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Guide to Food Additives

Chemist Jamal N. Alotaibi 2007

FOOD ADDITIVE CODE BREAKER PRESERVATIVES


No. E100 E101 E102 E104 E107 Name
Curcumin Riboflavin (vitamin B2) Tartrazine

Comments
orange-yellow color, derived from turmeric, a member of the ginger family yellow color, it's a vitamin!!!

E110 E120 E122

E123 E124

E127 E128 E129 E131 E132 E133 E140 E141 E142

yellow color, commonly used, the HACSG* recommends to avoid it. Typical products are soft drinks, confectionary, cordials, pickles Quinoline yellow not permitted in some countries yellow color, the HACSG* recommends to avoid it. People who Yellow 2G suffer Asthma may also show an allergic reaction to it. Typical products are soft drinks yellow color, the HACSG* recommends to avoid it. Some people Sunset yellow FCF show allergic reactions to it (rashes, swelling, vomiting). Typical products are cordials, confectionary, packet soups Cochineal, carminic red color, the HASCG* recommends to avoid it. Rarely used acid red color, the HASCG* recommends to avoid it. Sensitive people Carmoisine and asthmatics may show allergic reactions to it. Typical products are confectionary, marzipan, jelly crystals purplish-red color, banned in the United States in 1976. Avoid it! Amaranth Typical products are cake mixes, fruit-flavoured fillings, jelly crystals red color, the HACSG* recommends to avoid it. Asthmatics and Brilliant scarlet 4R people with aspirin sensitivity may show allergic reactions red color, the HACSG* recommends to avoid it. Might increase thyroid hormone levels and lead to hyperthyroidism. Can cause Erythrosine sensitivity to light. Typical products are custard mix, biscuits, glace' cherries, canned cherries and strawberries Red 2G not permitted in some countries red color, may be an allergen in allergic skin conditions. Typical Allura red AC products are biscuits, cake mixes, fruit-flavoured fillings Patent blue not permitted in some countries blue color, people with allergies should avoid it. May cause nausea, vomiting, high blood pressure, skin rashes, breathing Indigo carmine problems and other allergic reactions. Typical products are confectionary, biscuits Brilliant blue FCF blue color, the HACSG* recommends to avoid it Chlorophyll Cpper complexes of chloropyll and chlorophyllins Green S green to olive color, naturally part of man's diet olive color, no adverse effects are known green color, seems safe in small quantities

E150 E151 E153 E154 E155 E160(a) E160(b)

Caramel Brilliant black BN Vegetable carbon Brown FK Chocolate brown HT Carotene, alpha-, beta-, gammaAnnatto (bixin, norbixin) Capsanthin

dark brown color, the HACSG* recommends to avoid it. Typical products are oyster, soy, fruit and canned sauces, beer, whiskey, biscuits, pickles black color, the HACSG* recommends to avoid it black colour, banned in the United States. not permitted in some countries brown colour, the HACSG* recommends to avoid it. Typical products are chocolate cake mixes orange-yellow colour, converts to vitamin A in the body peach colour, the HACSG* recommends to avoid it. Typical products are dairy products not permitted in some countries not permitted in some countries orange color, no adverse effects are known orange color, no adverse effects are known yellow color, unlikely to produce adverse effects orange color, no adverse effects are known purple color, no adverse effects are known violet color, seems safe no adverse effects are known white color, no adverse effects are known seems safe not permitted in some countries not permitted in some countries not permitted in some countries not permitted in some countries

E160(c) Lycopene E160(d) E160(e) Beta-apo-8'-carotenal E160(f) E161 E161(g) E162 E163 E170 E171 E172 E173 E174 E175 E180 E181
Ethyl ester of betaapo-8'-carotenic acid Xanthophylls Canthaxanthin Beet red, betanin Anthocyanins Calcium carbonate Titanium dioxide Iron oxides Aluminium Silver Gold Pigment rubine

Tannic acid, tannins clarifying agent in alcoholic drinks * Hyperactive Children's Support Group (HACSG), substance may cause allergic reactions.

FOOD ADDITIVE CODE BREAKER PRESERVATIVES


No. E200 E201 E202 E203 E210 E211 E212 E213 E214 E215 E216 E217 E218 E19 E220 E221 E222 E223 E224 E225 E226 E227 E228 E230 Name
Sorbic acid Sodium sorbate Potassium sorbate Calcium sorbate Benzoic acid Sodium benzoate Potassium benzoate Calcium benzoate Ethyl4hydroxybenzoate Sodium salt Propybaraben Propyl4hydroxybenzoate Methylparaben Methyl4hydroxybenzoate Sulphur dioxides Sodium sulphite Sodium bisulsulphite Sodium metabisulphite Potassium metabisulphite Potassium sulphite Calcium sulphite Calcium hydrogen sulphite Potassium bisulphite Biphenyl

Comments
possible skin irritant no known adverse effects no known adverse effects no known adverse effects the HACSG* recommends to avoid it. Typical products are soft drinks, juices, cordials, chilly pastes the HACSG* recommends to avoid it. Typical products see 210 People with a history of allergies may show allergic reactions. Typical products see210 see 212 not permitted in some countries not permitted in some countries possible contact allergen not permitted in some countries allergic reactions possible, mainly affecting the skin not permitted in some countries the HACSG* recommends to avoid it. May cause allergic reactions in asthmatics, destroys vitamin B1, typical products are beer, soft drinks, dried fruit, juices, cordials, wine, vinegar, potato products see 220 see 220 see 220 see 220 see 220 not permitted in some countries not permitted in some countries see 220 not permitted in some countries, can be used for agricultural purposes, typical products are citrus fruit not permitted in some countries, can be used for agricultural purposes, typical products are pears, carrots, peaches, plums, prunes, sweet potatoe, citrus fruit, pineapples, tomatoes, peppers, cherries, nectarines see 231 not permitted in some countries, can be used for agricultural purposes, typical products arecitrus fruits, apples, pears, potatoes,

E231

2-Hydroxybiphenyl Sodium biphenyl-2yl oxide Thiabendazole

E232 E233

E234 E235 E236 E237 E238 E239 E249 E250 E251 E252 E260 E261 E262 E264 E270 E280 E281 E282 E283

Nisin Natamycin Formic acid Sodium formate Calcium formate Hexamine Potassium nitrite Sodium nitrite Sodium nitrate Potassium nitrate Acetic acid Potassium acetate Sodium diacetate, sodium acetate Ammonium acetate Lactic acid Propionic acid Sodium propionate Calcium propionate Potassium propionate

bananas, mushrooms, meat, milk no known adverse effects sometimes used medically to treat candidiasis, can cause nausea, vomiting, anorexia, diarrhoea and skin irritation. Typical products are meat, cheese not permitted in some countries not permitted in some countries not permitted in some countries not permitted in some countries not permitted in foods for young children, may cause dizzynesss, headaches, difficult breathing,potential carcinogen, typical products are meat the HACSG* recommends to avoid it (see 249) see 250 see 249 no known adverse effects should be avoided by people with impaired kidney function. Typical products are sauces, pickles no known adverse effects can cause nausea and vomiting could cause problems in very young babies, typical products are infant formula, confectionary, dressings, soft drinks no known adverse effects may be linked to migraines, typical products are flour products see 281

see 281 may increase the effect of alcohol, typical products are wine, soft Carbon dioxide E290 drinks, confectionary * Hyperactive Chidren's Support Group (HACSG), possible allergen

FOOD ADDITIVE CODE BREAKER (E296 - E385)


No. E296 E297 E300 E301 E302 E303 E304 E306, E307 E308, E309 E310 E311 E312 E317 E318 E319 Name
DL-Malic acid Fumaric acid Ascorbic acid Sodium ascorbate Calcium ascorbate Potassium ascorbate Ascorbyl palmitate Tocopherols

Comments
infants and young children should avoid it no known adverse effects vitamin C sodium salt of vitamin C vitamin C, may increase the formation of calcium axalate stones potassium salt of vitamin C same function as vitamin C vitamin E not permitted in foods for infants and young children, may cause gastric or skin irritation, typical products are margarine, fats, oils see 310 see 310 no known adverse effects no known adverse effects the HACSG* recommends to avoid it. May cause nausea, vomiting, delirium. A dose of 5g is considered fatal. Typical products are fats, oils, margarine the HACSG* recommends to avoid it. Not permitted in foods for infants or young children. Typical products are fats, oils, margarine, nuts, instant potato products the HACSG* recommend to avoid it. Not permitted in foods for infants or young children. Typical products are nuts nutritious and non-toxic young children with lactose intolerance may show adverse reactions see 325 see 325 see 325 see 325 occurs naturally in citrus fruits no known adverse effects no known adverse effects no known adverse effects in small quantities no known adverse effects in small quantities no known adverse effects no known adverse effects no known adverse effects

Propyl gallate Octyl gallate Dodecyl gallate Erythorbic acid Sodium erythorbate tertButylhydroquinone Butulated hydroxyanisole Butylated hydroxytoluene Lecithins Sodium lactate Potassium lactate Calcium lactate Ammonium lactate Magnesium lactate Citric acid Sodium citrates Potassium citrates Calcium citrates Tartaric acid Sodium tartrates Potassium tartrates Sodium potassium tartrate

E320 E321 E322 E325 E326 E327 E328 E329 E330 E331 E332 E333 E334 E335 E336 E337

E338 E339 E340 E341 E343 E350 E351 E352 E353 E354 E355 E357 E363 E365 E366 E367 E370 E375

Phosphoric acid Sodium orthophosphates Potassium orthophosphates Calcium orthophosphates Magnesium phosphates Sodium malates Potassium malate Calcium malates Metatartaric acid Calcium tartrate Adipic acid Potassium adipate Succinic acid Sodium fumarate Potassium fumarate Calcium fumarate 1,4-Heptonolactone

no known adverse effects high intakes may upset the calcium/phosphorus equilibrium see 339 no known adverse effects essential minerals no known adverse effects no known adverse effects no known adverse effects no known adverse effects seems safe no known adverse effects no known adverse effects not permitted in some countries no known adverse effects no known adverse effects no known adverse effects not permitted in some countries

Niacin vitamin B3 Tri-ammonium may interfere with liver and pancreas function E380 citrate Ammonium ferric essential mineral E381 citrates Calcium disodium not permitted in some countries E385 EDTA * Hyperactive Children's Support Group, substance may cause allergic reactions

FOOD ADDITIVE CODE BREAKER - VEGETABLE GUMS, EMULSIFIERS, STABILISERS, etc.


No. E400 E401 E402 E403 E404 E405 E406 E407 E410 E412 E413 E414 E415 E416 E420 E421 E422 E432 E433 E434 E435 E436 Name
Alginic acid Sodium alginate Potassium alginate Ammonium alginate Calcium alginate Propylene glycol alginate Agar Carrageenan Locust bean gum Guar gum Tragacanth Acacia Xanthan gum Karaya gum Sorbitol Mannitol Glycerin Polysorbate 20 Polysorbate 80 Polysorbate 40 Polysorbate 60 Polysorbate 65

Comments
no known adverse effects in small quantities. Large quantities can inhibit the absorption of some nutrients see 400 see 400 see 400 see 400 no known adverse effects see 400 seems quite safe in small quantities no known adverse effects in small quantities, may lower chlesterol levels see 410 possible contact allergy possible allergen, soothes irritations of mucous membranes no known adverse effects possible allergen not permitted in foods for infants and young children, can cause gastric disturbance. Typical products are dried fruits, confectionary, pastries, low caorie foods possible allergen, may cause nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea. Typical products are low calorie foods Large quantities can cause headaches, thirst, nausea and high blood sugar levels. Typical products are liquers, confectionary, dried fruit, low calorie foods not permitted in some countries may increase the absorption of fat-soluble substances not permitted in some countries see 433

see 433 Large quantities may cause temporary flatulence or intestinal Pectin E440(a) discomfort Amidated pectin no known adverse effects E440(b) possible allergen, may contain 220, asthmatics and people Gelatine E441 allergic to sulphites beware!!!!! no known adverse effects E442 Ammonium phosphatides Sodium and potassium High intakes may upset the calcium/phosphate equilibrium E450 polyphosphates Powdered cellulose no adverse effects known E460

E461 E463

Methylcellulose Hydroxypropyl-cellulose

can cause flatulence, distension, intestinal obstruction not permitted in some countries

E464 E465 E466 E469 E470 E471 E472 E473 E474 E475 E476 E477 E480 E481 E482 E483 E491 E492 E493 E494 E495

Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose methylethylcellulose Sodium carboxymethylcellulose Sodium caseinate salts of fatty acids Mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids fatty acid esters of glycerol Sucrose esters of fatty acids Sucroglycerides Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids Polyglycerol polyricinoleate Propylene glycol esters of fatty acids Dioctyl sodium sulphosuccinate Sodium stearoyl-2lactylate Calcium stearoyl-2lactylate Stearyl tartrate Sorbitan monos tearate Sorbitan tristearate Sorbitan monolaurate Sorbitan mono-oleate Sorbitan monopalmitate

no known adverse effects no known adverse effects no known adverse effects no known adverse effects not permitted in some countries no known adverse effects no known adverse effects no known adverse effects not permitted in some countries no known adverse effects no known adverse effects no known adverse effects awaiting results of studies no known adverse effects no known adverse effects not permitted in some countries no known adverse effects may increase th absorption of fat-soluble substances not permitted in some countries not permitted in some countries not permitted in some countries

FOOD ADDITIVE CODE BREAKER - (E500-E597)


No. E500 E501 E503 E504 E507 E508 E509 E510 E511 E513 E514 E515 E516 E518 E519 E524 E525 E526 E527 E528 E529 E530 E535 E536 E540 E541 E542 E544 E545 E551 E552 E553(a) E553(b) E554 Name
Sodium carbonades Potassium carbonates Ammonium carbonates Magnesium carbonate Hydrochloric acid Potassium chloride Calcium chloride Ammonium chloride Magnesium chloride Sulphuric acid Sodium sulphate Potassium sulphate Calcium sulphate Magnesium sulphate Copper sulphate Sodium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide Calcium hydroxide Ammonium hydroxide Magnesium hydroxide Calcium oxide Magnesium oxide Sodium ferrocyanide Potassium ferrocyanide Dicalcium diphosphate Sodium aluminium phosphate Bone phosphate Calcium polyphosphates Ammonium polyphosphates Silicon dioxide Calcium silicate Magnesium silicates

Comments
no known adverse effects in small quantities no known adverse effects irritant to mucous membranes medically used as an antacid and laxative safe in small quantities large quantities can cause gastric ulceration no known adverse effects should be avoided by people with impaired liver or kidney function. Typical products are flour products magnesium is an essential mineral not permitted in some countries may upset the body's water balance no known adverse effects no known adverse effects a laxative essential mineral not permitted in some countries not permitted in some countries no adverse effects in small quantities not permitted in some countries not permitted in some countries safe in small quantities not permitted in some countries no adverse effects known low toxicity not permitted in some countries not permitted in some countries no known adverse effects not permitted in some countries not permitted in some countries no adverse effects are known in food use no known adverse effects, antacid not permitted in some countries

Talc Sodium aluminium silicate

has been linked to stomach cancer, typical products are polished rice, chocolate, confectionary Aluminium is known to be neurtoxic

E556 E558 E559 E570 E572 E575 E576 E577 E578 E579

Calcium aluminium silicate Bentonite Kaolins Stearic acid Magnesium stearate Glucono deltalactone Sodium gluconate Potassium gluconate Calcium gluconate Ferrous gluconate

see 554 no known adverse effects no known adverse effects no known adverse effects no known adverse effects in food use no known adverse effects not permitted in some countries no known adverse effects no known adverse effects seems safe in small quantities

FOOD ADDITIVE CODE BREAKER - FLAVOR ENHANCERS, MSG


No. E620 E621 E622 E623 E624 E625 E627 E631 E635 E636 E637 Name Comments

might cause similar problems as MSG(621), young children L-Glutamic acid should avoid it Monosodium glutamate can be an allergen, not permitted in foods for infants and young (MSG) children Monopotassium can cause nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea , abdominal cramps. glutamate Typical products are low sodium salt substitutes Calcium glutamate no known adverse effects Monoammonium Lno known adverse effects glutamate Magnesium di-Lno known adverse effects glutamate Disodiumguanylate not permitted in foods for infants and young children Disodium inosinate Sodium 5'ribonucleotide Maltol Ethyl maltol not permitted in foods for infants and young children not permitted in some countries no known adverse effects no known adverse effects

FOOD ADDITIVE CODE BREAKER - (E900-E1520)


No. E900 E901 E903 E904 E905 E907 E920 E924 E925 E926 E927 E928 E931 E932 E950 E951 E952 E954 E957 E965 E967 E1200 E1201 E1202 E14001450 E1505 E1510 E1517, E1518 E1520 Name
Dimethylpoly-siloxane Beeswaxes Carnauba wax Shellac Paraffins Refined microcrystalline wax L-cysteine and its hydrochlorides Potassium bromate/center> Chlorine Chlorine dioxide Azodicarbonamide Benzol peroxide Nitrogen Nitrous oxide Acesulphane potassium Aspartame Cyclamic acid sacharines Thaumatin Hydrogenated glucose syrup Xylitol Polydextrose Polyvinylpyrrolidone Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone starches Triethyl acetate Ethanol Glycerol acetates Propylene glycol

Comments
no known adverse effects occasionally causes allergic reactions occasionally causes allergic reactions occasionally causes irritations of the skin may inhibit absorption of fats and fat soluble vitamins, mild laxative, there may be a link to bowel cancer. Typical products are dried fruit, confectionary, collagen not permitted in Australia no known adverse effects large quantities can cause nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, pain. Typical products are flour products destroys nutrients, carcinogen, in some areas tab water is contaminated with it, to make it 'safer' to drink. Typical products are flour products well.....basically see 925 not permitted in Australia asthmatics and people with a history of allergies BEWARE, see 210 seems safe seems quite safe in small quantities no known adverse effects artificial sweetener, too many adverse effects possible to list !!! possible carcinogen, not permitted in the USA and UK not too bad in small amounts, I think artificial sweetener; put it that way....the 'acceptable' daily intake has not been specified. mild laxative nobody knows seems safe in small doses no adverse effects known no known adverse effects no known adverse effects part becomes alcohol in the body alcohol seems safe toxic at 'high doses'

Why food additives?


ood additives come in many shapes and sizes and are anything but easy to classify. Many dozens, even hundreds of chemicals find their way into food additives and just about the only thing that can be said about virtually all food additives is that they are anything but natural, in fact, all but a very select few food additives are totally synthetic and, therefore foreign to the body. As a consequence, the body treats these chemical compounds as foreign and doesn't tolerate them very well at all. Quite apart from those food additives that are known to cause allergies, many other food additives interact with both each other and various other chemicals in the foodstuffs they are added to. As a result, we see the plethora of "food allergies", "food intolerances" and "dietary irritants" that affect far to many people today, few, if any of which even existed thirty, twenty, even ten years ago. The simple cause of these problems is the modern reliance on fast, convenient foods and the food additives that make them possible. Quite apart from the fact that these food additives are not natural, very little has been done to establish their safety in normal use and few, if any food additives have EVER been tested in combination! Now, how many foods that contain food additives do you know where their is a single additive (E number). Exactly! Virtually all foods that contain one food additive contain at least two, three, or frequently more than three food additives, yet in virtually every case, they have NEVER been safety tested in combination!

A classic case is the sweetener aspartame*


Sweetener began its somewhat controversial life as a potential cancer therapy. Rejected by the FDA on several previous occasions, aspartame was only finally "approved" (against the advice of their own safety committee!) when the former Chief Executive of the manufacturer, a certain Donald Rumsfeld esq, was given the authority to appoint the new chief of the FDA, whose first act was........to approve aspartame, a dangerous carcinogen, known to be involved in brain cancers and many other health problems. Indeed, in many instances, aspartame is known to be worse than the sugar it replaces! As a result, at least twelve international food manufacturers are now facing an aspartame lawsuit due to the effects of this tremendously toxic, harmful chemical. Another is the popular (at least for food manufacturers) monosodium glutamate (MSG), which has been linked to many disorders from fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome to MS and ADHD. And yet, these dangerous chemicals are allowed to enter our food chain by the very people who are supposed to protect us from the commercial parasites that seek to exploit our health to boost their profits.

Jamal N. Alotaibi Kingdom of Saudi Arabia BS.c Degree of Science in Chemistry King Saud University jamalooo@hotmail.com

www.abareed.com 2009