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Fatty acid amides

Crodamides allow faster film processing speeds

Crodamide is the trade name of the range of fatty acid amides produced by Croda. Crodamides have a wide range of applications and are particularly used for solving issues with polymer processing and end use. All the products are manufactured from natural oils and fats and include primary amides, secondary amides and secondary bis-amides. From its manufacturing facility in Hull, England, Croda offers the Crodamide range through a global network of subsidiaries and agents.

improve the surface finish in critical film applications

Applications Polymers - slip

Fatty acid amides are the additive of choice for lowering of friction on polymer surfaces. Effective at low levels, they provide a cost effective solution to friction related constraints in film production, conversion and closure release applications. Amides are normally incorporated into the polymer melt and work by migrating to the surface as the polymer cools. The solid lubricating layer formed at the surface lowers friction between contacting polymer surfaces or between the polymer and other materials.
Slip development in polymers

Coefficient of friction

Time after extrusion

Amide uniformly distributed in the polymer immediately after extrusion.

As polymer cools amide migrates to the outer surface and forms a partial layer. Friction drops rapidly.

Complete layers of amide on surface migration slows or stops. Friction reaches a minimum.

Primary Crodamide performance in LDPE blown film

1.2 0.8

Final slip performance versus concentration for Crodamide OR and Crodamide ER in LDPE blown film

1 0.6 0.8 CoF (@14 days)



0.4 OR ER 0.2


0.2 0 0.1 1 10 Time (hours, log scale) 100 1000 0 0 500 1000 1500 2000 Amide conc (ppm) 2500 3000 3500

Crodamide ER
gives controlled

Applications Polymers - medium slip

Crodamide 203 and Crodamide 212 offer controllable medium slip performance, where a Coefficient of Friction of 0.3-0.4 is desired.They allow precise control at reasonable addition levels, reducing reject material.
Performance of Crodamide 203 and 212 as medium slip additives in LDPE blown film
0.8 Crodamide 203 Crodamide 212 Crodamide ER 0.6 CoF (@14 days)

application and release torque for plastic closures



0 0 1000 2000 Amide conc (ppm) 3000 4000

Applications Polymers - organic anti-block

Most amides will improve blocking when used in combination with inorganic materials. Crodamide BR is the most effective, migrating to form a continuous non-sticking layer.This allows lower levels of inorganic anti-blocking agent to be used, resulting in improved clarity. Crodamide BR can be used in combination with Crodamide ER, without increasing the total amide level, to give combined slip and antiblock performance.

Performance of Crodamides in combination with inorganic antiblock additives in LDPE film



1000ppm total Crodamide + 1000ppm talc

2 Blocking force (N)


0.5 0 No additives ER + Talc ER + BR + Talc

all products
are manufactured from natural oils and fats

Primary Crodamide specifications Crodamide Description Acid value (max) 10 1 10 1 1 10 5 5 3 Melting point C 75-80 78-81 66-72 70-73 72-77 96-102 96-102 95-105 102-112


Erucamide Refined erucamide Oleamide Refined oleamide Ref. vegetable oleamide Stearamide Refined stearamide Ref. vegetable stearamide Refined behenamide

Colour Gardner (max) 10 2 10 2 2 10 5 3 4

Secondary and bis Crodamide specifications Crodamide Description Acid value (max) 203 Oleyl palmitamide 3 212 Stearyl erucamide 3 EBS Ethylene bis-stearamide 5 EBSV Veg. Ethylene bis-stearamide 5 EBO Ethylene bis-oleamide 5 DD8001 Proprietary blend 10

Melting point C 60-66 70-75 140-145 140-145 115-125 80-90

Amine value (max) 3 3 5 5 5 10

Thermogravimetric analysis of primary amides

Conditions: Heating rate 20C min-1, N2 atmosphere

20 Weight loss (%)




100 160 210 260 310 360 410 Temperature (C)

Iodine value 75-82 75-82 85-95 87-95 80-88 2 max 2 max 2 max 4 max

Amide purity % (min) 93 98 94 98 98 94 97 97 97

Moisture % (max) powder bead 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.25



Colour Gardner (max) 3 5 5 5 10 10

Moisture % (max) powder bead 0.2 0.2 0.5 0.5 0.2 0.2 0.5 0.5


203* 212* EBS EBSV* EBO* DD8001

* Vegetable based materials

Thermogravimetric analysis of secondary amides

Conditions: Heating rate 20C min-1, N2 atmosphere

20 Weight loss (%)

40 203 212 EBO EBS



100 210 310 360 Temperature (C) 410 460

achieve cost effective and fast mould release

Applications Polymers - injection moulding

In moulded articles Crodamides start to migrate to the surface as they cool in the mould. The resulting layer gives: Q Easier and more uniform mould release without the need for sprays Q Better surface finish/reduced pin marking Careful choice of the Crodamide gives mouldings that release easily and offers a range of surface friction characteristics. Downstream benefits include: Q Better control of application and release torque for closures Q Ease of assembly Q Easier conveying of mouldings Q Improved scuff/scratch resistance Q Improved packing density of mouldings

Polymer type LDPE LLDPE HDPE PP EVA PVC PS Nylon 6 Nylon 6, 6 PET ABS Rubber Polymer compatibility and use chart General use recommended Useful in some applications ER OR VRX SR BR 203 212 EBO


modification using Crodamide O helps fuel economy and reduces engine wear

Rubber Crodamides are well recognised in many areas of rubber processing as mould release, dispersing and processing aids. In the finished article Crodamides reduce friction and blocking. In EPDM, Crodamide ER at 1000ppm reduces the coefficient of friction and controls iridescent bloom at the surface. Inks Crodamides improve slip of flexographic inks after application and drying.This is especially important when printing on plastic substrates to ensure similar frictional properties on printed and non-printed areas. In offset litho applications Crodamide increases the hydrophobicity of the ink, yielding a sharper printed image. Crodamides are also used in dot-matrix/typewriter ribbons, carbon papers and printer toners. Lubricating oils Crodamide O is used as a friction modifier, increasing compatibility at the oil - metal interface in crankcase and engine oils. Paper Crodamides are used extensively in thermal paper pigment systems due to their well defined melting behaviour. Crodamide EBS is an efficient de-foaming agent in paper production.

Metalworking Crodamide EBS is an excellent lubricant for both wet and dry drawing of steel wire and tubes. It allows production of materials without surface erosion or residual film. Crodamides also find applications as sintered metal lubricants, improving powdered metal flow and, after firing, leaving a porous metal component ready to accept other lubricants.

improve scuff resistance of flexographic inks

Raw materials Crodamides are produced from naturally occurring oils and fats. Croda is a leading contractor for growing High Erucic Rapeseed Oil (HERO) for industrial uses, thus ensuring continuity of supply of this vital raw material. Crodamide production Croda has a manufacturing facility dedicated to the production of fatty acid amides, allowing full integration of processes from raw material to packaged finished product on one site.
Raw material Hydrolysis Purification Amidation Refining Finishing

The manufacture of amides is central to Croda and there is an ongoing programme of investment in production plant and associated technologies, together with a policy of continual product quality improvement. Product quality Through extensive experience, Croda offers various grades of Crodamides that have been optimised for the demands of individual application areas. The Crodamide range is subject to stringent quality control procedures during and after manufacture and Croda can offer its customers SQC data on key variables. Technical service Extensive technical assistance is offered to our customers, supported by our purpose built plastics application laboratory at the manufacturing site. With over 30 years of experience of Crodamide products, our analytical laboratories have international accreditation in the analysis of oil and fat derivatives. Croda is a world expert in the use of fatty acid amide products in polymer and related applications. Our experienced technologists can offer you advice to help you choose the most effective additive and dosage for a particular application


Further information For details of your local polymer additives sales representative please contact your nearest Croda regional office. Europe, Africa, Middle East, Central and South America Croda Chemicals Europe Ltd, UK Tel +44 (0)1405 860551 Fax +44 (0)1405 863317 email pa-europe@croda.com North America Croda Inc, USA Tel (570) 748 7796 Fax (570) 748 8042 email pa-northamerica@croda.com Asia Pacific Croda Singapore Pte Ltd Tel +65 65519600 Fax +65 65519550 email pa-asia@croda.com

Certificate no. FM09277 Croda Universal Ltd

Certificate no. EMS38741 Croda Universal Ltd

Health and safety data Crodamides are considered to be non-toxic and are not expected to be irritating to skin and eyes other than for powder grades which can be irritating due to fine particle size. Most Crodamides are permitted for specific indirect food contact applications in the USA in accordance with CFR21. Most Crodamides are also permitted for use as additives in food contact plastics in the EEC. Material safety data sheets conforming to EEC and detailed food approvals and regulatory information are available for individual products on request. Non-warranty The information in this publication is believed to be accurate and is given in good faith but no representation or warranty as to its completeness or accuracy is made. Suggestions for uses or applications are only opinions. Users are responsible for determining the suitability of these products for their own particular purpose. No representation or warranty, express or implied, is made with respect to information or products including without limitation warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose or non-infringement of any third party patent or other intellectual property rights including without limit copyright, trademark and designs. Any trademarks identified herein are trademarks of the Croda group of companies. June 2005