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Introduction to Rheology

Sarah E. Morgan, Ph.D. School of Polymers and High Performance Materials University of Southern Mississippi

Rheology is defined as:

The science of the flow and deformation of matter

Small molecule fluids follow classical Newtonian fluid mechanics Polymers exhibit complex non-Newtonian flow behavior

Dr. Sarah E. Morgan, Rheology Class Notes, 2013

Fluid
A substance that continually deforms under an applied shear stress; includes gases, liquids and solids like polymers (under certain conditions)

Shear stress:
Stress: F/A Axial stress = (normal) Shear stress = F perpendicular to an area divided by area F parallel to an area divided by area

Dr. Sarah E. Morgan, Rheology Class Notes, 2013

VISOCITY
Resistance to deformation or flow Internal resistance to flow or fluid friction

Dr. Sarah E. Morgan, Rheology Class Notes, 2013

Viscoelastic Behavior
Solid responds to shear stress with elastic deformation when the stress is removed, it returns to its original shape Fluid responds to shear stress with continuous deformation or flow when the stress is removed, flow stops Polymer exhibits a viscoelastic response, with behavior of both a solid and a liquid

y

tyx (shear stress)

g = magnitude of strain or angle of deformation dg/dt = g = rate of deformation = rate of increase of angle = strain rate = shear rate
Dr. Sarah E. Morgan, Rheology Class Notes, 2013

Newtonian Fluids, Laminar Flow

F = hA(dV/dy) Newtons Law of Viscous Flow

F = frictional force that resists flow of layers past one another h = viscosity A = area of contact of layers dV/dy = velocity gradient = shear rate = (dx/dt)/dy t = F/A = shear stress . g = dV/dy = shear rate . h = t/g

Newtonian Fluid: plot of shear stress vs shear rate yields a straight line with slope = viscosity
Dr. Sarah E. Morgan, Rheology Class Notes, 2013

Newtonian Fluid

Shear Stress, t

Slope = h

Shear Rate, g

Newtonian Fluid

Viscosity

Shear Rate, g

Examples of Newtonian Fluids

Water Acetone Glycerol Mercury Honey

Typical Viscosity Units

h = t/g = (F/A)/(dV/dy) =((kg m/s2)/m2)/ ((m/s)/m) = kg/m s
m kg s K rad m/s2 rad/s kg/m3 kg m2/s2 kg m/s2 kg m2/s3 (J/s) kg/ m s2 (N/m2) m/s kg/ m s m2 /s

SI UNITS Length Mass Time Temp. Plane Angle Acceleration Angular Velocity Density Energy Force Power Pressure Velocity

Typical Viscosity Units

m often used for Newtonian viscosity h often used for non-Newtonian viscosity; more correct to say apparent viscosity must identify shear rate at which measured

Dynamic Viscosity (often just

1 Pa s =

called Viscosity)

1000 mPa s (millipascal seconds) 1000 cP (centipoise) 10 P (poise) 10 dyne sec/ cm2 1 kg/m s 1.45 x 10-4 psi sec

Typical Viscosity Units

Kinematic Viscosity = u = m/r = dynamic viscosity/ density

Kinematic Viscosity 1 m2/sec = 1 x 106 centistokes 10,000 stokes 1 x 106 mm2/sec 10.76 ft2/sec

Kinematic Viscosity has same units as diffusion coefficient in mass transfer and thermal diffusivity in heat transfer.
For more units see: http://www.onlineconversion.com/viscosity.htm

Dr. Sarah E. Morgan, Rheology Class Notes, 2013

Flow Curves for Newtonian and Simple Non-Newtonian Fluids with Increasing and Decreasing Shear Rate
Bingham Fluid (yield stress fluid) High Viscosity Newtonian Pseudoplastic Fluid

Shear Stress, t

Dilatant Fluid

Shear Rate, g

Shear Stress

Bingham Fluids

Flow curves, Newtonian and simple non-Newtonian

Dilatant

Viscosity

Newtonian

Pseudoplastic

Shear Rate, g
Dr. Sarah E. Morgan, Rheology Class Notes, 2013

Examples of Non-Newtonian Fluids

Pseudoplastic (shear thinning) most polymer solutions and melts
Dilatant (shear thickening) sand in water, cornstarch in water

Thixotropic viscosity decreases with time at constant shear rate: some suspensions with particulates and polymer molecules, such as paint, cosmetic formulations Rheopectic viscosity increases with time at constant shear rate: some lubricants

Dr. Sarah E. Morgan, Rheology Class Notes, 2013

Viscoelastic Behavior
Viscous Fluid
Deforms continuously

Viscoelastic Fluid

Elastic Solid
Returns to original shape when stress removed

Dr. Sarah E. Morgan, Rheology Class Notes, 2013

Die Swell

http://web.mit.edu/nnf/research/phenomena/Demos.pdf

Dr. Sarah E. Morgan, Rheology Class Notes, 2013

Weissenberg Effect

Polyacrylamide Solution Climbing Stir Bar

http://www.chaosscience.org.uk/dem/public_html//article.php?story=20050307145058285

Dr. Sarah E. Morgan, Rheology Class Notes, 2013

Silly Putty

blog.modernmechanix.com

Fluid Dynamics: Reynolds Number

NRe

D Vav r m

4 r Q mD

NRe = dimensionless Reynolds number D = diameter of circular pipe Vav = average velocity of fluid r = density of fluid m = viscosity of fluid Q = volumetric flow rate

Fluid Dynamics: Reynolds Number

NRe

D Vav r m
2

4 r Q mD
2

D 2

Vav S

NRe = dimensionless Reynolds number D = diameter of circular pipe Vav = average velocity of fluid r = density of fluid m = viscosity of fluid Q = volumetric flow rate
Dr. Sarah E. Morgan, Rheology Class Notes, 2013

NRe

D Vav r m

4 r Q mD

NRe

Fluid Inertial Forces = Fluid Cohesive Forces

NRe < 2100, flow is laminar NRe > 4000, flow is turbulent NRe = 2100 4000, transition region

Dr. Sarah E. Morgan, Rheology Class Notes, 2013

Understanding of rheology is important for: Polymer melt and solution processing Polymer reaction processes Polymer formulation Polymer fabrication