216.0, 180.10.224.0, 180.10.232.0,
180.10.240.0, 180.10.248.0
Broadcast addresses ??
No. of bits borrowed 5
Useable hosts per subnetwork 2,046
Useable subnets 30

All that is left to find in the chart is the broadcast address for each subnetwork. This
is found by placing 1s in all of the host bits after the subnetworks are found. This, too,
will show an emerging pattern as Subnet Figure #25 illustrates:
E-34 Appendix E–Subnetting

Subnet Figure #25


Class B
Subnet Hosts
Network No.
Octet Octet
Octet 3 Octet 4 Broadcast
1 2
1 1
6 3 1 6 3 1
2 8 4 2 1 2 8 4 2 1
4 2 6 4 2 6
8 8
180 10 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 7.255
180 10 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 15.255
180 10 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 23.255
180 10 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 31.255
180 10 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 39.255
180 10 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 47.255
180 10 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 55.255
180 10 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 63.255
180 10 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 71.255
180 10 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 79.255
180 10 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 87.255
180 10 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 95.255
180 10 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 103.255
180 10 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 111.255
180 10 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 119.255
180 10 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 127.255
180 10 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 135.255
180 10 • 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 •
180 10 • 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 •
180 10 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 255.255

0 Do not forget to look at the entire octet when determining the decimal value for
the octet.
Solving IP Subnetting Problems E-35

The pattern that emerges is that the third octet increments by eight each time and the
fourth octet is always 255. Also notice that the broadcast number is one less than the
subnetwork number that follows. The completed chart lists below:

Information Value
Class of IP address B
Network Number 180.10.0.0
Mask 255.255.248.0
Total no. of subnetworks 32
Total no. of hosts per subnetwork 2,048
180.10.0.0, 180.10.8.0, 180.10.16.0,
180.10.24.0, 180.10.32.0, 180.10.40.0,
180.10.48.0, 180.10.56.0, 180.10.64,0,
180.10.72.0, 180.10.80.0, 180.10.88.0,
180.10.96.0, 180.10.104.0, 180.10.112.0,
Subnet numbers 180.10.120.0, 180.10.128.0, 180.10.136.0,
180.10.144.0, 180.10.152.0, 180.10.160.0,
180.10.168.0, 180.10.176.0, 180.10.184.0,
180.10.192.0, 180.10.200.0, 180.10.208.0,
180.10.216.0, 180.10.224.0, 180.10.232.0,
180.10.240.0, 180.10.248.0
180.10.7.255, 180.10.15.255,
180.10.31.255, 180.10.39.255,
180.10.47.255, 180.10.55.255,
180.10.63.255, 180.10.71.255,
180.10.79.255, 180.10.87.255,
180.10.95.255, 180.10.103.255,
180.10.111.255, 180.10.119.255,
Broadcast addresses 180.10.127.255, 180.10.135.255,
180.10.143.255, 180.10.151.255,
180.10.167.255, 180.10.175.255,
180.10.183.255, 180.10.191.255,
180.10.199.255, 180.10.207.255,
180.10.215.255, 180.10.223.255,
180.10.231.255, 180.10.239.255,
180.10.255.255
No. of bits borrowed 5
Useable hosts per subnetwork 2,046
Useable subnets 30
E-36 Appendix E–Subnetting

Class B Problem 2
One of the hardest concepts for students to grasp is when borrowed host bits are in
more than one octet. In the next scenario, the Top Hats Co. has 2,000 locations
throughout the world. Each location has a network with approximately 20 computers.
The Top Hats Co. has leased the Class B IP address of 189.208.0.0. The first step in
solving this problem is determining how many bits to borrow. Subnet Table #1 helps with
this decision:
Subnet Table #1
Borrowed No. of Host Total Useable Useable
Total Hosts
Bits Bits Subnets Subnets Hosts
5 11 32 30 2048 2046
6 10 34 32 1024 1022
7 9 128 126 512 510
8 8 256 254 256 254
9 7 512 510 128 126
10 6 1024 1022 64 62
11 5 2048 2046 32 30
12 4 4096 4094 16 14
13 3 8192 8190 8 6

Looking at Subnet Table #1, you can see that borrowing 11 bits allows for the 2,000
Top Hats Co.’s locations throughout the world. By borrowing 11 bits, there are also
enough remaining host bits to accommodate the computers at each site. The following
chart summarizes the information gathered so far:

Information Value
Class of IP address B
Network Number 189.208.0.0
Mask ??
Total no. of subnetworks 2,048
Total no. of hosts per subnetwork 32
Subnet numbers ??
Broadcast addresses ??
No. of bits borrowed 11
Useable hosts per subnetwork 30
Useable subnets 2,046
Solving IP Subnetting Problems E-37

To determine what mask is needed throughout the Top Hats Co.’s network, place 1s in
the subnetwork field and add the bit value positions together for each octet. Subnet
Figure #26 shows this concept:
Subnet Figure #26
Mask

Class B
Subnets Hosts
Network No.
Octet Octet
Octet 3 Octet 4
1 2
1 1
2 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 2 64 32 16 8 4 2 1
8 8
䊴 255 255 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

The first two octets are the standard 255.255 numbers. The third octet is filled with
1’s, so the third octet mask is 255—(128 + 64 + 32 + 16 + 8 + 4 + 2 +1 = 255). The fourth
octet has three bits set, so the mask is 224—(128 + 64 + 32 = 224). The final mask for
this problem is 255.255.255.244, and the information can be inserted into the chart:

Information Value
Class of IP address B
Network Number 189.208.0.0
Mask 255.255.255.224
Total no. of subnetworks 2,048
Total no. of hosts per subnetwork 32
Subnet numbers ??
Broadcast addresses ??
No. of bits borrowed 11
Useable hosts per subnetwork 30
Useable subnets 2,046

Now, the subnetworks must be determined. Subnet Figure #27 shows the breakdown
of the subnets with 1s and 0s.

0 Keep in mind when putting 1s and 0s in multiple subnetwork octets that you
must treat them as one big group.
E-38 Appendix E–Subnetting

Subnet Figure #27


Class B
Subnets Hosts
Network No.
Octet Octet
Octet 3 Octet 4 Subnets
1 2
1 1
6 3 1 6 3 1
2 8 4 2 1 2 8 4 2
4 2 6 4 2 6
8 8
189 208 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0
189 208 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0.32
189 208 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0.64
189 208 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0.96
189 208 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.128
189 208 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0.160
189 208 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0.192
189 208 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0.224
189 208 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1.0
189 208 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1.32
189 208 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1.64
189 208 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1.96
189 208 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1.128
189 208 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1.160
189 208 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1.192
189 208 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1.224
189 208 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2.0
189 208 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 2.32
189 208 • •
189 208 • •
189 208 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 255.224

Updating the chart could take several pages with these subnetworks, but entering in a
few of them shows the following:
Solving IP Subnetting Problems E-39

Information Value
Class of IP address B
Network Number 189.208.0.0
Mask 255.255.255.224
Total no. of subnetworks 2,048
Total no. of hosts per subnetwork 32
189.208.0.0, 189.208.0.32, 189.208.0.64,
189.208.0.96, 189.208.0.128,
189.208.0.160, 189.208.0.192,
189.208.0.224, 189.208.1.0,
Subnet numbers
189.208.1.32, …189.208.1.224,
189.208.2.0, 189.208.2.32, 189.208.2.64,
189.208.2.96, 189.208.2.128, . . .
189.208.255.224
Broadcast addresses ??
No. of bits borrowed 11
Useable hosts per subnetwork 30
Useable subnets 2,046

The last bit of information left to find is the broadcast numbers. Simply put 1s in the
host bits for each subnetwork. Subnet Figure #28 shows this process.
E-40 Appendix E–Subnetting

Subnet Figure #28

Class B
Subnets Hosts
Network No.
Octet Octet
Octet 3 Octet 4 Subnets
1 2
1 1
6 3 1 6 3 1
2 8 4 2 1 2 8 4 2
4 2 6 4 2 6
8 8
189 208 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0.31
189 208 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0.63
189 208 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0.95
189 208 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0.127
189 208 • •
189 208 • •
189 208 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1.223
189 208 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1.255
189 208 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 2.31
189 208 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 2.63
189 208 • •
189 208 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 255.255

Of course updating the list with the broadcasts is quite lengthy too, but some have
been inserted into the chart to illustrate the point.
Solving IP Subnetting Problems E-41

Information Value
Class of IP address B
Network Number 189.208.0.0
Mask 255.255.255.224
Total no. of subnetworks 2,048
Total no. of hosts per subnetwork 32
189.208.0.0, 189.208.0.32, 189.208.0.64,
189.208.0.96, 189.208.0.128,
189.208.0.160, 189.208.0.192,
189.208.0.224, 189.208.1.0,
Subnet numbers
189.208.1.32, …189.208.1.224,
189.208.2.0, 189.208.2.32, 189.208.2.64,
189.208.2.96, 189.208.2.128, . . .
189.208.255.224
189.208.0.31, 189.208.0.63, 189.208.0.95,
189.208.0.127, …189.208.1.223,
189.208.1.255, 189.208.2.31,
189.208.2.63, 189.208.2.95,
189.208.2.127 …189.208.254.63,
Broadcast addresses 189.208.254.95, 189.208.254.127,
189.208.254.159, 189.208.254.191,
189.208. 254.255, 189.208.255.63,
189.208.255.95, 189.208.255.127,
189.208.255.159, 189.208.255.191,
189.208.255.255
No. of bits borrowed 11
Useable hosts per subnetwork 30
Useable subnets 2,046

Of course, each of the broadcast addresses is in groups of 32 just like the


subnetworks are. Do not forget to treat each octet as a group of eight bits when
determining subnetwork numbers and broadcast addresses!
E-42 Appendix E–Subnetting

Class B Problem 3
The network administrator is working on a computer with the IP address of
157.208.190.144. The mask shows as 255.255.255.192. On what subnet is the computer
attached? The information known so far is summarized in the following table:

Information Value
Class of IP address B
Network Number 157.208.0.0
Mask 255.255.255.192
Total no. of subnetworks ??
Total no. of hosts per network/subnetwork ??
Subnet numbers ??
Broadcast addresses ??
No. of bits borrowed ??
Useable hosts per network/subnetwork ??
Useable subnets ??

The first step is to determine how many host bits have been borrowed for subnetting.
Subnet Figure #29 shows the mask (the borrowed bits).
Subnet Figure #29
Mask

Class B
Subnets Hosts
Network No.
Octet Octet
Octet 3 Octet 4
1 2
1 1
6 3 1 6 3 1
2 8 4 2 1 2 8 4 2 1
4 2 6 4 2 6
8 8
䊴 255 255 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

As seen in Subnet Figure #29, there are ten borrowed host bits. Knowing this
information, the total number of subnets, useable subnets, total number of hosts, and
useable hosts can be determined by using the formula 2x (where x is either the number of
bits borrowed or the remaining bits) and then entered into the chart as shown below.
Solving IP Subnetting Problems E-43

Information Value
Class of IP address B
Network Number 157.208.0.0
Mask 255.255.255.192
Total no. of subnetworks 1,024
Total no. of hosts per
64
network/subnetwork
Subnet numbers ??
Broadcast addresses ??
No. of bits borrowed 10
Useable hosts per network/subnetwork 62
Useable subnets 1,022

The next thing is to determine the subnetwork numbers. Subnet Figure #30 shows a
partial illustration of subnetwork numbers for this problem.
E-44 Appendix E–Subnetting

Subnet Figure #30


Class B
Subnets Hosts
Network No.
Octet Octet
Octet 3 Octet 4 Subnets
1 2
1 1
6 3 1 6 3 1
2 8 4 2 1 2 8 4 2
4 2 6 4 2 6
8 8
157 208 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0.32
157 208 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0.64
157 208 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0.96
157 208 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.128
157 208 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0.160
157 208 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0.192
157 208 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0.224
157 208 • •
157 208 • •
157 208 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 190.64
157 208 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 190.96
157 208 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 190.128
157 208 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 190.160
157 208 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 190.192
157 208 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 190.224
157 208 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 191.0
157 208 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 191.32
157 208 • •
157 208 • •
157 208 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 255.224

The answer to the problem is actually in Subnet Figure #30. The subnetwork numbers
shown are the beginning address (the number for “the wire”) for the subnet. For example,
subnetwork 157.208.190.0 has addresses that extend from 157.208.190.0 through
157.208.190.31. Subnetwork 157.208.190.32 has addresses that extend from
157.208.190.32 through 157.208.190.63. The computer in this example has an IP address
of 157.208.190.144. The solution is found by looking at a subnetwork number that is the
smallest number below 190.144. The answer is subnetwork 157.208.190.128. Since the
solution is solved, there is no need to finish the chart or determine broadcast addresses.
Solving IP Subnetting Problems E-45

However, to determine the broadcast address for each subnetwork, the same method is
used as shown before—put 1s in all of the host addresses and determine the decimal
value for the octet.
A shortcut for solving a problem that gives an IP address and a mask and asks for
the subnetwork number is to put the IP address and mask in binary and “and” the

0 two numbers together. Then convert the result to dotted decimal notation.
Remember when “anding,” the only way to get a 1 is by “anding” two 1s together.
Subnet Figure #31 shows this process.

Subnet Figure #31


1 1 1 1
2 6 3 1 2 6 3 1 2 6 3 1 2 6 3 1
8 4 2 6 8 4 2 1 8 4 2 6 8 4 2 1 8 4 2 6 8 4 2 1 8 4 2 6 8 4 2 1
IP in
1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
binary
Mask in
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
binary
Subnet in
1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
binary

Subnet in dotted decimal notation: 157.208.190.128

CLASS A SUBNETTING
Class A subnetting is handled the same as Class Bs and Cs with the exception of how
many host bits can be borrowed for subnetting. With Class A IP addresses, the first octet
(eight bits) represents the network number and the last three octets (24 bits) represent
host bits. Subnet Figure #32 shows this concept.
Subnet Figure #32
Class A Network
Hosts
No.
Octet 1 Octet 2 Octet 3 Octet 4

When subnetting Class A IP addresses, bits are borrowed from the left-most host bits
and can extend across octets 2, 3, and 4 because these are the Class A host bits. Subnet
Figure #33 shows a Class A IP address with eleven bits borrowed from the first and
second octets.
E-46 Appendix C–Subnetting

Subnet Figure #33

Class A
Network Hosts
No.
Octet 1 Octet 2 Octet 3 Octet 4
1 1 1
6 3 1 6 3 1 6 3 1
2 8 4 2 1 2 8 4 2 1 2 8 4 2 1
4 2 6 4 2 6 4 2 6
8 8 8

With Class A subnets, the same formula, 2x = total number of subnets (where x is the
number of bits borrowed) is still used. The useable subnets is found by subtracting 2 from
the result, just like it was done with Class B and Class C subnets. In Subnet Figure #33,
11 bits are borrowed from octets 2 and 3. 211 = 2,048 total subnets and subtracting 2
yields the useable subnets—2,048 – 2 = 2,046.
The same formula is also used for determining total number of hosts. In Subnet
Figure #33, 13 host bits remain. 213 = 8,192 total host addresses. Subtracting 2 yields the
useable host addresses—8,192 – 2 = 8,190. Keep consistent in how you solve IP
subnetting problems and no exam can trip you up.
The normal subnet mask used with Class A IP addresses is 255.0.0.0. When
implementing subnets, the second, third, and fourth octets can be used and therefore the
mask changes for these octets. Subnet Figure #34 shows how the mask is obtained when
borrowing 11 bits from a Class A address.
Subnet Figure #34
Mask

Class A
Network Hosts
No.
Octet 1 Octet 2 Octet 3 Octet 4
1 1 1
6 3 1 6 3 1 6 3 1
2 8 4 2 1 2 8 4 2 1 2 8 4 2 1
4 2 6 4 2 6 4 2 6
8 8 8
䊴 255 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Solving IP Subnetting Problems E-47

When borrowing 11 bits, the mask has 1s set in the second octet and the first three
bits of the third octet. Octet 2 is all 1s, so the mask for octet 2 is 255. Octet 3 has 1s set in
the first three bit positions. Add these bit values together to get 224. (128 + 64 + 32 =
224). The mask for a Class A network with 11 bits borrowed is 255.255.224.0.
The best way to learn Class A addresses (as it has been for the other classes) is to
practice. They are done the exact same way as the other addresses except there are more
host bits from which to borrow.

Class A Problem 1
The Super Duper Company has 5,000 locations worldwide. In each location, there
are more than 1000 computers. The Super Duper Company has leased one Class A IP
address, 19.0.0.0. One option for the company is to divide the class A address into
subnetworks. The first task for the network administrator is to determine how many bits
to borrow for subnetting. Subnet Table #2 summarizes some borrowed bits with
corresponding number of subnets.
Subnet Table #2

Borrowed No. of Host Total Useable Useable


Total Hosts
Bits Bits Subnets Subnets Hosts
5 19 32 30 524288 524286
6 18 64 62 262144 262142
7 17 128 126 131072 131070
8 16 256 254 65536 65534
9 15 512 510 32768 32766
10 14 1024 1022 16384 16382
11 13 2048 2046 8192 8190
12 12 4096 4094 4096 4094
13 11 8192 8190 2048 2046
14 10 16384 16382 1024 1022
15 9 32768 32766 512 510
16 8 65536 65534 256 254
17 7 131072 131070 128 126

Looking at Subnet Table #2, one can see that, to assign subnetwork numbers to 5,000
locations, the Super Duper Company must borrow 13 host bits. This also allows for 2,046
host addresses per location. Subnet Figure #35 shows how the subnet mask is determined
using the 13 host bits for subnetworks.
E-48 Appendix E–Subnetting

Subnet Figure #35


Mask

Class A
Network Hosts
No.
Octet 1 Octet 2 Octet 3 Octet 4
1 1 1
6 3 1 6 3 1 6 3 1
2 8 4 2 1 2 8 4 2 1 2 8 4 2 1
4 2 6 4 2 6 4 2 6
8 8 8
䊴255 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

With 13 bits borrowed, the mask has the standard 1s in the first octet (255), 1s in the
second octet (255), and 1s in five bits of the third octet (248—128 + 64 + 32 + 16 + 8).
So, the mask for the Super Duper Company is 255.255.248.0. The chart below shows the
information determined so far.

Information Value
Class of IP address A
Network Number 19.0.0.0
Mask 255.255.248.0
Total no. of subnetworks 8,192
Total no. of hosts per subnetwork 2,048
Subnet numbers ??
Broadcast addresses ??
No. of bits borrowed 11
Useable hosts per subnetwork 2,046
Useable subnets 8,190

Determining subnetwork numbers is done exactly the same way as when Class B and
Class C addresses are subnetted. Subnet Figure #36 shows a partial view of the Class A
subnetworks. Octet 1 is not divided into bit positions because it is always 19. Octet 4
is not subdivided because it always contains 0s for the subnetwork number. For
presentation, only Octets 2 and 3 are shown where the subnetting occurs; Octet 4 is not
shown.
Solving IP Subnetting Problems E-49

Subnet Figure #36


Mask

Class A
Network Hosts
No.
Octet 1 Octet 2 Octet 3 Subnets
1 1
6 3 1 6 3 1
2 8 4 2 1 2 8 4 2 1
4 2 6 4 2 6
8 8
䊴 19 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 19.0.0.0
19 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 19.0.8.0
19 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 19.0.16.0
19 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 19.0.24.0
19 • 0 0 0 •
19 • 0 0 0 •
19 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 19.0.248.0
19 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 19.1.0.0
19 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 19.1.8.0
19 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 19.1.16.0
19 • 0 0 0 •
19 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 19.255.248.0

As you can see in Subnet Figure #36, there are 13 borrowed host bits. Subnetwork
numbers increment in groups of eight (19.0.0.0, 19.0.8.0, 19.0.16.0, and so on up to
19.255.248.0). A few of the subnetwork numbers are filled into the chart so you can see
the trend. To determine the broadcast address for each subnetwork, the same method used
with Class C and Class B addresses is used—put all 1s in the host address and determine
the decimal value (or take the shortcut and subtract 1 from the next subnetwork number).
The final chart is as follows:
E-50 Appendix E–Subnetting

Information Value
Class of IP address A
Network Number 19.0.0.0
Mask 255.255.248.0
Total no. of subnetworks 8,192
Total no. of hosts per subnetwork 2,048
19.0.8.0, 19.0.16.0, 19.0.24.0, 19.0.32.0
through 19.0.248.0, 19.1.0.0, 19.1.8.0,
Subnet numbers
19.1.16.0 through 19.1.248, 19.2.0.0
through 19.255.248.0
19.0.15.255, 19.0.23.255, 19.0.31.255,
19.0.39.255 etc. through 19.0.255.255,
Broadcast addresses 19.1.7.255, 19.1.15.255, 19.1.31.255 etc.
through 19.1.255.255, 19.2.7.255
through 19.255.255.255
No. of bits borrowed 11
Useable hosts per subnetwork 2,046
Useable subnets 8,190

Writing all of the subnet numbers and broadcast addresses would take up page after
page of this text, so enough numbers are inserted for you to get the idea of the pattern.
Once you do a couple of numbers and see the patterns, you can determine all of the
subnet numbers.
Subnetting Review Questions E-51

Name _______________________________

SUBNETTING REVIEW QUESTIONS


1. A company has received a Class C IP address for their four networks. How many
bits need to be borrowed?

2. A company uses a Class C mask of 255.255.255.224. What is the maximum


number of hosts per subnetwork?

3. How many bits are borrowed in a Class C address if the mask is 255.255.255.240?

4. Given the IP address 199.14.180.4, what class IP address is this?

5. Given the IP address of 201.60.250.91 and a mask of 255.255.255.248, what is the


subnetwork number?

6. Given the IP address 210.199.184.66 and the fact that a company borrows three
bits to subnet, what mask is used?

7. What is the standard subnet mask for a Class C address?

8. What is the maximum number of bits that can be borrowed when using a Class C
address?

9. What is the minimum number of bits that can be borrowed when using a Class C
address?

10. Given the IP address 204.16.8.0 and a mask of 255.255.255.240. What is the first
useable subnetwork number?

11. Given the IP address 197.56.2.141 and a mask of 255.255.255.192, what is the
broadcast address for this subnetwork?
E-52 Appendix E–Subnetting

12. Given the broadcast address of 202.202.159.159 and a mask of 255.255.255.248,


what is the subnetwork number?

13. A company has a policy of only 25 hosts per subnet. They have 20 networks. How
many Class C addresses does the company need?

14. How many bits are set in a standard Class C mask?

15. What is the maximum number of hosts on a Class C network?

16. Given the mask of 255.255.255.224 and an IP address of 200.200.200.200, on what


subnetwork is the device?

17. Given an IP address of 193.15.10.105 and a mask of 255.255.255.252, what is the


subnetwork number?

18. Given the mask of 255.255.255.248 and the fact that a Class C address is being
used, how many hosts are on each subnet?

19. Given the IP address of 206.19.1.186 and a mask of 255.255.255.192, what are the
two unuseable subnets?

20. Given the IP address of 199.199.144.43 and a mask of 255.255.255.224, what is


the last useable subnetwork number?

21. Given the IP address 130.14.207.39 and a mask of 255.255.240.0, how many total
subnets are available?

22. Given the IP address 130.14.207.39 and a mask of 255.255.240.0, what is the
subnetwork number associated with this IP address?

23. Given the IP address 188.188.188.188 and a mask of 255.255.255.128, what is the
subnetwork number associated with this IP address?

24. Given the IP address 191.10.59.63 and with six bits borrowed, what is the mask?
Subnetting Review Questions E-53

25. A company has a Class B IP address. What is the maximum number of bits that can
be borrowed and still have 100 hosts per subnetwork?

26. A company is leasing a Class A IP address and has 3000 networks. How many bits
do they need to borrow?

27. Given the IP address 15.200.166.41 and a mask of 255.252.0.0, what is the
subnetwork number?

28. What is the mask when 15 bits are borrowed and a Class A network address is
being used?

29. Given the IP address 14.168.29.180 and a mask of 255.255.192.0, how many bits
are borrowed for subnetting?

30. Given the IP address 14.168.29.180 and a mask of 255.255.192.0, what is the
broadcast for this subnetwork?

31. How many bits are set with a Class A subnet mask of 255.255.240.0?

32. Given the IP address 120.150.150.150 and a mask of 255.255.240.0, what is the
subnetwork number and broadcast address?
E-54 Appendix E–Subnetting

NOTES