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Grade 9

Name: ________________________ Period: ___

TEA World Geography Power Terms

Mrs. Ellsworth Room D-22 1 Atmosphere


The atmosphere is the envelope of gases, aerosols, and other materials that surrounds Earth and is held close by gravity. Water vapor, clouds, dust, meteor debris, salt crystals, and pollutants contribute to the atmospheres mass, which is concentrated within a layer that extends about 12 miles from Earths surface. The gases are nitrogen (78 percent), oxygen (20 percent), argon (.93 percent), and carbon dioxide (.03 percent). 2 Biosphere The biosphere is the realm of Earth which includes all plant and animal (including humans) life forms. The biosphere is divided into very large ecosystems (termed biomes) made up of specific plants and animals. Examples of biomes include forests, grasslands, and savanna. 3 Character of a Place Places are parts of Earths surface endowed with meaning by humans. Each place possesses a distinctive set of tangible and intangible characteristics that help to distinguish it from other places. Its physical characteristics include climate, landforms, soils, hydrology, vegetation, and animal life. Its human characteristics include language, religion, political systems, economic systems, population distribution, and quality of life. The identity of people is influenced by the character of the place they come from. Personal identity, community identity, and national identity are rooted in place and attachment to place. 4 Commercial Industry The production of manufactured goods in a market economic system is termed commercial industry. There are four major industrial regions in the world today: western and central Europe, eastern North America, Russia-Ukraine, and East Asia. All are linked and competing for commercial dominance in a world-wide economic system. 5 Cottage Industry In a subsistence economic system, small-scale production of goods for sale in markets is termed cottage industry. It usually involves producing a good by hand or with low technology at home or in a small village cooperative. 6 Cultural Change Cultures change by innovation (creating new ideas within a culture and adopting those ideas) and diffusion (borrowing culture traits from another culture and adopting them). Immigrant groups undergo a process of cultural change by adopting some of the characteristics (values, attitudes, ways of behavior, and language) of the dominant culture in the area to which they move. That is termed acculturation. When immigrant groups adopt all of the characteristics of the dominant culture, give up their first culture, and become totally integrated into the receiving society, it is termed assimilation. Cultural change is a response to a variety of human processes including migration and proximity to other culture groups. The process of cultural change accelerates with improvements in transportation and communication. 7 Cultural Convergence and Divergence Cultural convergence occurs when the ideas, habits, skills, arts, and institutions of one culture come in contact and interact with those of another culture. Cultural divergence is the process of disassociating cultures, or protecting a culture from other influences. Technology such as air transport and electronic communication

contributes to cultural convergence by aiding cross-cultural exchange which leads to adaptation. Technologies also can reinforce cultural separateness, nationalism, and elitism which lead to cultural divergence. The spread of name brand soft drinks throughout the world is an example of cultural convergence as is the popularity of Mexican food in the United States. Ethnic celebrations which ignore cross cultural influences serve to distance cultures and contribute to cultural divergence. 8 Cultural Patterns The human world is composed of culture groups, each of which has its distinctive way of life as reflected in the groups land use practices, economic activities, organization and layout of settlements, attitudes toward the role of women, education systems, and observance of traditional customs and holidays. These ways of life result in landscapes and regions with a distinctive appearance. Landscapes often overlap, thus forming elaborate mosaics of peoples and places. Understanding the nature and distribution of culture groups helps students understand their world as a complex mosaic. 9 Diffusion Diffusion is the process by which an idea or innovation is transmitted from one individual or group to another across space. There are two types of diffusion: relocation diffusion, i.e., when people move and take with them their culture; and expansion diffusion, i.e., when information about a new idea or innovation spreads throughout a society. 10 Distribution of Plants and Animals Ecosystems are a key element in the viability of Earth as a human home. Populations of different plants and animals that live and interact together are called a community. When such a community interacts with the other three components of the physical environment (atmosphere, lithosphere, and hydrosphere), the result is an ecosystem. Earths environments form a mosaic produced by regions of distinct ecosystems which vary in size, shape, and complexity. They exist at a variety of scales from local (a single stand of cedar trees) to larger areas (a beach). Larger scale ecosystems form continent-wide belts, such as the steppe. As one moves from east to west across Texas, one moves from ecosystem to ecosystem, from forest to savanna to grassland to desert, each with a different complex of plants, animals, and soil types produced by different climatic elements. 11. Earth-Sun Relationships The Sun is the source of all energy on Earth. Earth is tilted on its axis 23 1/2 degrees and rotates once every 24 hours producing day and night. It revolves around the Sun in a yearly movement. This combination of tilt and revolution produces seasonal variation in the amount of energy different parts of Earth receive. This variation, along with other factors, produces global patterns of temperature and precipitation, the two key components of climate. The Suns rays are most intense north of the equator (23 1/2 degrees N the Tropic of Cancer) in June and south of the equator (23 1/2 degrees S the Tropic of Capricorn) in December. About half of the energy from the sun is distributed away from the equator by wind and ocean currents. The other half is reradiated back into space to maintain an energy balance. 12. El Nio El Nio Southern Oscillation is a periodic, large-scale, abnormal warming of the sea surface in the low latitudes of the eastern Pacific Ocean that produces a temporary reversal of surface ocean currents and airflows through the equatorial Pacific. These regional events have global implications, disturbing normal weather patterns in many parts of the world. 13 Factors Affecting the Location Primary economic activities are located at the site of the natural resource being exploited. An example is iron mining at the site of the iron deposit. Secondary economic activities are located either at the site of the resource or close to the market for the manufactured/processed good. Location depends upon whether the raw material or the finished product costs more to ship. Other factors affect the location of economic activities as well, e.g., labor costs, energy costs, availability of capital, land, resources, and expertise. In the case of lumbering, the finished product is cheaper to ship than the raw materials so lumber mills are located close to forests to minimize costs and maximize profit. In the case of flour and bread, it is cheaper and easier to ship wheat than the finished product, bread. Consequently, bakeries are located close to consumers in cities to minimize costs. Tertiary economic activities are located where services are required, that is, where people live or work. Quaternary economic activities are not tied to resources, the environment, or access to a market. This sector of the economy provides information and expertise. With improvements in telecommunications, these economic activities can be located anywhere. Factors which do tend to

affect the location of high-tech economic activities include access to universities, research centers, a pool of highly trained and skilled workers, excellent transportation and communication networks, as well as availability of venture capital and proximity to places with high quality of life attributes (scenery, recreation, climate, and quality education). 14 Field Interviews Primary sources of information, especially the result of fieldwork performed by students, are important in geographic inquiry. Fieldwork involves students conducting research in the community by distributing questionnaires, taking photographs, recording observations, interviewing citizens, and collecting samples. Fieldwork can arouse student interest and can make geography more relevant. It fosters active learning by enabling students to observe, ask questions, identify problems, and hone their perceptions of physical features and human activities. Fieldwork connects students school activities with the world in which they live. 15 Formal Regions Formal (homogeneous) regions are places with similar features. The Corn Belt, the Piney Woods of East Texas, the Sahel in Africa are all formal regions. Some examples of other formal regions include climate regions (Humid SubTropical region), landform regions (Big Bend), and economic regions (the Rustbelt). Formal regions can be defined by measures of population, per capita income, ethnic background, crop production, population density; they can also be defined by mapping physical characteristics such as temperature, rainfall, growing season, and average date of first and last frost. 16 Functional Regions A functional region is a group of places that are linked together by a flow of something or in some other ways. The Amazon Basin is linked by the flow of water toward the ocean. The Dallas transit system makes up a functional region linked by the flow of commuters. A functional region is organized around a node or focal point, with the surrounding areas linked to that node. Examples of functional regions include shopping areas focused on malls, areas served by branch banks, and cities and their hinterlands. 17 Geographic Information System A geographic information system (GIS) is an integrated system of a computer, software, and procedures designed to support the collection, management, manipulation, analysis, modeling, and display of spatially referenced data about Earths surface in order to solve geographic problems. 18 Global Trade Patterns When one country needs a resource or luxury item, and another country has it, the countries may establish a trading network. Routes are determined by geography, relations with other countries, and transportation technology. Trade between Western Europe and the Middle and Far East provided spices to the West but was limited by ship design and navigation equipment until the 1500s. As ocean travel became easier, explorers discovered new routes to existing markets and new markets. In the 1800s, the United States, Britain, France, and other major trading nations were eager to establish ports on islands in the Pacific to provide fueling stations for trade vessels. Merchants act as entrepreneurs, trading and distributing commodities including such items as wheat, cinnamon, opium, or silver. Governments seek to balance imports with exports and enact legislation to tax imports, thereby offering some support to domestic production while discouraging importation and generating revenue. Developments in computer technology and electronic trading have expanded existing global trade patterns. Commodities still are transported overland or on sea between trading nations, but the dealing and payment are aided by technology. 19 Hazardous Environmental Conditions (Natural Hazards) Natural hazards include processes or events in the physical environment that are not caused by humans but have consequences that can be harmful. Hurricanes, earthquakes, tornadoes, volcanoes, storms, and insect infestations happen regardless of human intervention. Their precise location, timing, and magnitude are not fully predictable, but the negative consequences can be reduced. Geographers and other scientists do this by understanding the potential vulnerability of different groups of people and by implementing a variety of strategies such as improved building design, land-use regulation, warning systems, and public education. Some natural hazards such as floods and forest fires can be controlled to a greater degree than others 20 Human and Physical Characteristics T h e physical characteristics of Earth include climate, landforms, soils, hydrology, vegetation, and animal life. The human characteristics include language, religion, political systems, economic systems, population distribution, and quality of life

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21 Human-Environment Interaction [Interrelationships Among Physical and Human Processes] Humans depend upon the environment, modify it, adapt to itin short, they interact with it. Humans have transformed the environment and adjusted to it, creating many different places on Earth. Humans affect the environment and the environment affects humans. In order to understand our world it is vital to understand not only its people but also the environments which sustain them. Most contemporary human-induced environmental changes have not been planned or intended. Many of the effects humans have on the environment are not anticipated. Some are not even felt in the places in which they originate. Rather, they appear in other locations, often places that are environmentally vulnerable. Consider the chlorofluorocarbons (CFC)-ozone-polar connection. Mid-latitude CFC use has weakened the ozone layer most at the Poles. The greatest effects are felt at high latitudes. Geography helps students to understand that the world is a single environmental system affected by its inhabitants. It helps them to understand the truth of the slogan Act Locally, Think Globally. World solutions are required to address world problems such as ozone depletion, loss of biodiversity, and climate change. Geography is the one discipline that bridges the physical and social sciences and can help students, and the public at large, understand the processes which transform our planet. Geographers see it this way: ...humankind is dependent upon an earth incapable of supporting infinite demands and capable both of being improved and of being damaged by the way in which it is used(W.B. Meyer and B.L. Turner 1996, 139).The ways people interact with the environment depend upon three factors: the nature of the environment; the culture and values of the human group; and their level of technology. 22 Hydrosphere The hydrosphere is the water realm of Earth. It includes water contained in oceans, lakes, rivers, ground water, glaciers, and as vapor in the atmosphere. 23 Innovation There are two meanings to innovation. An innovation can be thought of as an original, idea or invention, such as transistor radios or hybrid corn. Innovations can also be the changes that take place within a culture that result from ideas which are created within the culture group itself and subsequently adopted by that culture. The rate at which a new idea spreads (diffuses) through a society is termed the rate of innovation. After the Industrial Revolution dramatic increases in innovation began to alter cultures throughout the world 24 Landscape Landscape is the scenery of a place including the physical characteristics and the human characteristics. 25 Level of Development Countries with high levels of urbanization and industrialization that enjoy high material standards of living are referred to as developed countries. Countries with lower levels of progress and prosperity are considered less developed or underdeveloped countries. Countries showing evidence of economic, social, and political progress are termed developing countries. Some measures of development include: national product per person, e.g., the sum total of all the goods and services produced in a nation in one year divided by the total population; occupational structure of the workforce, e.g., percentage of the labor force employed in manufacturing (developed) vs. agriculture (less developed); consumption of energy per person; transportation and communication facilities per person, e.g., the per capita index of telephones, railroads, roads, radios; standard of living, e.g., literacy rates, caloric intake per person, infant mortality, life expectancy. 26 Lithosphere The uppermost portion of solid Earth is the lithosphere. It includes soil, land, and geologic formations. 27 Market Economy Agriculture in a market economy responds to the forces of the market and involves off-farm sales of goods. Farmers in a market economy (free enterprise system) produce crops and other foodstuffs based on what the market demands. The price of agricultural products depends upon supply and demand. Farmers specialize in producing the goods that they can raise most profitably. This type of agriculture is most common in the developed economies of the world. However, in less developed regions of the world, market-oriented agriculture in the form of plantation agriculture was established to supply the developed world with raw materials such as sugar, rubber, cacao, coffee, and bananas. Patterns of agricultural production have changed over time in response to improvements in transportation technology. A model used to explain the location of different types of agriculture in a market economy is Von Thunes spatial model of farming. The value of land is highest closest to urban areas and declines as one

moves away from the city. The most intensive forms of agriculture, which generate the most profit on the smallest plots of land, are located closer to urban areas. Less intensive agricultural activities, which require large amounts of land to be profitable, take place farther away from cities. In areas adjacent to urban centers, intensive agriculture such as dairying and market gardening are common; in areas farthest from urban areas, extensive agriculture activities such as ranching and large-scale grain farming are profitable in a market economy. 28 Market-Oriented Agriculture There are three types of economies: traditional (also known as subsistence), command (also known as planned) and market (commercial). In a market economy (elements of which may be considered a free enterprise economic system), decisions about what and how much to produce, where to locate economic activities, and what prices to charge for goods and services are determined by laws of supply and demand an d the market. Profit drives decisions in a market economy. 29 Natural Resources A resource is any physical material that constitutes part of Earth and which people need and value. There are three basic natural resources: air, land, and water, but anything that humans consider valuable qualifies as a resource. Natural resources can be categorized as: renewable they replenish themselves, e.g., plants, animals, nonrenewable only used once, e.g., fossil fuels, or flow must be used as, when, and where they are, e.g., wind, water, sunlight. A resource as a thing of value is a cultural concept; the value attached to any given resource varies from culture to culture, from time to time. The value of a resource depends upon human needs and the technology available to extract and use it. Crude oil was once perceived as a worthless nuisance until technology allowed it to be refined to a form used in lamps. Whale oil, thus, was no longer valued as a resource. The location of resources influences the distribution of people and their activities on Earth. People live where they can earn a living. Human migration and settlement are linked to the availability of resources ranging from fertile soils and supplies of fresh water to deposits of metals or pools of natural gas. The demand for resources increases with population and helps to drive national and international patterns of trade. 30 Patterns in the Size and Distribution of Cities There is an array of places, large and small, across space. Each place is where it is for a reason. There are many small villages, fewer towns, still fewer small cities, and a handful of giant urban areas. The larger places are, the fewer there are. This is termed a hierarchy of urban places. The pattern is one of a relatively small number of city size classes; each class of place serves different functions and purposes. The very largest places provide the most goods and services for the largest areas; the smallest places provide the fewest goods and services for the smallest areas. Consumers are willing to travel shorter distances for some goods and services and farther distances for others. Each place sits at the middle of the area it provides services for; the area surrounding it is hexagonal in shape. The distribution of places follows a regularity described in Central Place Theory. 31 Perception Peoples perceptions of places and regions are not uniform. Their views of particular places or regions are their interpretations of its characteristics as influenced by their own cultures and experiences. 32 Perceptual Regions Perceptual regions are constructs that reflect human feelings and attitudes about areas and are therefore shared, subjective images of places. Perceptual regions tend to reflect individuals mental maps (ones perception and knowledge of the world) and help to impose a sense of order and structure on the world. Southern California, Dixie, and the upper Midwest are perceptual regions that are thought of as being spatial units, although they are without precise borders. 33 Physical Processes Physical processes are natures methods of operation that produce, maintain, or alter Earths physical systems. Physical processes can be grouped into four categories: those operating in the atmosphere, e.g., climate and meteorology; those operating in the lithosphere, e.g., plate tectonics, erosion, and soil formation; those operating in the hydrosphere, e.g., the circulation of oceans and the hydrologic cycle; and those operating in the biosphere, e.g., plant and animal communities and ecosystems. Physical processes shape the physical environment producing landforms and other features of Earth.

34 Population Pyramids A population pyramid is a graphic way to show the age/gender composition of a population and its age/gender structure. The structure describes the relative number of people at different ages by gender. Analyzing the population structure of a place is a way to understand the needs of that place. Population pyramids are illustrations of what is happening in a community. The shape of a population pyramid is a result of migration, births, and deaths. It can also reflect historical, socio-economic, and political events, e.g., the baby boom. A population pyramid is a kind of bar graph. Each horizontal bar shows how many males or females fall into a specific age group. This is called an age-gender cohort. The bars are stacked one on top of another in ascending order with the youngest group on the bottom and the oldest on top. A center line divides the graph into a female and male side. 35 Primary, Secondary, Tertiary, Quaternary Economic Activities Economic activities can be categorized into four types. Primary economic activities are those that use natural resources directly. They include fishing, forestry, agriculture, and mining. Secondary economic activities use raw materials to produce or manufacture something new and more valuable. Examples of secondary economic activities include manufacturing steel, processing wheat into flour, milling lumber into plywood, smelting iron, and producing power. Tertiary economic activities are those activities which provide services. Doctors, teachers, dry cleaners, and secretaries provide personal and professional services. Store clerks, truck drivers, and restaurant staff provide retail and wholesale services. In modern economies some individuals process, administer, and disseminate information. Such activities are termed quaternary and include white collar professionals working in education, government, management, information processing, and research. Geographers are concerned with the spatial organization and location of economic, transportation, and communication systems which produce and exchange the great variety of commodities (raw materials, manufactured goods, capital, and services) which constitute the world economy. 36 Processes That Have Caused Cities to Grow The growth and development of cities is the process of urbanization. Throughout history different factors have influenced the development, growth, and relative decline of cities. An urban centers situation (relative location) strongly influences its growth. A citys site (physical base) also plays a role in its economic development and consequent growth. Cities exist in interconnected systems with each element of the system specializing in the collection, processing, and distribution of raw materials, manufactured goods, and services, and all linked by transportation and communication networks. Some cities develop in an evolutionary process based on changes in transportation technology and industrial energy. Consider the largest cities in the United States in 1800, 1850, 1900, and today. The patterns of leading cities changed with the nature of the economy, technology, and settlement patterns. All cities grow or decline based upon the health of the economy which provides jobs for its inhabitants. 37 Push and Pull Factors Many factors cause people to move. The factors include conflict, economic conditions, environmental change, and natural disasters. Migrants move on the basis of their perceptions of destination; distance tends to affect the accuracy of these perceptions. The decision to migrate is complex but can usually be conceptualized as the result of push factors and pull factors. Push factors include negative home conditions that impel the decision to migrate, e.g., loss of job, lack of professional opportunities, overcrowding, famine, or war. Pull factors are the positive attributes perceived to exist at a new location, e.g., jobs, better climate, low taxes, more room, professional opportunities. Both factors are affected by place utility, an individuals existing degree of satisfaction or dissatisfaction with a place. The decision to migrate is based on a persons evaluation: is it better for me to go or to stay? 38 Region A region is a part of Earths surface that is alike or connected in some way. It is used as a tool to help organize the complexity of Earths surface. All regions have area, boundaries (which may be distinct or fuzzy depending upon the criteria used to define the region), and location. Regions can be large or they can be small and are arranged in a nested, hierarchical order. See Formal, Functional, and Perceptual Regions

39 Resources o A resource is any physical material that constitutes part of Earth and which people need and value. There are three basic natural resources: air, land, and water, but anything that humans consider valuable qualifies as a resource. Natural resources can be categorized as: renewable they replenish themselves, e.g., plants, animals, nonrenewable only used once, e.g., fossil fuels, or flow must be used as, when, and where they are, e.g., wind, water, sunlight. A resource as a thing of value is a cultural concept; the value attached to any given resource varies from culture to culture, from time to time. The value of a resource depends upon human needs and the technology available to extract and use it. Crude oil was once perceived as a worthless nuisance until technology allowed it to be refined to a form used in lamps. Whale oil, thus, was no longer valued as a resource. The location of resources influences the distribution of people and their activities on Earth. People live where they can earn a living. Human migration and settlement are linked to the availability of resources ranging from fertile soils and supplies of fresh water to deposits of metals or pools of natural gas. The demand for resources increases with population and helps to drive national and international patterns of trade.

40 Skills of Geography o The five key skills of geography are to: ask geographic questions; collect geographic information; organize geographic information; analyze geographic information; and answer geographic questions.

41 Soil-Building Processes o Soil is not just dirt. Dirt is an inert mass of weathered rock material; soil is the material after it has been shaped and altered by the environment around it. Soil is produced by the erosion and decomposition of rock and the addition of minerals and rotted vegetative material. Climate plays a role in the process through the interaction of wind, water, and temperature on parent rock material. Eroded sandstone produces a different type of soil than does eroded granite or limestone. As soil is built, it is also being eroded. The rate of soil formation usually equals or exceeds the rate of soil erosion. The types of vegetation found in a region are the result of the interplay of soil building processes, geology (parent rock), and climate (precipitation and temperature). 42 Standard of Living o Standard of living is a function of the level of development in a country, measured by factors such as the amount of personal income, levels of education, food consumption, life expectancy, availability of health care, ways natural resources are used, level of technology, and others. 43 Statistical Concepts o Statistical concepts derive from the analysis of standardized data using systematic research designs. Examples of statistics include test scores, production and sales records, daily temperature and humidity readings, census returns collected every ten years by the federal government, and immigration records. Such data provide evidence regarding mobility, urbanization, climate, demography, political affiliation and participation, and economics. To develop statistical concepts, researchers look for relationships between numerical data. Not all data are numerical; prior to quantifying, all non-numerical data must be renamed as numbers, i.e. converting each state name to a number. Then researchers use computers and database software to analyze relationships and test hypotheses. Simple statistical concepts include central tendency which identifies the mean, median, and mode of a single variable (the Richter Scale reading for all earthquakes measured in the last ten y ears), and dispersion, which identifies the standard deviation, variance, and percent (the relationship of one Richter Scale reading to all other readings for the period studied).

44 Subsistence Agriculture o Subsistence agriculture is the kind of agriculture practiced most widely around the world, especially in the less developed economies of Africa, Asia, and Central and South America. Foods and other goods and services are produced by a family for its own consumption. Subsistence agriculture is usually very small-scale and uses a low level of technology. It often requires a very intensive use of small plots of land to support a dense population. What a family raises is what it has available to eat. Because there is little surplus, there is very little trade.

45 Traditional Economy o There are three types of economies: traditional (also known as subsistence), command (also known as planned) and market (commercial). In a traditional economy, goods and services are produced by a family for their personal consumption. There is little surplus and little exchange of goods. There is only a limited need for markets (places to buy and sell goods and services). This is the type of economy found in less developed nations of the world, usually in rural areas. Most less developed nations today are a mix of traditional and either market or command economies.