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# ASSIGNMENT-2 SOLUTIONS

Comprehension Type

Comprehension # 1
Answer the following:(i) In PCl5 two axial bonds are slightly longer bonds hence, weaker bonds. So, on mild heating these two bonds break

Cl Cl Cl
F Cl Cl P Cl
(ii)

P Cl Cl

PCl3 + Cl 2

F F Cl P Cl F
0

F
=0

F O Xe O
(iii)

F F F
F F S F F F F

S F

(iv)

900

OH O Xe O
(v) Xenic acid = H2XeO4

OH

HO Xe HO
Per xenic acid = H4XeO6

HO HO O

Cl
I2Cl6 is dimer of ICl3

Cl I Cl I

Cl Cl

Cl

Comprehension # 2
(i) Find the trends of dipole moment between the given series: (a) HF > HCl > HBr > HI {F is more electronegative, so will create more partial charge and charge factor will dominate over distance factor} (b) CH3Cl > CH2Cl2 > CHCl3 > CCl4 {experimental fact, no explanation}
Cl
Cl Cl

Cl

(c)

>

Cl

>

Cl

CH 3
CH 3 Cl

CH 3

(d)
Cl C C Cl H

<
Cl C C

Cl

<
Cl

Cl

(e)

<

CH 3 C C

CH 3 C C

Cl

Cl

>

## CH3F < CD3F {D is more electropositive than H }

B.P. of H2O < B.P. of D2O {D2O will have strong H bonds than H2O} Dipole moment of O-H bond = 1.85x

2 3 Debye

% ionic character of HCl bond = 16.84 % Bond angle = Cos-1 (-0.23) E.N. of Cl = 3.22 eV

Comprehension # 3
Answer the followings (i) Order of strength of hydrogen bond is (a) > (b) > (c) > (d) {Lone pair of nitrogen is more available than lone pair of oxygen as E.N. of N < E.N. of O and partial charge on H is more in which it is connected to O because of E.N values} (ii) (iii) True HF molecule has hydrogen bonding in all states of matter (solid, liquid and gas)

(iv)

H HO OH B O H
(v) (a) H2O can show H bonding hence intermolecular attraction force is greater than vanderwaals force that is present in H2S. (b) HF can show H bonding but HCl cannot show (c) H2O can make H bonding with burning alcohol but not with burning petrol. (d) Stability of chloral hydrate is more than expected because of intramolecular H bonding

O B OH

HO

Cl H O Cl C CH Cl H O

(e) H2O will make H bond with another H2O molecule as H of H2O is more acidic than H of C2H2. But Acetone can make H bond with C2H2 a follows

H 3C

C=O
H 3C

H C C H

(f) H is making Hydrogen bonds. Hence, difficult to liberate. (g) In structure of ice, 8 H2O molecules are connected through H bonds and lot of vacant space in between is present. On heating all such H bonds break and volume decreases so density increases. Till 40C all such bonds break. After that thermal effects govern and on increasing temperature, volume increases and density decreases. So, density is maximum at 40C.

H H H O H O H O H H O H O H O H H
Structure of ice

H O H H H O H

(h) p-hydroxy benzaldehyde can show H bonding with water, but o-hydroxy benzaldehyde will show intramolecular H bonding rather than H bonding with water. Hence, less soluble.

O CH

H C=O H O
OH OH H
o-hydroxy benzaldehyde p-hydroxy benzaldehyde and water

(i) KHF2 can show H bonding but KHCl2 can not show. (vi) In open cage structure of ice, large noble gases like Xe and Rn can get trapped and cannot escape and such physical compound (no chemical bond between H2O molecules and noble gas) formed are called as clathrate compounds. Small noble gases like Ne and Ar cannot form such compounds as these atoms can escape through the cage. Hence, this is method of separation of noble gases of low molecular weight to high molecular weight. (vii) H F can show one H bond per molecule but H2O can form two H bonds per molecule.

Comprehension # 4
(i) (a) BeCl2 < MgCl2 < CaCl2 < BaCl2 {Radius of cation increases so ionic nature increases} (b) CaF2 > CaCl2 > CaBr2 > CaI2 {Radius of anion increases so covalent nature increases} (c) NaCl > MgCl2 > AlCl3 > SiCl4 {charges increases so covalent nature increases} (d) NaCl > CuCl {Na+ = [Ne] (inert gas configuration) and Cu+ = [Ar], 3d10 (pseudo inert gas configuration)} (e) CaCl2 >CdCl2 {Ca+2 = [Ar] (inert gas configuration) and Cd+2 = [Kr], 4d10 (pseudo inert gas configuration)} (f) H2O < H2S < H2Se < H2Te < H2PO {exception of fajans rule} (ii) (a) Ag2S is more covalent than Ag2O (b) Fe(OH)3 is more covalent than Fe(OH)2 . Hence, less soluble in water (c) AgCl is more covalent but AgBr, AgI and Ag2S2O3 are more ionic, hence coloured (Exception of fajans rule) (d) SnCl2 is covalent but SnI2 is ionic. (Exception of fajans rule) (e) PbCl2 is covalent but PbI2 is ionic. (Exception of fajans rule) (f) Na+ has less polarizing power than Ca+2, so higher thermal stability of Na2CO3 as compared to CaCO3