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ICS 91.010.30; 91.080.01 ISBN 0-626-09815-7

SABS 0160-1989

(As amended 1990, 1991 and 1993)

SOUTH AFRICAN STANDARD

Code of practice for

The general procedures and loadings to be adopted in the design of buildings

Reprint 1994 First Revision Published by THE COUNCIL OF THE SOUTH AFRICAN BUREAU OF STANDARDS

Gr18

SABS 0160-1989

Amdt No.

Date

I

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Text affected

ICS 91.010.30; 91.080.01

SABS 0160-1989

(As amended 1990,1991 and 1993)

SOUTH AFRICAN BUREAU OF STANDARDS

CODE OF PRACTICE

for

THE GENERAL PROCEDURESAND LOADINGS TO BE ADOPTED IN THE DESIGN OF BUILDINGS

Obtainable from the

South African Bureau of Standards Private Bag X191 Pretoria Republic of South Africa

0001

Telephone

: (012) 428-7911

Fax

(012) 344-1568

E-mail

: sales@sabs.co.za

Website

: http:llwww.sabs.co.za

COPYRIGHT RESERVED

Printed in the Republic of South Africa by the South African Bureau of Standards

SABS 0160-1989

2

(As amended 1991 and 1993)

NOTICE

This code of practice was approved by the Council of the South African Bureau of Standards on 7 November 1989.

In terms of the regulations promulgated under the Standards Act, 1982 (Act 30 of 1982), it is a punishable offence for any person to falsely claim compliance with the provisions of a code of practice published by the South African Bureau of Standards.

Authorities who wish to incorporate any part of this code of practice into any legislation in the manner intended by section 33 of the Act should consult the South African Bureau of Standards regardingthe implications.

This code will be revised when necessary in order to keep abreast of progress. Comment will be welcomed and will be considered when the code is revised.

First Revision November 1989

Incorporating Amendment Reprint incorporating Amendment

No. 1: 15 May 1990

No. 2: 15 November 1991

No. 3: 18 October 1993 This code of practice supersedes SABS 0160-1980

ISBN 0-626-09815-7

3

CONTENTS

SABS 0160-1989

(As amended 1990 and 1993)

COMMITTEE

SECTION 1.

SCOPE

SECTION 2.

SECTION 3

DEFINITIONS

GENERAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

3.1 Design Requirements

3.1.1

3.1.2 Design procedure

3.1.3 Deformations under service loads

3.1.4

3.1.5

3.1.6

General

Vibration

Stability

Integrity

GENERAL GUIDANCE ON LIMIT-STATES DESIGN LOADS

SECTION 4.

4.1

4.2 Limit-states Criterion of Failure

4.3 Limit-states Approach

4.4 Uniform Load Factors and Load Combinations

General

4.4.1

4.4.2 Limit-states design loads

General

4.5 Design Codes for Individual Materials

4.5.1

4.5.2 Assessment of partial material factors for material codes

General

SECTION 5.

LOADS

5.1

5.2 Load Factors and Load Combinations

General

5.2.1 Limit-states design methods

5.2.2 Working stress design methods

5.3

5.4

NominallmposedLoadsQ, NominalPermanentLoadsG,

5.4.1

5.4.2

Nominal imposed floor loads in buildings containing occupancies other than industrial and storage occupancies Nominal imposed floor loads in buildings containing storage and industrialoccupancies

Load reduction

5.4.3

5.4.4 Nominal imposed roof loads

5.4.5 Forces on walls, balustrades and glazing

5.5 Wind Loads W,

5.5.1 Determination of nominal wind loads

5.5.2 Nominalwindspeed V,

5.5.3 Nominal wind pressures and forces

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Amdt 3.

Oct. 1993

Amdt 3.

993

SABS 0160-1989 4 Blank
SABS 0160-1989
4
Blank

5

SABS 0160-1989

(As amended 1990)

CONTENTS (continued)

5.5.4

5.5.5

5.5.6 Simplified wind load design

Pressure and force coefficients Dynamiceffects

5.6 EarthquakeLoads

5.6.1 Seismic hazard zones

5.6.2 Design considerationsfor multistorey buildings in Zone I and Zone II

5.6.3 Planning considerationsfor low-rise housing in Zone II

5.6.4 Design load effect and load combinations

5.6.5 Seismic base shear

5.6.6 Distribution of seismic forces

5.6.7 Structural component load effects

5.7 Loads due to Overhead Travelling Cranes

5.7.1 General

5.7.2 Classificationof travelling cranes

5.7.3 Vertical wheel loads

5.7.4

5.7.5 Horizontal longitudinalforce

5.7.6 Forcesonendstops

5.7.7 Positionof crane and crab

5.7.8 More than one crane in a building

5.7.9 Combinationof crane lateral forces and wind load

5.8 Otherloads

5.8.1 Provisionfor impact and vibration

5.8.2 Lifting and handling equipment

5.8.3 Lateral and uplift forces

5.8.4 Inertia sway forces

5.8.5 Ceilings, skylights and similar structures

SECTION 6.

IN-SITU LOAD TESTING OF BUILDINGS AND BUILDING ELEMENTS

General

6.1

6.1.1 Types of full scale load tests

6.1.2

6.2 Testing Authority

6.3 Testprocedures

6.3.1

6.3.2

6.3.3 Test precautions

Planning

Planning Conductingof tests

APPENDIX A.

APPENDIX B.

APPENDIX C. NOMINAL IMPOSED LOADS

APPENDIX D.

APPENDIX E.

APPLICABLE PUBLICATIONS NOMINAL UNIT MASSES CIF MATERIALS

WIND FORCES DEFORMATIONOF BUILDINGS

45

64

66

67

67

70

71

72

72

76

77

78

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SABS 0160-1989

6

COMMITTEE

South African Bureau of Standards

RH Watkins

(Chairman)

I Jablonski

(Standards Writer)

A van Wyk

(Committee Clerk)

Bruinette, Kruger, Stoffberg Incorporated

HJ Maoc

Concrete Masonry Association

JW Lane

CSlR Division of Building Technology

JAP Laurie

RV Milford

Division of Processing and Chemical Manufacturing Technology

MR Newham

South African Transport Services

J Geldenhuys

Steel and Engineering Industries' Federation of South Africa

FH Pienaar

The South African Association of Consulting Engineers

DJW Wium

University of Pretoria

BWJ van Rensburg

University of the Witwatersrand

AR Kemp

A Goldstein

7

SABS 0160-1989

SOUTH AFRICAN BUREAU OF STANDARDS

CODE OF PRACTICE

for

THE GENERAL PROCEDURES AND LOADINGS TO BE ADOPTED IN THE DESIGN OF BUILDINGS

1.

SCOPE

1.I

This code of practice details the generalstructural design procedures and the minimum design loads to be adopted in the design of buildings or their structural members.

1.2

This code of practice does not cover the following:

a) Detailed design appropriate to particular construction materials or methods;

b) loads on bridges;

c) loadson earth-retainingstructures and on structures subject to internalpressurefrom

the contents (e.g. bunkers, silos, water tanks, etc.); and

d)

dynamic loadings due to plant and machinery (otherthan loadings covered in 5.4.2.3,

5.7, 5.8.1 and 5.8.2).

1.3

Loads incidental to construction c:annot, because of the wide variety and nature of the combinations, be specified. It is necessary, however, that the designer give conside- ration to the effects of such loads on a partly completed structure. (See also 5.1.2(b).)

 

NOTE

 

a)

The standards referredto in the code are listed inAppendixA-1,and referencesthat may be consulted

for additional information are

listed in Appendix A-2.

b)

Nominal unit masses of materials that may be used in the calculation of loadings are given in

 

Appendix B.

 

c) The assessment of floor loads in factories and warehouses is covered in Appendix C.

d) Further information on wind forces is given in Appendix D.

e) Guidance on acceptable limits for deformations of various types of buildings is given in Appendix E.

f)

Guidance on the design of rainwater disposal from roofs is given in Appendix F.

2.

DEFINITIONS

NOTE: Where it is desired to use term in addition to the terms listed below, these terms should be selected from IS0 8930.

2.1

For the purposes of this code of practice the following definitions shall apply:

-Act. The National Building Regulations and Building Standards Act, 1977 (Act 103 of

1977).

Action. Any cause (load or imposed deformation) leading to internal forces in, or deformation of, the members of a structure, or the structure as a whole. It may be

a) a set of concentrated or distrihuted forces acting on the structure (direct action), or

b) imposed or constrained deforrnations within the structure (indirect action). Symbols

such as a, a, E, etc., must be chosen to designate each particular indirect action.

NOTE: The term "load"may be used with essentially the same meaning as "action".

Combination of actions. A set of values for the actions occurring in a structure, that is used for the verification of the structural reliability of a structure for a limit state under the simultaneous influence of differerit actions. Free action. Action which may have any distribution in space over the structure, within certain limits, e.g. action of vehicles on a bridge. Permanent action. Action which is likely to act throughout a given design situation and for which the variation in magnitude with time is negligible in relation to the mean value, or for which the variation is always in the same direction until the action attains a certain limit value, e.g. self-weight, prestressingforce.

SABS 0160-1989

8

Sustained action/Transient action. Terms used for a qualitative classification of actions, e.g. in a floor loading, the weight of the furniture represents the "sustained" action, and the weight of persons represents the "transient" action. Building. As defined in the Act. Code of practice. As defined in the Act. Deflection. Movement of a defined point in a defined direction. Medial deflection (Fig. 1). Deflection of the middle of a member relative and normal to the line joining its ends. Terminal deflection (Fig. 2). Deflection of the end of a member relative and normal to the line through the opposite end parallel to its undeflected position. Desiqner. In relation to the erection of a building or of part of a building, a competent person appointed by the owner to be responsible for the design of such building or part. Deviation. The distance of a defined point from a defined datum. Medial deviation (Fig. 1). Deviation of the middle of a member from the straight line or plane joining its ends. Terminal deviation (Fig. 2). Deviation of the end of a member from the straight line or plane, horizontal or vertical (as relevant) through the opposite end. Durabilitv. Ability of the structure and its members to maintain adequate performance in time. Dwellincl house. A building, together with any outbuildings appurtenant thereto, situated upon its own site and designed for occupation as a separate dwelling for one or more persons forming a household. Dwellins unit. A dwelling other than a dwelling house comprising one or more rooms which have living, sleeping, eating, cooking and sanitary facilities for one or more persons forming a household. Ground movement. Disturbanceof foundations by influences not dependent on the loads applied by the building. Limit states. States beyond which the structure no longer satisfies the design (performance) requirements. Serviceabilitv limit states. Limit states related to normal use (often related to function). Ultimate limit state. Limit state corresponding to the maximum load-carrying capacity of a structure or of a part of the structure. Load (see also Action) Desian load. Design value of load. Imposed load (The term Preferred to "live load"). Load due to intended occupancy (includes loads due to movable partitions and loads due to cranes), snow, ice and rain, earth and hydrostatic pressures, and horizontal components of static and inertia forces. Nominal load. Nominal value of load. Point-in-time load. The most-likely load which is on the structure at any instant in time (not the lifetime maximum value). Self-weiqht (The term preferred to "dead load"). Load consists of the weight of all the members of the structure itself, plus the weight of all finishes, including permanent partitions, which are to be supported permanently by any member of the structure. Load arranqement. Arrangement of loads introduced into a calculation to allow for the variation in space of a free action, e.g. arrangement of traffic loads on a bridge. Load case. A load case is determined by fixing the arrangement of each of the free actions. Local authoritv. As defined in the Act. National Buildinq Reaulations. As defined in the Act. OccuDancv. The use or purpose to which a building or site is normally put or intended to be put. (See the National Building Regulations for clarification of the various types of occupancies.) Owner. As defined in the Act. Partition. An internal vertical structure that is employed solely for the purpose of subdividing any storey of a building into sections, and that supports no load other than its own weight.

9

SABS 0160-1989

Undef lected

 

A

Deflected

 

i

SABS 0160

Org.11902-EC/00-07

a

and

b

are medial deviations before and after deflection

a

+

b

is medial deflection

Fig. 1 - Medial Deflectionand Deviation

a = Terminal deviation in no-load condition b = Terminal deviation in loaded condition = Terminal deflection or movement of the member, caused by the load

c

\

i '/

Vertical line representing the

intended position of (column)

the member

Free-standing of the member

(no load) position

1

 

New position of under load

the member

I

Fig. 2 - Terminal Deflectionand Deviation

SABS 0160-1989

10

Serviceability. Ability of the structure and structural elements to perform adequately in normal use (serviceability limit-states related). Settlement Differential settlement. Relative displacement of different parts of foundations under the action of loads applied by the building. m.The effective span of horizontal or inclined members, assuming conditions of simple support. (For cantilevers - the overhang. For two-way spanning slabs - the shorter span.) Standard specification. As defined in the Act. Storev heiaht. The vertical distance between the points of support of horizontal supporting members at successive floor levels. Structural safety. The capacity of a structure to resist all the actions, and also certain specified accidental phenomena, which it will have to withstand during construction and anticipated use (ultimate limit-state related). Value (of a Darameter) Characteristic value. Value fixed on statistical bases to correspond to a prescribed probability of not being exceeded on the unfavourable side during the lifetime of the structure. (See also Nominal value.) Combination values. Values associated with the use of combinations of actions to take account of a reduced probability of simultaneous occurrence of the most unfavourable values of several independent actions. They may be expressed as a certain part of the nominal value by using a factor y,, I 1. Desian values. Values obtained by application of partial safety factors to the relevant nominal values. Partial safetv factor. This term describes all the y factors, which are principally

a) ?,factors (applicable to actions), the value of which reflects the uncertainties of

the actions;

b) theym factors (applicable to materials), the value

of which reflects the uncertainties

of the material properties. Nominal value. The principal representative value of a parameter (either an action, or

 

property of a member or of a material), fixed on non-statistical bases, for example on experience acquired or on physical constraints.

a

3.

GENERAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

3.1

DESIGN REQUIREMENTS

3.1.1

General. Ensure that any building or any part of a building is designed to possess sufficient structural capacity to resist safely and effectively all loads and influences that may reasonably be expected to act upon it, having regard to the expected service life of such building.

3.1.2

Desian Procedure. In order that the design of a building or of part of a building may comply with the provisions of the National Building Regulations’), ensure that

a) the procedures adopted in such design are in conformity with this code and with any

other code of the SouthAfrican Bureau of Standards that is relevantto the materials used

in

such building or in part of such building; or

b)

the design is in accordance with the empirical rules contained in SABS 0400, relevant

to

specific elements of a building; or

c)

the design is in accordance with one of the following alternative methods:

1) A code of practice other than prescribed above; 2) an analysis based on generally established theory; 3) an evaluation of a full-scale building or a prototype by test loading;

1) Published by Government Notices 1211 of 6 July 1977, R441 of 1 March 1985, 729 of 18 April 1986 and

798 of 25 April 1986.

11

SABS 0160-1989

4) studies of model analogues; or

5) an authoritative document covering in detail the design of a building or a structural member for a specific purpose or a specific material or both, provided that where a material is used for which there is no SABS specification, the design is in accordance with a safe method applicable to such material.

In terms of the National Building Regulations,alternatives (a) and (b) above are deemed to satisfy the regulations and therefore must in all cases be accepted by the local authority. A design based on one of the methods given in (c) above may have to be justified by the designer to prove that it will ensure the level of safety and performance implicit in the regulations. The deemed-to-satisfy requirements for the use of specific materials employed in the construction of a building or of part of a building are given in

SABS 0100 for structural concrete SABS 0137 for glazing SABS 0161 for foundations SABS 0162 for structural steel SABS 0163 for structural timber SABS 0164 for structural masonry

The empirical rules contained in SABS 0400 relate to

Foundations (see Part H)

Floors

(see

Part J)

Walls

(see Part K)

Roofs

(see

Part L)

Glazing

(see

Part N)

3.1.3 Deformations under Service Loads. So design structural members that their deforma- tions under expected service loads will be acceptable with regard to

a) the intended use of the building or member;

b) possible damage to non-struct.uralmembers and materials; and

c) possible damage to the building itself, taking account, where significant, of the

additional effects of loads acting on the deformed building or member; and

d) possible damage to the adjacent buildings.

NOTE: Table 1 is a summary of suggested deformation limits and should be read in conjunction with Appendix E.

TABLE 1 - SUMMARY OF SUGGESTED DEFORMATION LIMITATIONS

(To be read in conjunction with Appendix E)

1

~~

Type of

deformation

Deflection

KEY:

Particulardeformation

Medial deflection of floors

Medial deflection of roofs or roof members

Terminal deflection of cantilever floors

Terminal deflection of cantilever roofs

Terminal deflection of non- cantilevered horizontal members

Terminal deflection of vertical members

I Critical elements and criteri:

4

Suggested limiting value

Stability

Partition damage

Span1300

Damage at supports

Span1300

Ceiling damage

Varies with construction (usually less critical than partitions) Span1500 to span1300 (floor beneath partition)

Span1300

Stability

10 mm if Clh < 3,5 (floor below partition)§ 10-15 mm if Qlh< 3.5 (floor above partition)§

Damage at supports

Span1300

Ceiling damage Partition damage Roof covering damage

Varies with construction 10-15 mm if Qlh < 3,5511 Span1250 to span1125

Ceiling damage

Varies with construction

Partitiondamage

Span1500 to span1300 (floor beneath partition)

Ceiling damage

Varies with construction

Partition damage

10-15 mm§// Span1250 to span1125

Damage at supports

Span1100

Span1500

Damage at supports

Storey height1100

Storey height1500

5

Construc-

tion devia-

tion*

6

Actions

Diff.

settle-

ments+

-

-

-

EC

EC

- EC

-

7

a

I displacements involvc

load$

C I

C

C

I

E

**EC

*'EC

9

-

iail or

snow

load

-

**E

**E

"E

**E

**E

10

-

Nind

load

-

E

1

Q = length or span of member. h = height of element. C = creep deflection. E = elastic deflection. Thermal and moisture movements may also be involved according to the construction arrangement and the environment.

'Taking account of any camber provided. +Under all appropriate actions. $Includes the self-weight load of the structure, cladding, finishes, partitions and also pre-stresswhere this contributes to the deformation under consideration §In this case the floor or roof is consideredto be isolated from the partition in question. /I Deflection at the nodes in the case of a roof truss. **The creep component need only be included if the imposed loads are long-term actions. Hail and snow are not normally long-term actions in South Africa. ++If acting eccentrically.

TABLE 1 (continued)

1

Type of

deformation

IParticulardeformation Critical elements and criteria Suggested limiting value

4

Deviation

Oscillations

KEY:

Medial deviation of floors

Appearance

Visible length1250,or 30 mm

Use (curvature)

Span1300

Medial deviation of roofs and roof members

Appearance

Visible

length/250, or

30 mm

Terminal deviation of

Appearance

Visible length1250, or 15 mm

cantilever floors

Use (curvature)

Span1125

Use (rotation)

Span1100

Terminal deviation of cantilever roofs

Appearance

Visible length1250,

or

15 mm

Terminal deviation of non- cantilevered horizontal members

Use (slope)

SDan1lOO

Terminal deviation of

Stability

vertical members

Appearance

Oscillations of members

Resonance

Use

Oscillations of the building as a whole

Use

I

5

Construc-

tion devia-

tion"

I

I

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

yes

6

7

0

9

10

++EC

**++EC

"++E

++EC

**++EC

**++E

P= length or span of member. h = height of element. C = creep deflection. E = elastic deflection. Thermal and moisture movements may also be involved according to the construction arrangement and the environment.

'Taking account of any camber provided. +Under all appropriate actions. $Includesthe self-weight load of the structure, cladding, finishes, partitions and also pre-stress where this contributes to the deformation under consideration. §In this case the floor or roof is considered to be isolated from the partition in question. I/ Deflectionat the nodes in the case of a roof truss. **The creep component need only be included if the imposed loads are long-term actions. Hail and snow are not normally long-term actions in South Africa. ++If acting eccentrically.

SABS 0160-1989

14

Commentary:

The deformation of a building or of any part of a building should not adversely affect the appearance or proper functioning of the building. The designer mustsatisfy himselfthat the deformationsunder service conditions will not be excessive, having regard to the particular characteristics of the building, including its size, type of cladding, partition construction, finishes and occupancy, as well as the foundation conditions and environmental conditions to which it is subject.

This consideration should cover the possible effects of differential axial deformations of members as a result of temperature, moisture and short- term or long-term loading effects, as well as effects due to deflection of members.

Where experience or analysis shows that movement or stress relief joints are necessary to avoid damage, overstressing or instability of elements of the building, such joints must be designed and suitably described in the de- sign documents.

Note that the deformation in question in a particular case is that due to the relevant portion of the loading or environmental effect, e.g. for control of cracking in partitions, it would be that portion of the elastic and creep de-

flection of the supporting floor that occurs after construction of the partition (this will also depend on when the floor props are removed). Note also that

a distinction is made in Table 1 between deflection,which is the movement

of a defined point in a defined direction, and deviation, which is the distance of a defined point from a defined datum (e.g. out of straightness or out of plumbness, whether due to deflection or to initial distortion). Deviation limits are generally related to appearance factors but may in some cases involve use and stability.

Whilst it is undesirable that the deformations of a buildingdamage adjacent buildings, or inconvenience their occupants or other members of the public, such matters are normally the subject of legislation and are not appropriate to this code. Nevertheless, attention may be drawn to the fact that the pro- vision of movementjoints between adjacent buildings and the avoidance of interference with neighbouring foundations are normal good building prac- tice.

3.1.4 Vibration

a) Give special consideration to floor systems susceptible to vibration, to ensure that

such vibration is acceptable for the intended occupancy of the building.

b) Investigate unusually flexible buildings and, where necessary, check lateral

accelerations of the building to ensure that such accelerations are acceptable for the

intended occupancy of the building.

commentary:

a) In the majority of buildings, the stiffness provided to conform to the

deformation limit state will be such that no further considerationof vibration

is necessary. Where specific consideration of vibration is required by virtue

of known repeated loading, the following should be taken into account (See also Table 1.):

1) The damping characteristics of the material; 2) the dynamic magnification effects on the structural members; and 3) the sensitivity of human beings to vibration.

15

SABS 0160-1989

b) Two types of vibration problems require attention in building construc- tion, i.e. continuous vibration and transient vibration. Continuous vibration results from the periodic forces of machinery or of certain human activities such as dancing. These vibrations can be considerably amplified by resonance when the periodic forces are synchronized with a natural frequency of vibration of a building. Transient vibrations are caused by footsteps or other impiactsfollowed by decay at a ratewhich depends on the available damping.

The undesirable effects of continuous vibrations caused by machines can be minimized by special design provision, such as location of machinery away from sensitive occupancies, vibration isolation, or alteration of the natural frequency of the structure. Human beings can create periodicforces in the frequency rartge of approximately 1-4 Hz, and floor resonant frequencies of less than about 5 Hz should be avoided for light residential floors, schools, auditoria, gymnasia and similar occupancies. For very repetitive activities such as dancing, some resonance is possible when the beat is on every second cycle of floor vibration, and it is therefore recommended that the resonant frequency of such floors be 10 Hz or more, unless there is a largo amount of damping.

3.1.5 Stability. Ensure that adequate provision is made for the stability of a building as a whole and for that of its elements against overturning, uplift, sliding, foundation failure and stress reversal.

This requirement may be deemed to have been met if

a) in analysis according to the (ultimate) lirnit-statemethod: The sum of the effects of the

destabilizing nominal loads multiplied by the appropriate partial load factors that exceed unity as specified in 4.4.2, combined with the effects of the stabilizing component of self-weight load multiplied by the load factor less than or equal to unity as specified in 4.4.2, does not exceed the ultimate resistance of the relevant parts of the structure and its foundations; or

b) in analysis according to the permissibleworking stress method:The sum of the effects

of the destabilizing design loads combined with 0,7 times the effects of the stabilizing component of the self-weight load does not exceed the design resistanceof the relevant

parts of the building and its foundations.

Commentary:

The adoption of the passive resistance of the soil as part of the resistance to sliding should be carefully considered, as full passive resistancegeneral- ly comes into play only after movement has taken place.

3.1.6 lntearity (See also 4.3)

a) The degree of safety of a structure depends not only on the strength of the

load-bearing members and of the structure as a whole but also on the integrity of the structure, i.e. its ability to withstand local damage without it causing or initiating widespread collapse. Adequate structural integrity may be achieved by

1) designing the structure in such a way that, if any single load-bearing member becomes incapable of carrying load, this will not cause collapse of the whole structure or any significant part of it within a period of time sufficient to make the necessaryrepairs (method of alternative paths of support); or 2) minimizing by design or by protective measures the probability of failure of a load-bearing member whose failure is likely to result in widespread collapse (method of local resistance).

SABS 0160-1989

16

b) Design every building to withstand, at any level, a horizontal force acting on the

portion of the building above that level and acting in any plan direction, the magnitude of the force being at least equal to the greater of

1) the wind load acting above that level; or 2) 1 o/' of the total nominal self-weight load above that level, including that due to unlocated partitions exerting a force exceeding 3 kN/m of length.

This force may be shared between the elements of the structure, depending on their stiffness and strength.

c) Traditional structures, particularly building structures, often possess an adequate

degree of structural integrity. When a review of a structure's integrity indicates that the consequences of failure could be widespread or otherwise very serious or when the structural integrity of a new or unusual form of construction is being evaluated, specific provisions for structural integrity as indicated above should be incorporated in the design.

Commentary:

The following is intended to give guidance when progressive collapse is considered:

a) It is clearly not feasible to design all buildings for absolute safety nor is

it economical to design for abnormal events unless there is a reasonable chance that they will occur. However, when there is a reasonable chance of

abnormal occurrences, the designer must, in terms of 3.1.6, consider rational means of limiting the spread of local failure to an extent disproportionate to the initial cause of local damage.

Some abnormal events that can occur are explosions due to gas, boiler failures or ignition of industrial liquids, vehicle impact, falling or swinging objects, adjacent excavation or flooding causing severe local foundation failure, or very high winds such as cyclones or tornadoes.

Most of the foregoing events would not in general be considered in design, but events such as fires, earthquakes (in certain areas of South Africa), and corrosion, which are taken into account in the normal course of design, should also not cause progressive collapse.

Although a building should have resistance to progressive collapse caused by "accidental" abnormal events, it is accepted that well-placed explosives could bring down any such building.

Insome traditional construction systems there is inherent structural integrity, a tying together of elements and an ability to redistribute overloads. This inherent integrity is frequently overlooked in new systems and, as a consequence, prefabricated systems in particular are often designed to resist the primary gravity and lateral forces only. The resistance to progressive collapse should be fully evaluated for any new system and if such resistance is not inherent in the system, it should be provided by other means.

b) There are four general considerations that can be used in designing to

prevent progressive collapse:

1) Reduction of the probability of the occurrence of an abnormal event; 2) design using ductile connection;

3) design to resist abnormal loads;

4) design for alternative load paths in the event of a local failure.

17

SABS 0160-1989

(As amended 1993)

c) It is difficult to apply limits to collapse resulting from an abnormal event;

however, it is suggested that collapse be limited,

1) where progressionis vertical, to the storey where the event occurred and

to the storeys immediatelyabove and below;

2)

where the progression is horizontal,

i) to the truss, beam, precast strip floor, or roof panel damaged, and to the one on either side;

ii) to a single

bay of a full bay-sized floor or roof slab except that where the

principalsupportat one end of a slab is removed,two bay-sizedpanels may

act together as a catenary.

d) Severe deformation is temporarily acceptable in the vicinity of the local

failure at the ultimate conditions.A load combinationof self-weightload plus one-third of the total of the specified imposed load plus wind load should be used in evaluating the ultimate stability and ultimate strength of the

damaged building after the event.

4.

GENERAL GUIDANCE ON LIMIT-STATES DESIGN LOADS

NOTE

a)

This section is not to be used unless there is a reference to it in the material code.

b)

See NOTE (b) to Section 5.

4.1

GENERAL. This section describes a standardized formulation for preparing limit-states codes for different structural materials. This is achieved through a two-phase process:

a)

Acceptance of a set of partial load factors and a uniform system for defining load

combinations which would be applicableto all structural materials,as described in 4.4.2.

b)

Subsequent evaluation of partial material factors, and resistance (or performance)

factors appropriate to each limit state in each material code in order to achieve a consistent level of reliability, as described in 4.5.

4.2

LIMIT-STATES CRITERION OF FAILURE. The criterion of fitness for purpose is:

where

Rd = design resistance Qd = design load or action effect

and Rd and Qdare given by

where

R( )

=

fk

=

ym

=

a function defining the resistance of the structure for a particular limit state

the

characteristic: material strength

the partial material factor which allows for uncertainty in the material strength

@Q

= the resistance (or performance) factor which allows for all other uncertaintiesin modellingthe as-built structure by equation 4(a) for the limit state under [consideration,and for brittle modes of failure

Amdt 3,

Oct. 1993

Amdt 3,

Oct. 1993

SABS 0160-1989

18

QnI

YI

v/I

=

=

=

the effect of the nominal action or load defined in the loading code; the summation reflects the combination of self-weight, imposed, wind or other types of load effect appropriate to that limit state

the partial load factor defined for the type of action or load i which allows for variability in the action and an average uncertainty over all materials and limit states in the process of modelling the effect of the action

the load combination factor applicable to action or load i which allows for the probability of simultaneous occurrence of different load types in a particular load Combination.

4.3 LIMIT-STATESAPPROACH. Astructure, or part of a structure, is considered unfit for use or to have failed when it exceeds a particular state, called a limit state, beyond which its performance or use is impaired. The limit states are classified into the following two categories:

a) Ultimate limit states are those concerning safety, and correspond to the maximum

load-carrying capacity. They include:

1) Loss of equilibrium of the whole or of a part of the structure considered as a rigid body (e.g. overturning, uplift); 2) loss of load-bearing capacity of members, due to exceeding material strength, buckling, fracture, fatigue, fire or deformation; 3) overall instability of the structure; 4) very large deformation, e.g. transformation into a mechanism.

b) Serviceability limit states are those which restrict the normal use and occupancy or

affect durability. They include:

1) Excessive deflection or rotation that affects the use of the structure, the appearance of structural or non-structural elements or the operation of equipment; 2) excessive local damage (cracking or splitting, spalling, local yielding, slip of connections) that affects the use, durability or appearance of the structure;

3) excessive vibration that affects the comfort of the occupants or the operation of

equipment.

All relevant limit states should be considered in the design; the usual approach, however, will be to design on the basis of the expected critical limit state and then to check that the remaining limit states will not be reached.

4.4 UNIFORM LOAD FACTORS AND LOAD COMBINATIONS

4.4.1 General. It is intended that future issues and revisions of design codes for structural materials in South Africa will, whereverfeasible, be expressed in a limit-states format and will conform to a single set of partial load factors and a uniform system for defining load combinations.

Cornrnentary:

The uniform set of partial load factors and load combination factors defined in 4.4.2 is based on the assumption that the following two-stage procedure is a legitimate approach:

a) Identification of partial load factors and load combination factors from available statistical data on common types of loading that give consistent combinations of design load effects possessing a maximum probability of occurrence comparable with existing practice. (The results of this analysis are defined below.)

19

SABS 0160-1989

(As amended 1991 and 1993)

b) Identification of partial material factors for each structural material and

partial resistance factors for each limit state that, from available statistical data on resistance of different limit states, give consistent probabilities of failure, using the loading information obtained from (a) above. (This assessment will be undertaken by the individual code committees for the different structural codes.)

This is differentfrom the approach adopted in NorthAmerica and Australia, where the assessment of each limit state and load combination is under- taken ab initio, allowing for variability in both load effect and resistance.A

practical problem associatedwith a full reliabilityanalysis of this type is that the statistics of both the load effect and the resistance of the member are required. In South Africa, statistics for member resistance, related to the relevant materials codes, are largely unavailable at present and it would be

a lengthy process to collect the necessary information.A further problem is

that several of the materials codes are still in the process of preparation and

it is also anticipated that some of the existing codes may undergo major revisions in the future.

In terms of the above, the partial load factors and load combination factors

defined subsequently were therefore selected in order to achieve a

consistent value of a load index a, calculated as follows:

where

Qd

=

the design load effect = Z(wiyiQni)

PQ

=

the curnulative probability of the load exceeding the design value

The target value of the load index a used in this assessment is 2,O at the ultimate limit state (equivalent to a 1 % probability of exceeding the design

value in the 50-year life of the structure) and 1,Oat the serviceability limit state (equivalent to a 10 % probability of exceeding the design value). The actual minimum values of a at the ultimate limit state over a practical range

of load combinations range from 1,6 to 2,0,owing to a desire to deviate from

existing practice as little as possible.

4.4.2 Limit-states Desian Loads

NOTE: The partial load factors and load combination factors described in this section are to be used only in cases where the relevant material designcode has been drafted or modified to be compatible with these provisions.

The design load effect Q pertaining to the ultimate and serviceability limit states is obtained from equation 4(e) or 4(f), as the case may be, by multiplyingthe effects of the nominal loads by the partial load factors given in Column 2 or 3 of Table 2, as applicable, and by the relevant load combination factors given in Column 4 of Table 2 or derived from the recommendationsgiven in Table 3 (depending on the time-dependent nature of the additional load and its correlation to the dominant load).

SABS 1060-1989

20

(As amended 1991 and 1993)

where

yi

=

the partial load factors given in Table 2

D,

=

the nominal permanent load effect

Q,

=

the dominant imposed load effect for the load combinations and limit state under consideration

Qni = additional imposed load effects relevant and significant to the load combination and limit state under consideration

t,ui

= the load combination factors given in Tables 2 and 3

The design point-in-time value of the load effect Qdpisobtained from equation 4(f) as follows:

Qdp

=

YD Dn

+

2 (ViYiQnJ

4(9)

The design point-in-time value obtained from equation 4(g) may be required in the following design situations:

- determination of the sustained load contribution for analysis of time-dependent behaviour of materials at the serviceability limit state

- analysis of stability of structures with localized accidental damage at the limit state of accidental damage

- analysis of residual strength of structures at the limit state of progressive collapse.

Amdt 3,

For self-weight D,, imposed floor loads Q, and wind loads W,,the following combina-

Oct. 1993

tions can be used at the ultimate limit state:

Amdt 3,

Oct. 1993

 

with the exception that the load factor 0,5 for imposed loads must be replaced by 1,Ofor garages, filing areas and storage areas and by 0,O for roof loads, and the load factor 1,3 for wind loads must be replaced by 1,5 for chimneys and free-standing towers.

The following combinations can be used at the serviceability limit state:

Amdt 3.

171Dn + 1,OQn

Oct. 1993

l,lD, + 0,3Q, + 0,6W,

with the exception that the load factor 0,3 must be replaced by 0,6 for garages, filing areas and storage areas and by 0,Ofor roof loads.

NOTE: The 0,6 serviceability wind load factor should be used in conjunction with the 50-year mean return period of wind speed only.

Amdt 2,

Nov. 1991

21

SABS 0160-1989

(As amended 1991 and 1993)

The sustained portion of the loads at the serviceability limit state is obtained from

1,lQ

+ 0,3Qn

with the same proviso on the factor 0,3 as above.

Amdt 3,

Oct. 1993

The design load effect may be adjusted at the discretion of the designer by multiplying the design load effect in equation 4(e) and 4(f) by an importancefactor yc to allow for the consequences of failure. In the case of critical structural members of structures in which large numbers of the public gather and where there would be "very serious" con- sequences of a failure, a value of yc in the range 1,1-1,2 should be used. For structures with a very low degree of hazard to life and "not serious" consequences of failure, a value of yc of 0,9 would be appropriate.

TABLE 2 - PARTIAL LOAD FACTORS AND LOAD COMBINATION FACTORS

1

Type of load

Permanent loadinq

a) Maximum self-weight load acting in isolation (eqn 4(e))

b) Maximum self-weight load acting in

combinationwith other loads (eqn 4(9) c)Minimum self-weight load

Imposed loading

d) Wind load

e) Loads on floor (other than garages,

filing or storage areas)

f) Loads on floor for garages, filing or storage areas

g) Loads on roof (other than those in (d)

and (h)-(l))

I

Partial load factor Y;

Ultimate limit state

Serviceability limit

state

4

Load

combination

factor i,ui

1,o

1,o

0

0.3

0,6

 

1) Inaccessible roof

1,o

2) Accessible roof

1.o

h)

Earthquakes

i)

Loads from fluids

1.o

j)

Imposed deformations

1) Temperature, settlement, etc. 2) Prestressing

k) Accidental loads I) Other types of imposed loads not considered above (e.g. material loads, cranes) in the absence of more detailed information

See Table 3

1,o

0

See Table 3

more detailed information See Table 3 1 ,o 0 See Table 3 13 for slender non-redundant

13 for slender non-redundant structures such as chimneys and free-standing towers that exhibit significant cross-wind response.

SABS 1060-1989

22

(As amended 1991 and 1993)

It is necessary for the designer to assess the degree of dependence or correlation between the dominant load and the additional load, and the variation of the additional load with time. For example, for a single crane where horizontal crane load is the dominant load and vertical crane load an additional load, a value of cy = 0,75 would frequently be appropriate. For two cranes working in tandem, cy = 1 would apply. For cranes in adjacent bays that operate completely independently, cy = 0,5 may be applied to the additional load from the second crane. Examples of the influence of the time variation of loads are implied by the values of cy = 1 in Table 2, for imposed loads of a semi-permanent nature such as storage loads or loads from fluids, where the additional load is assumed to be uncorrelated to the dominant load. In addition, it is expected that the designer would not include as additional loads those types of load that, when factored, contribute in an insignificant manner to the total load.

Amdt 3,

Oct. 1993

TABLE 3 - RECOMMENDED LOAD COMBINATION FACTORS FOR TYPES OF IMPOSED LOADINGS NOT COVERED BY TABLE 2

Correlation between dominant imposed load and additional imposed load

None

Partial

I

Variation of additional load with time, i.e. the ratio:

Arbitrarv point-in-time value Lifetime maximum value

0,s

1,o

03

I

3

Load combination factor

'+"i

Examples of common applications of Tables 2 and 3 are:

Amdt 3,

Oct. 1993

13 (PERMANENT)

1,2 (PERMANENT) + 1,6 (FLOOR)

0,9 (PERMANENT) + 1,3 (WIND) + 0,8 (CRANE HORIZONTAL) + 0,8 (CRANE VERTICAL)

1,2 (PERMANENT) + 1,6 (CRANE VERTICAL) + 0,5 (FLOOR) + 1,2 (CRANE HORIZONTAL)

Commentary:

No provision has been made for pattern loading of permanent loads. North American practice is adopted in which this effect is apparently absorbed in the portion of the partial load factors that allows for modelling uncertainties and in terms of the definition of permanent loading.

Considering Tables 2 and 3, at the ultimate limit state, the factored values of the self-weight and dominant load effects reflect the lifetime maximum load effects, and the factored value of the additional load effect reflects the instantaneous or arbitrary point-in-time value which is likely to occur simultaneously with the lifetime maximum of the dominant load.

At the serviceability limit state, the factored value of the self-weight and dominant load effects and the factored value of the additional load effect may be compared to the mean point-in-time value of the sustained portion of the load effect.

SABS 0160-1989

23

It should be emphasized that appropriate statistical information is not

available for types of loading other than self-weight, wind and office floor loading. Load factors for other types of loading (vehicles, material storage, retail and residential, crane and temperature) should therefore be based either on the partial load factors and load combination factors given in Tables 2 and 3 or, where it is apparent that these are inappropriate,on the judgement of the designer.

The load factor of 1,3 for wind loads is increased to 13 for chimneys and free-standing towers that exhibit significant cross-wind response, owing to the greater uncertainty in the structural response. The wind load factor is also increased to take into account the likelihood that the maximum cross-wind response due to vortex shedding occurs at a relatively low wind speed, and not at an extreme wind speed, and therefore has a greater probability of occurrence.

A specified magnitudeof importancefactory, has a greater influenceon the

probability of failure for a limit state with a small coefficient of variation and

is therefore material dependent.

4.5

DESIGN CODES FOR INDIVIDUAL MATERIALS

4.5.1

General. It is intended that codes for each structural material will include appropriate values for the partialmaterialfactors, and resistance(or performance)factors applicable to the limit states in such codes, in accordance with equation 4(b). Partial factors will be established on a consistent basis, using a procedure that involves identifyingvalues for these partial factors that achieve probabilities of failure for different limit states over the practical range of properties, dimensions and loads which are consistent with existing practice.

Partial material factors of 1,50 for concrete, 1,I5 for reinforcement and 1,075 for struc- tural steel are likely to be adopted in codes applicable to those materials. In the assessmentof individuallimitstates,an appropriateresistanceor performancefactor (@@ in equation 4(b)) will be determined allowing for these partial material factors so that at least the following target values of safety index@are achieved:

Ductile, gradual modes of failure

:

J'= 3,O

Brittle, sudden modes of failure

:

@=4,0

Connection details between components

:

@ = 43

The safety index@is the inverse of the cumulative normal distribution function @-' of the probability of failure pfwhich is defined as the probability of the effect of the actions or loads exceeding the resistance of a particular limit state (equation 4(a)), i.e.

4.5.2

Assessment of Partial Material Factors for Material Codes. It is clearly desirable that consistent partial material factors be adopted in different structural codes to allow for uncertaintiesin material strengths (for example, the factors for composite beams should correspond to those in the concrete and steel codes). These partial material factors should correspond to existing practice in SABS codes.

It has been shown that for material strengths and resistances with a coefficient of variation in the range 0,lO-0,30 (which covers most materials used in construction), a safety index of@= 3,O (required for ductile failure modes) will be achieved if the partial material factors and partial resistance factors are selected on the basis of achieving a 1 % resistance fractile (i.e. the resistance of not more than 1 % of members will be less than the design resistance). This is therefore a suitable definition of a design strength for ductile members. For members with a coefficient of variation in the range

SABS 1060-1989

24

(As amended 1991 and 1993)

0,lO-0,15 (which is typical of structural steel and reinforced concrete), a safety index ofJ = 4,O(required for brittle failure modes) will be achieved if the partial resistance factor forJ = 3,Ois reduced by a factor of about 0,7-0,8, whereasp = 4,5 (required for steel connections) will be achieved if the partial resistance factor forJ = 3,O is reduced by a factor of about 0,6-0,7.

5. LOADS

NOTE

a) Since in general practice nominal values of loads are used more often than characteristic values

of loads, the term "nominal" will be used in relation to load values. (See definition of

b) Take the nominal values of loads given in this section for use with limit state design methods to

be synonymous with the design or service loads for use with the permissible working stress methods

of design.

in 2.1.)

5.1

GENERAL

5.1 .I

Ensure that, except as provided for in 5.1.2, the following loads, forces and other effects are, where relevant, considered in the design of a building and its structural members and connections:

a) Self-weiuht loads G, as provided for in 5.3.

b) ImDosed loads Q, due to intended occupancy (includes loads due to movable

partitions and loads due to cranes), snow, ice and rain, earth and hydrostatic pressures, and the horizontal component of static or inertia forces, as provided for

 

in 5.4.

 

c) Wind loads W,or earthuuake loads E,, whichever produces the more unfavourable effect, as provided for in 5.5 and 5.6.

d)

Loads due to overhead cranes and other loads applicable to special conditions,

as provided for in 5.7 and 5.8. el Deformations due to one or more of the following:

1)

Temperature changes, shrinkage, moisture changes;

2)

creep in component materials;

3)

movement due to differential settlement or heave.

5.1.2

a)

Where a building or structural member can be expected to be subjected to loads,

forces or other effects not listed in 5.1 .I, or where the loads or forces listed in 5.1.I differ significantlyfrom those given in the relevant tables, ensure that these are taken into account in the design, using the most appropriate information available.

b)

Precautions must be taken in the design to ensure that, during all stages of

construction, the building or any part of the building is not damaged, distorted or

made unserviceable owing to the application of excess loads in the construction process.

c)

If it can be shown by the application of engineering principles, or if it is known from

experience, that disregard of some or all of the effects resulting in deformations (as listed in 5.1.I(e)) will not affect the safety and serviceability of the building or of any part of the building, calculation for these specific effects may be omitted.

5.2

LOAD FACTORS AND LOAD COMBINATIONS

5.2.1

Limit-states Desian Methods. In limit-states design procedures, use the most adverse combinations of the various types of loads as specified in the appropriate limit-states material design codes of practice, and factored according to the partial load factors specified in such codes of practice for each load combination and limit state under consideration.

25

5.2.2 Workina Stress Desian Methods.

SABS 0160-1989

(As amended 1993)

a) Where the design is to be executed by the permissible working stress method, use

the following loads and load combinations:

1)

Self-weight load G;,

2)

self-weight load plus imposed load (G, + Q,J;

3)

self-weight load plus wind load or earthquake load (G, + W,) or (G, + En);

4)

self-weight load plus imposed load plus wind load or earthquake load

(Gn+ Qn + W,J or (Gn+ Qn + E,);

5) any one of (1)-(4) above, together with those dimensional change effects not exempted in terms of 5.1.2(c).

b) Where the effects of self-weight loads counteract those of other loads or load

combinations in any of (a) above, the value of the self-weight load to be used in this case is the nominal self-weight load multiplied by a reduction factor of 0,7

(see 3.1.5(b)).

5.3

NOMINAL PERMANENT LOADS G,

Arndt 3,

 

Oct. 1993

5.3.1

The nominal permanent load for a building or for a structural member of the building consists of

a) the weight of the building or rnember itself, plus

b) the weight of all finishes and materials of construction which are incorporated into

the building or member and which are to be supported permanently by the building or member, including permanent partitions, but excluding movable or unlocated partitions (see 5.4.1.3), domestic appliances and sanitary appliances, which are treated as imposed loads.

Commentary:

Designers and owners are advised to give special thought to the likely types and positions of partitions, since insufficient provision for partitioning may reduce the future utility of the building.

5.3.2

Calculate nominal permanent loads from the actual known masses of the materials to be used. Where there is a reasonable possibility of a significant change in mass owing to the absorption of moisture by porous materials, make due allowance for such increase when calculating permanent loads.

Commentary:

Where the unit masses of materials are not known or where approximations are sufficient for a preliminarydesign, use may be made of the data given in Appendix B.

5.4

NOMINAL IMPOSED LOADS Q,,

5.4.1

Nominal Imposed Floor Loads in Buildinas Containinq Occupancies other than Industrial and Storaae Occupancies

5.4.1.1

Occupancies included in Table 4. Where a building or part of a building contains a class of usage listed in Column 2 of Table 4, for the design of its floors use nominal imposed loads of at least

a) the appropriate uniformly distributed floor load given in Column 3, such load being

applied over either the entire floor area or such part of the floor area as will produce

the most severe effects on the element under consideration;

SABS 0160-1989

26

(As amended 1993)

b) the appropriate concentrated load given in Column 4, applied over the plan area given in Column 5 and placed in the position that produces the most severe effects on the element under consideration.

NOTE 1) The loads in Columns 3 and 4 should not be considered as acting simultaneously; 2) the loads in Column 3 may be reduced in accordance with 5.4.3.

5.4.1.2 OccuDancv classes not included in Table 4. Where the category of usage of a floor area is not provided for in Table 4 or where it is desired to determine the intensity of a nominal imposed floor load (or floor loads) because of special circumstances, such load(s) may be determined from an analysis of the likely loads and their effects for the particular occupancy. Generally, the imposed floor loads should be applied as in 5.4.1 .I.The values so obtained should be in appropriate relationship to those in the most relevant categories of usage in Table 4.

TABLE 4 - INTENSITY OF NOMINAL IMPOSED FLOOR LOADS FOR OCCUPANCIES OTHER THAN INDUSTRIAL AND STORAGE

Load

category

I

Occupancy class of building or floor zone (descriptionof room or floor use')

4

1

2

3

5

I

I

All rooms in a dwelling unit and a dwelling house including corridors, stairs and lobbies to a dwelling house

Bedrooms. wards, dormitories, private bathrooms and toilets in educational buildings, hospitals, hotels and other institutional occupancies

Access catwalks in buildings

Classrooms, lecture theatres X-ray rooms, operating theatres

Garages and parking areas for vehicles of gross weight less than 25 kN excluding garages where mechanical parking or stacking devices are employed

A Officesfor general use*

€3

offices with data-processing and similar equipment*

Cafes, restaurants Dining rooms, dining halls, lounges, kitchens, communal bathrooms and toilets in educational buildings, hotels and offices Entertainment, light industrial and institutionaloccupancies

'For uses not listed in Column 2, refer to 5.4.1.2.

I

I

Minimum uniformly distributed imposed floor load, kN/m2

1.5

15

 

0,l x 0,l

2,o

5,O

2,o

10,o

23

0,75x 0,75

 

9,o

3,O

3,O

5,O

0,l x 0,l

+Officeswhere small printing presses, collating machines, etc., are installed. In the case of assembly areas with fixed individual seating, it is implied that a) the number of occupants is controlled, and b) the removal of the seating and the use of the space for other purposes is improbable. $Attention is drawn to the possible need to increase floor ioadings where compacted filing systems are used.

ro

-4

NOTE: Attention is drawn to the fact that it is possible for loading intensities to reach as much as 7 kNlm2 when large numbers of people are forced by panic or other urgencies to crowd together to the point where free movement is impossible and acute discomfort is experienced.

These extreme loadings would tend to be confined to limited areas in the vicinity of points of congestion such as exit gates, stair landings, subways or foot-bridges at railway stations. The highest prescribed crowd loading of 5,OkN/mz in the table is based on a more probable level of loading consistent with the philosophy that the code of practice loadings are not the maximum attainable values. It alSO takes account of the history of satisfactory performance of public assembly buildings that have been designed for this level of loading in many countries. Where public assembly type structures are PartiCUlarlY sensitive to overloads (such as might be the case with light foot-bridges or temporary grandstands), the designer should consider designing or checking the relevant portions of the structure for an imposed load of 7 kN/m2.

,cn

2g

:a

$6

Q?

TABLE 4 (continued)

Load

category

6

7

0

9

10

11

Occupancy class of building or floor zone (description of room or floor use*)

Minimum uniformly distributed imposed floor load, kN/m2

Minimum concentrated load (applied over the area given in Column 5), kN

Assembly halls, theatres, cinemas, sports complexes, grandstands, all with fixed individual seating

4.0

Light laboratories Sales and display areas in retail shops and departmental stores Banking halls

4,O

Assembly halls, sports complexes, grandstands, all without fixed individual seating Stairs, corridors, landings and individual components of grandstands Public and assembly areas of airports, railway stations, and terminals Stages to assembly halls, theatres and cinemas Cantilever balconies accessible to the public

5.0

3,O

5.0

3,O

Filing and storage areas to offices, institutional occupancies, and hotels* Shelved areas to libraries Exhibitionhalls

I Corridors, stairs and lobbies to all buildings other than dwelling houses (where Category 1 applies)

50

5,O

The same as the zone that they serve but not less I than:

Cantilever balconies, loggias and canopies irrespective of whether they are normally accessible to the public or not

The same as the zone that they serve but not less than:

4,O

3,O

I

concentratedload Area over which in

Co'umn

applied, m

is to be

0,l x 0,l

29

SABS 0160-1989

(As amended 1993)

5.4.1.3

Partitions. Where provision is to be made for unlocated or movable partitions, allow for the following nominal imposed floor loads for such partitions, in addition to the loadings in Table 4:

a)

Where the partitions have a weiaht Der unit lenqth not exceedina 3 kN/m and are

SUDDOrted on a floor svstemwith adeauate load-distributina DroDerties:An equivalent uniformly distributed floor load (in kilonewtons per square metre) of 0,5times the weight per unit length of the partition (in kilonewtons per metre), but with a minimum of 1 kN/m2.

b)

Where the Dartitions have a weiqht Der unit lenqth exceedina 3 kN/m: A series of

line loads, spaced at a maximum of 2,5 m centres, placed in any position and direction and having a weight per unit length equal to that of the partitions.

Commentary:

 

For serviceability limit-states analysis, it is often only the permanent or long duration or regularly acting component of the imposed floor load that is of consequence, e.g. where creep deflection is a factor. The proportion of the nominal imposed load which may be considered as being of long duration varies with the type of usage. As a guide, the following proportions of the specified nominal distributed imposed loads may be taken as being of long duration:

Floors in the following:

Residential buildings;

)

offices ;

)

wards, corridors ancl theatres in hospitals;

)

0,3

schools;

)

assembly buildings.

)

Floors used for storage and floors in

)

laboratories and in storage and

)

0,6

industrial buildings.

)

Owners and designers are advised to give special thought to the possibility of later changes of occupancy involving loading heavier than was originally contemplated. They should not necessarily in every case select the lower loading appropriate to the first occupancy. In doing this, they may considerably restrict the use of the building at a later date, and thereby reduce its utility. Attention is drawn also to the possibility of temporary changes in the use of a building, as in the case of a dormitory being cleared for a dance or other recreational purpose and in the case of an institutional dining hall being used also as an assembly area.

5.4.2

Nominal Imposed Floor Loads in Buildinas Containina Storage and Industrial OccuDancies

5.4.2.1

Storaae OccuDancv. Determine the nominal imposed floor loads in a building or in part of a building, of storage occupancy, taking into consideration the type of stacked materials and methodsof storage. Take into account the greatest volume of materials (or the greatest number of stacked articles) which can be located on the area of the floor under normal operational conditions of the warehouse, allowing for the densest stacking of materials and articles and the possible effect of the increase in density of some materials when stored for a long time. Allow for the weight of handling equipment, including the maximum load capable of being lifted. Ensure that the nominal imposed floor load adopted is at least 5 kN/m2.

SABS 0160-1989

30

(As amended 1993)

5.4.2.2

Industrial OccuDancv. Determine the nominal imposed floor load in a building, or in part of a building, of industrial occupancy, such as a workshop, taking into consideration the weight of manufacturing plant, including

a) the weight of the plant,

b) the weight of the heaviest pieces under treatment or the weight of the maximum

volume of the product being processed,

c) the weight of gangways and working platforms,

d) the weight of handling equipment, and

e) loads resulting from necessary maintenance or replacement of stationary plant.

Ensure that the nominal floor load adopted is at least

1)

3 kN/m2 for production rooms such as workshops with lightweight equipment

(benches, machine tools weighing not more than 5 kN each), and

2)

5 kN/m2for production rooms such as workshops in works and factories.

See 5.4.3 for load reduction.

5.4.2.3

Dynamic forces. Make provision, where necessary, for the influence of dynamic forces arising from operations with dynamically imbalanced equipment, from the shifting of heavy loads over the floor, or from falling or suddenly displaced goods in storage.

5.4.3

Load Reduction. The minimum uniformly distributed imposed floor load shown in Column 3 of Table 4 or derived from 5.4.1.2 may be reduced as follows:

a) Where the tributary area of a floor, used for an assembly of persons or for storage,

manufacturing or garaging, that is supported by a column or bearing wall (the cumulative area of all floors so supported being taken), or bya single span of a beam or girder, or by a single panel of a slab (solid or ribbed), or flat-plate, exceeds 80 m2,

the distributed loading may, for the design of the building or of part of the building, be multiplied by a factor equal to:

0,5 + -4’5, but with a minimum value of 0,7

@

where A = the tributary floor area that complies with the requirements of (c) below, m2

b) Where the tributary area of a floor, used for any purpose other than those in (a)

above, that is supported by a column or bearing wall (the cumulative area of all floors so supported being taken) or a single span of a beam or girder, or a single panel of a slab (solid or ribbed) or flat-plate, exceeds 20 m2,the distributed loading may, for the design of the building or of part of the building, be multiplied by a factor equal to

0,3 + g,but with a minimum value of 0,5

@

where A = the tributary floor area that complies with the requirements of (c) below,

m2

c)

Provided that (in (a) or (b) above)

1)

for one-way spanning slabs, the width of the tributary area does not exceed

one-half of the span of such slab; and

2) for rectangular two-way spanning slabs, the tributary area does not exceed that of

a square of sides equal to the smaller dimension of the rectangle.

31

SABS 0160-1989

(As amended 1993)

5.4.4

Nominal Imposed Roof Loads

NOTE: In this subsection, all roof slopes are measured from the horizontal and all imposed loads act in a vertical direction.

5.4.4.1

General. So design all roofs that they are capable of sustaining the relevant nominal imposed loads set out in 5.4.4.2-5.4.4.6 (inclusive) in addition to the wind loads detailed in 5.5, but:

a)

for inaccessible roofs the nominal imposed roof loads and nominal wind loads

shall not be taken as acting concurrently; and

b)

for accessible roofs 0,3 times the nominal imposed roof load shall be taken as

acting concurrently with the nominal wind load.

Commentary:

 

These are primarily maintenance or construction loads intended to represent the effects of workmen or stacked materials, etc. Alternatively, the distributed load will cater for limited accumulations of snow, hail or rainwater on roofs (approximately 250 mm depth of snow, 60 mm of hail or 50 mm of rainwater, measured vertically).

 

NOTE: Wind loading will usually be predominant where the roof slope is less than 30".

5.4.4.2

Accessible flat roof

a)

Where access is provided to a flat roof (in addition to access necessary for

cleaning and repair), allow for a uniformly distributed imposed load of 2,O kN/m2

measured on plan, or a concentrated load of 2,O kN applied over an area of 0,l m x 0,l m, whichever is more severe.

b)

When a roof has an intended use as a floor, design it in accordance with 5.4.1 or

5.4.2, as appropriate.

5.4.4.3

Inaccessible roof. Where no access is provided to a roof (other than that necessary for cleaning and repair), allow for one of the following nominal loads, whichever is the most severe:

a) A concentrated load of 0,9 kN, acting vertically downward and applied over an

area of 0,l m x 0,l m in any position; or

b) a uniformly distributed load, acting vertically downward, of

(0,3 + -5-A) kN/m

60

where A = the tributary area for the member under consideration or the area of the roof slab confined by the perimeter of supporting members, measured on plan, m2, as appropriate

provided that the load has a maximum intensity of 0,5 kN/m2where A is 3 m2or less and a minimum value of 0,3 kN/m2where A is 15 m2or more; or

c) where it is known that snow of depth exceeding 250 mm could be expected to

accumulate on a roof, a distributed load corresponding to the expected depth of

snow.

Commentary:

The above loading {makesno provision for impact effects or for brittle covering material. It is necessary that safety measures (such as gang boarding) be introduced when work is carried out.

SABS 0160-1989

32

(As amended 1993)

5.4.4.4

Curved roof. Calculate the nominal imposed load on a curved roof by dividing the roof

into an appropriate

number of segments

and calculating the

load on each,

appropriate to its mean slope, in accordance with 5.4.4.3.

5.4.4.5

Provision for additional loadinqs on roof trusses or other members in buildinqs containinq industrial and storacre occupancies. Ensure that where a roof truss (or any of its elements) or any other member is designed to sustain a specific load at a specific location, such location is clearly identified by a suitable hook, shackle or similar device, and that the capacity is clearly indicated.

5.4.4.6

Loads due to snow, hail and rainwater. Where the designer deems it necessary, ensure that an allowance is made for loads (in excess of the distributed loads prescribed in 5.4.4.2, 5.4.4.3 and 5.4.4.4) caused by snow, hail or rainwater. The value of such loads must be based on a knowledge of the local weather conditions and on the layout of the building concerned.

Commentary:

On flat, open surfaces, greater depths of snow or hail than those referred to in 5.4.4 will be uncommon in most parts of the Republic of South Africa. Local knowledge should be applied in cases where the values in 5.4.4 may be exceeded. Consideration should be given to the possibility of greater accumulations of snow or hail at changes in slope and in valleys and behind parapets or similar projections.

The possibility that gutters and downpipes may be blocked by hail or snow should be borne in mind. Wire mesh hail guards can be of value for this purpose but may not always be effective for fine hail. On flat roofs, particularly those subject to deflection, accumulation of rainwater is possible and the resultant ponding must be considered. Where flat roofs are provided with parapets, scuppers should be provided through the parapets to prevent an accumulation caused by blocked rainwater pipes. Refer to Appendix F for information on rainfall intensity.

5.4.5

Forces on Walls, Balustrades and Glazinq

 

5.4.5.1

ParaDet walls. balustrades and railinqs. Take the following loads into consideration:

a) For parapet walls, balustrades and railings that guard a drop of more than 750 mm, together with members that give them immediate support, the following nominal imposed loads (which may be assumed to be of short duration, i.e. a few minutes):

1) The appropriate wind forces,

2) the appropriate concentrated forces set out in (b)-(f) below, or

3) the appropriate distributed forces set out in (b)-(f) below,

whichever is the most severe.

b) For walls or railings guarding stairs, landings, gangways and balconies other than

those in places of public assembly, and parapet walls or railings to all roofs to which

there is no access other than for maintenance purposes:

1) A concentrated force of 1 kN acting in any direction between vertically downward

and horizontally inward or outward, applied over a 100 mm length for beam elements and over a 100 mm x 100 mm area for plate elements and acting at the top or any

other position of the guard, whichever is the most severe; or

33

SABS 0160-1989

(As amended 1993)

2) a distributed horizontal force of 500 N/m applied at the top of the guard and acting outward, except that, where the guard may be exposed to crowd surge loads from either side, the force must be taken as liable to act inward or outward.

c) For walls or railings to stairs, landings, gangways and balconies serving places of

public assembly other than grandstands, and to roofs to which the public has access:

1) A concentrated force of

1 kN applied as in (b)(l) above, or

2) a distributed force of 13 kN/m applied as in (b)(2) above.

d) For ramps and forwalls or railings to stairs, landings, gangways and balconies that

serve grandstands:

1) A concentrated force of 1 kN applied as in (b)(l) above, or 2)a distributed force of 3 kN/m applied as in (b)(2) above.

e) For railings to catwalks and similar access areas in industrial buildings where crowding is unlikely: A concentrated force of 1 kN applied as in (b)(l) above.

f) For guardrails in elevated or rnultistorey parking garages for vehicles of a gross

mass not exceeding 2 500 kg: A horizontal load of 30 kN, distributed over any 1,5 m length of barrier, acting normal to the barrier and at a height of 550 mm above floor level.

5.4.5.2 Exterior walls, curtain walls and Dartv walls. Ensure that all external walls, curtain walls and party walls in buildings or, in the case of sheathed and framed walls, the framing to such walls, are capable of withstanding a nominal horizontal concentrated force of 500 N acting normal to the wall surface over an area of 0,l m x 0,l m at any point at a height of 1,3 m above floor level or such lesser height as may be more critical, or a nominal horizontal distributed force of 500 N/m at a height of 1,3 m, or the appropriate wind force, whichever is the most severe.

5.4.5.3 Boundarv. vard and aarden walls. Ensure that all concrete or masonry boundary, yard and garden walls higher than 1,5 m are capable of withstanding a nominal horizontal concentrated force of 1,O kN acting normal to the wall at any point at a height of 1,8 m or at the top of the wall if it is less than 1,8 m high, or a distributed horizontal force of 0,36 kN/m acting at a height of 1,Im, or the appropriate wind force, whichever is the most severe.

5.4.5.4 Partition walls. Ensure that all partition walls other than those of lightweight sheeted or boarded construction are capable of withstanding the forces (other than wind forces) specified in 5.4.5.2. Lightweight sheeted or boarded partitions shall be capable of withstanding a nominal horizontal distributed force of 0,5kN/m acting at a height of 1,3 m above floor level.

5.4.5.5 ImDactforces in walls. Dartitions and alazina units. Ensure that all walls, curtain walls and partitions, and all large glazed panels within 500 mm of the floor that may be exposed to impacts from a person falling against or bumping into them, have a level of impact resistance which will prevent undue risk of injury resulting from failure, fracture or penetration of the wall, partition or glazed panel.

Commentary:

Reliable information on the calculation of resistance to human forces is not available, particularly in the case of brittle materials such as glass. Where it is possible to conduct impact tests, an impact of 400 J delivered by means of a 250 rnm diameter bag filled with dry sand to a mass of 30 kg may be considered representative of the most severe conditions likely to occur. For non-brittle materials and for masonry, the ability to withstand the forces specified in 5.4.5.2with the normal safety factors for the materials concerned will generally ensure adequate resistance to human impact.

SABS 0160-1989

34

(As amended 1993)

5.4.5.6

Stackinq of materials aqainst walls. Where materials are to be stored against a wall or partition in such a manner that a horizontal thrust is transmitted to such wall or partition, the designer must ensure that due allowance is made for such thrust in the design procedure. In addition, the details of such loading must be recorded.

5.5

WIND LOADS W,

5.5.1

Determination of Nominal Wind Loads. Determine the nominal wind forces on a building or on part of a building by one of the following methods:

a) In accordance with the following formulae and the procedures given in 5.5.2, 5.5.3 and 5.5.4 for the determination of the nominal wind pressures on the relevant surfaces:

Pe

Pi

kp

=

=

=

-

external nominal wind pressure on surface, N/m2

internal nominal wind pressure on surface, N/m2

factor for converting wind speed into velocity pressure

air density, kg/m3

2

V =

regional basic wind (gust) speed, according to regional location, for a 50- year return period at height 10 m in Terrain Category 2, m/s

kr

= factor for adjusting V to other return periods (risk factor) (see Fig. 4)

k,

= factor for converting regional wind speed into nominal wind speed allowing for the variation of wind speed with height, according to terrain category and class or size of building or element

Cpe= external pressure coefficient

Cp, =

internal pressure coefficient

V,

q,

F

=

nominal wind speed at height z above local ground level for given building or element, m/s

=

free stream velocity pressure of wind at height z, N/m2

=

resultant force on building or element, N

A = area of surface concerned, m2

C,

A,

= a force coefficient

= projected or effective area of building or element, m2

35

SABS 0160-1989

b) A simplified design method in accordance with 5.5.6, provided that the following

limitations on the shape and dimensions of the building are complied with:

1) The building is rectangular in plan;

2) the overall height does not exceed 20 m;

3) the ratio of overall height to least plan dimension does not exceed 4.

c) A design approach complying with the procedure set out in 3.1.2.

Commentary:

a)

Section 5.5 is concerned with wind loading and the response of

buildings to such loading. However,the effects of wind on a building may also influence non-structural aspects of its design and it is desirable that the designer familiarize himself with these possible effects so that, where

a particular building is of such shape, size or location that special

considerationof these effects is necessary, this can be given at an early stage of the design. For instance, the pattern of wind flow around and over a tall building or group of tall buildings should be investigated to

ascertain its possible influence on ventilation, air conditioning and rain penetration, and to establish whether the airflow induced at ground level may not seriously inconvenience or endanger people at that level. Wind tunnel or similar tests may be required to evaluate these problems.(See also A-2(a) and (b) of Appendix A.)

b) The nature of wind flow around a building is complex and a theoretical

prediction is difficult Small variations in shape or in surface roughness

or in wind direction (horizontally or vertically) can cause significant changes in the flow and hence in the magnitude and distribution of the resulting pressures on the building. Factors such as the scale and intensity of wind turbulence, the size of the building, the nature of the surrounding buildings, and topographical features also have a profound influence. A high degree of precision in the determination of pressure or force coefficients for individual buildings is therefore not generally possible without recourse to wind tunnel tests that model surroundings

as

well as the building itself.

c)

However, for the great majority of buildings with conventional shapes

conforming to those covered in the various tables in this code, it is sufficient and more convenient to use the typical pressure or force coefficients tabulated in this code. Outside these limitations, it will be

necessary to consult the specialist literature in this field or resort to tests,

or

both. (See also A-2(c) of Appendix A.)

d)

In many buildings of simple squat shape and limited height, wind

loading is not a critical parameter in the design of the structure and an

overestimate of the wind forces will not be of consequence. For these cases, the simplified rules in 5.5.4 have been incorporated. Since they are based on a combination of the most severe cases, they will generally give a rather conservative estimate of the wind forces. Where a more

accurate prediction IS desired, the detailed procedure given in this code should be used.

e) Wind is a dynamic phenomenon (i.e. it varies fairly rapidly with time)

and since buildings are deformable to a greater or lesser degree, the fluctuations in the wind forces result in a dynamic response of the building. The magnitude of the response will depend on factors such as the turbulence of the wind and the shape, size, weight, stiffness and damping characteristics of the building.

1) For the majority of buildings, the dynamic response effects are small and a static wind loading design in which the wind forces are based on

a peak gust speed with a limited probability of occurrence during the life

of the building, as set out in the detailed procedure (and on which the

simplified procedure is also based), will suffice.

2) However, for slender or flexible structures such as towers, masts,

chimney stacks, and some tall buildings, the dynamic response effect

may be significant and more refined methods of analysis should be employed.

SABS 0160-1989

36

(As amended 1993)

Such methods are not covered in any detail in this code, but guidance can be found in appropriate specialist texts referred to in A-2(d)-(o), inclusive, of Appendix A. It should also be noted that wind-induced vibration of light, flexible roof structures or claddings can lead to loosening of fasteners and occasionally to fatigue failure. 3) In tall, slender buildings, the dynamic oscillations not only influence the design of the structure and the cladding but may also have a psychological effect on the inhabitants of the building. There is no fixed relationship between the nature of the motion and the human response to it, but some approximate guidelines are given in the reference quoted in A-2(i) of Appendix A.

f) The following comments are provided regarding wind tunnel testing:

1) Tests for mean and fluctuatina loads and pressures. Wind tunnel tests used to determine mean and fluctuating loads and pressures, and similar tests employing a fluid other than air, may be considered properly conducted only if

i) the natural wind has been modelled to take into account the scale and

intensity of turbulence and the variation of wind speed with height, and ii) tests on curved shapes are conducted with due regard to the effects of Reynolds numbers.

2) Tests for dynamic response. Tests for determining the dynamic response of a structure may be considered properlyconducted only if the requirements of (f)(l) above are met and if, in addition, the model is scaled with due regard to mass, length, stiffness and damping.

5.5.2

Nominal Wind Speed V,

5.5.2.1

General

 

a)

Use the nominal wind speed V, at height z above ground level to determine the

wind forces on a building or part of it.

b)

Obtain the nominal wind speed V, from the appropriate regional basic wind speed

V, determined in accordance with 5.5.2.2 and adjusted for

1)

mean return period (see 5.5.2.3),

2)

terrain category (see 5.5.2.4 and 5.5.2.6),

3)

local effects (see 5.5.2.5),

4)

height above ground (see 5.5.2.6), and

5) class of structure or element (see 5.5.2.6).

c) For buildings for which a 50-year mean return period is prescribed, the characteristic wind speed V, must be at least 24 m/s.

5.5.2.2

Reaional basic wind speed V. Determine the regional basic wind speed V for a building, according to its geographical location, from Fig. 3, which gives values of V for a 50-year mean return period (see 5.5.2.3 for other return periods).

Amdt 3,

Commentary:

Oct. 1993

The background to the derivation of the wind speeds given in Fig. 3 is discussed in Milford, RV, 'Annual maximum wind speeds for South Africa' (The civil enaineer in South Africa, January 1987) and the values are based on a statistical analysis of data gathered by the Weather Bureau of the Department of Environment Affairs over many years and at a number of stations throughout the Republic. (See also A-2(b) of Appendix A.)

37

SABS 0 160-1989

5.5.2.3 Mean return Deriod

a) Use a regional basic wind speed V having a mean return period as set out below

or as selected by the designer for the particular nature or use of the building or

element.

Nature of buildina or element

Mean return

period, vears

All buildings other than those given below

50

Buildings which have special post-disaster functions, e.g. hospitals, cornmunications buiIdings, etc.

100

Buildings representing a low degree of hazard to life and property in the case of failure, e.g. isolated towers, farm buildings, etc.; side clad- ding to industrial buildings; and roof coverings to all buildings

25

For analysis of serviceability considerations

10

Buildings and temporary structures used only during construction operations, e.g. formwork and falsework, site office, etc.

5

In instances where such temporary structures will remain in position for a

considerable period of time (e.g. 6 months and over), the mean return period of 5 years may need to be increased and a value of ten times the period of exposure is suggested.

b) For mean return periods other than 50 years, determine the regional basic wind

speed Vby multiplying the value for 50 years obtained from Fig. 3 by the appropriate correction factor k, obtained from Fig. 4.

5.5.2.4 Terrain cateaories

a) General. A terrain category defines the characteristics of those surface irregularities of an area that arise from natural or constructed features and that create a surface roughness affecting the degree of turbulence and the variation of speed with height of the wind passing over the area.

In selecting a terrain category (see (b) below), take into account the permanence of the features constituting the surface roughness and the distance (in a direction upwind of the building under consideration) over which the terrain remains unchanged. (See also (d) below.)

b) Cateaories. Assess the terrain in which the building stands as being of one of the

following categories:

Cateaorv 1. Exposed smooth terrain with virtually no obstructions and in which the height of any obstruction is less than 13m .This category includes open sea coasts, lake shores and flat, treeless plains with little vegetation other than short grass.

Cateaorv 2. Open terrain with widely spaced obstructions (more than 100 m apart) having heights and plan dimensions generally between 1,5 m and 10 m . This category includes large airfields, open parklands or farmlands and undeveloped outskirts of towns and suburbs, with few trees. This is the category on which the regional basic wind speed V is based.

Cateaorv 3. Terrain having numerous closely spaced obstructions generally having the size of domestic houses. This category includes wooded areas and suburbs, towns and industrial areas, fully or substantially developed.

Cateqorv 4. Terrain with numerous large, tall, closely-spaced obstructions. This category includes large city centres.

SABS 0160-1989

38

NOTE

1) It is expected that the majority of design situations will fall into Terrain Category 3 and that the selection of a more severe (Category 1 and 2) or less severe (Category 4) terrain category will be deliberate. 2) Owing to the large differences in wind speeds between Terrain Categories 2 and 3, and where there is doubt whether the terrain under consideration falls into Category2 or Category 3, the design wind speed may be obtained by interpolation between the values for these two categories.

c) Effect of wind direction. The terrain category used in the design of a building may

vary according to the direction of the wind. However, the regional basic wind speed Vmay be varied only if for design purposes according to specific wind directions, sufficient meteorological information is available. (See also 5.5.2.2.)

d) Chanue in terrain cateaorv. The wind speed profile for a given terrain category

does not immediately develop to full height at the commencement of that terrain category but is gradually established, starting nearest the ground and extending upwards as the "fetch" (i.e. the distance the wind has blown over the new terrain) increases.

The relationship between the fully developed height h, of the wind speed profile and the fetch x (i.e. the distance in a direction upwind of the building under consideration over which the terrain remains unchanged) is given in Fig. 5 for each of the four terrain categories.

For a building of height h, or less, situated at a distance x from a change in terrain category, design the building for wind speeds determined for the terrain category in which the building is situated.

Fora building of height exceeding h,, situated at a distance xfrom a change in terrain category, design the building for wind speeds determined for the less rough (more severe) terrain category or adopt a combined wind profile determined from the respective profiles of the terrain categories involved.

Commentary:

A procedure for the determination of a combined wind profile due to the presence of two or more terrain categories is given in D-2 of Appendix D.

5.5.2.5 Local effects on wind weed

a) Shieldinq. Make no allowance for shielding from adjacent objects other than that

implied in 5.5.2.4 and 5.5.2.6.

b) ExDosure. Take account, in accordance with 5.5.2.4(d), of the effects of exposure

resulting from a fetch of open (more severe) terrain in an otherwise rougher (less severe) terrain category.

c) Local toDouraDhy. Where the local topography is such that increases in wind speed

may occur as a result of funnelling or other effects, adjust the design wind speed accordingly, on the basis of appropriate meteorological advice or tests.

Particular attention is drawn to the possibility that the wake flow from large buildings can lead to increased cladding pressures on buildings downwind of such structures and that funnelling of the wind between groups of large buildings in close proximity can give rise to increased wind speeds which will affect both overall and local wind pressures.

d) Sudden chanae in uround level. Take account, in accordance with 5.5.2.6(c), of

the increase in exposure due to situations on or near the edge of a cliff, bluff or

escarpment. (See also D-3 of Appendix D.)

39

SABS 01 60-1989

m

aJ

U

Fig. 3 - Regional Basic Wind Speed V, m/s

10 IT 1 Height

in Terrain of Category 2, Estimated to be Exceeded on Average Only Once in 5C 1Years)

(Isopleths of 3 Second Gust Speeds at

L

0

4-

U

0

Lc

c

.- 0

L

U

aJ

L

L

0

U

0.9

OJ 5

10

20

30 40 50

100

200 300 400 500

Mean return period, years

Fig. 4 - Correction Factor K, by which Regional Basic Wind Speeds from Fig. 3 must be Multiplied to Obtain Values for Other Mean Return Periods (Also Applicable to Mean Wind Speeds in Fig. D-I)

SABS 0160-1989

40

180 160 140 E 120 w 60 40 20 I I I I I 0
180
160
140
E
120
w
60
40
20
I
I
I
I
I
0
1
2
Fetch X,
krn
Fig. 5(a) - For Fetch Distances up to 2 km
500
E
x
E
c
c
'F250
f
U
200
- 0
(U
z
150

D

100

50

0

Ir

8

12

16

20

Fetch x, km

40

60

Fig. 5(b) - For Fetch Distances over 2 km and up to 60 km

Fig. 5 - Fetch/Height Relationship

41

SABS 0160-1989

(As amended 1991)

5.5.2.6

Variations of characteristic wind speed with heiqht. class of structure and terrain

a)

Wind speed multiplier. Determine the characteristic wind speed V, at a height z above

site mean ground level for the assessed terrain category and class of building or element

being designed, by multiplying the regional basic wind speed Vor k,V by the applicable

wind speed

multiplier k,, given

in Table 5.

b) Class of structure or element. Classify as Class A, B or C in accordance with the

following:

 

1) Class A: For the determination of forces on units of cladding, roofing, glazing and their immediate fixings, including roof battens and minor purlins supporting small areas of roofing, and on individual members of unclad frames. 2) Class B: For the determination of forces on main structural members as well as for the overall resultant forces and for overturning moments on buildings, where neither the height nor the width nor the depth of the building exceeds 50 m.

3)

Class C: For the determination of the overall resultant forces and overturning moments

on buildings where the height or the width or the depth exceeds 50 m.

Commentary: The free wind speed fluctuates from moment to moment as a result of turbulence and it can be averaged over any chosen period of time; the longer the averaging time, the lower the speed. It has been found that the shortest duration of fluctuation (2-3 s) that the normal Weather Bureau anemometer is capable of recording satisfactorily corresponds to a gust whose size is insufficient to envelop obstacles of dimensions exceeding about 20 m .The use, for design purposes, of wind speeds of 3 s duration will therefore overestimate the overall forces on most buildings and larger structural elements, although it will be appropriate for local forces on small elements such as cladding. For this reason, three classes of structure, A, B and C have been adopted, corresponding respectively to situations where a 3 s, 5 s or 10 s gust speed will be appropriate:

 

3 s for cladding design

5 s for trusses, portals and other main structural