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CHAPTER 1 Company Background

On-the-job training is the oldest form of training. Prior to the advent of off-site training classrooms, the only practical way of learning a job was working along side an experienced worker in a particular trade or profession as evinced by the practice of apprenticeship during the Middle Ages when master craftsmen passed on skills and knowledge to novices who worked along side them. On-the-job training programs range from formal training with company supervisors to learning by watching. In this sense, the most formal types of on-the-job training are distinct from classroom training largely in that they take place within the firm. I chose the office of the Commission on Election as my training ground to enhance my skills and my knowledge as a stepping stone for my future career. The Commission on Elections main function is to enforce and administer all laws and regulations relative to the conduct of and elections, plebiscite, initiative, referendum, and recall. This will be my training ground to improve my organizational skills as well as my files management skills.

Historical Background
The Commission on Elections (Comelec) was created by a 1940 amendment to the 1935 Constitution of the Philippines. Before the creation of the Comelec, supervision over the conduct of elections was vested by law in the Secretary of Interior. The Secretary of Interior saw to it that local authorities performed the ministerial duties assigned to them by the Election Code. He decides administrative questions concerning elections. The courts, however, exercised exclusive and final jurisdiction over questions affecting the right to vote as well as contested elections of local elective officials. Elections contests involving members of the National Assembly were judged solely by an Electoral Commission composed of three justices of the Supreme Court and six members of the National Assembly. In view, however, of the close official ties between the President and the Secretary of Interior, there was always the danger of a partisan Secretary of the Interior exploiting his powers and influence to ensure the victory of his party at the polls. As a consequence, the Constitution was amended in 1940 to create an independent Commission on Elections, composed of a Chairman and two other members, to take over the functions of the Secretary of the Interior relative to the elections. but since the amendments could not be effective in time for the 1940 elections, the National Assembly, by Commonwealth Act No. 607, created a Commission on Elections, giving thereto the same powers

which the Commission on Elections could have under the amended Constitution. The statutory Commission supervised the conduct of the December 10, 1940 local elections. The constitutional amendment creating the Commission on Elections was finally approved on December 2, 1940. On June 21, 1941, Commonwealth Act No. 657 was enacted reorganizing the Commission on Elections as a constitutional entity. The members of the statutory Commission continued as members of the constitutional Commission. The Chairman and Members of the Commission had a fixed term of nine years each a member being replaced every three years except in the first Commission. They could be removed from office only by impeachment. They were provided with fixed salaries which could neither be increased nor diminished during their term of office. These were safeguards to ensure the independence of the Commission. The administrative control of elections exercised by the Secretary of Interior was transferred to the Commission on Elections. The Commission was vested with the exclusive charge of enforcing and administering all laws relative to elections and power to decide all questions affecting elections, except those involving the right to vote, which were left to final judicial determination. The courts and electoral tribunals retained their original powers over election contests. The 1973 Constitution enlarged the membership of the Commission from three to nine members but reduced their term of office from nine years to

seven years. As in the 1935 Constitution, the Chairman and Commissioners have staggered terms of office and could be removed from office only by impeachment. First to serve in the Commission on Elections under the 1973 Constitution were former Senator Leonardo B. Perez, as Chairman, and Venacio S. Duque, Flores A. Bayot, Jose M. Mendoza, Fernando R. Veloso, Lininding Pangandaman, Venancio L. Yaneza and Casimiro R. Madarang, Jr. as Commissioners. Commissioner Pangandaman, the first Muslim Commissioner of the Comelec, was appointed Ambassador by President Ferdinand Marcos even before the expiration of his term. His unexpired term was taken over by Commissioner Hashim R. Abubakar. On May 17, 1980, Chairman Perez (who was later appointed Minister on Political Affairs by President Marcos) and Commissioners Duque and Bayot, after completing their seven-years term, retired. Commissioner Santiago succeeded Perez, and the following were appointed Commissioners: Domingo C. Pabalete; Victorino A. Savellano; Jaime C. Opinion; Noli Sagadraca; Romeo Firme: Luis Lardizabal and Ide C. Tillah. With Commissioner Lardizabal the membership of the Commission was thus increased to eight, one short of the full complement of nine. Upon the retirement of Commissioners Firme, Tillah and Lardizabal on May 17, 1983 the Commission on Elections was composed of only five members.

On March 21, 1983, two new members were appointed by President Marcos, namely: Froilan Bacungan and Ramon H. Felipe, Jr. With the retirement of Chairman Santiago and Commissioners Pabalete and Sagadraca on May 17, 1984, Savellano was appointed Chairman. Three new members were appointed on July 27, 1985, namely: Commissioners Quirino A. Marquinez, Mangontawar Guro and Mario D. Ortiz. On January 31, 1986 Commissioners Ruben C. Agpalo and Jaime Layosa were appointed to finally complete the required membership of nine. After the tumultuous February 7, 1986 snap elections and the People Power Revolution, Chairman Savellano and all the Commissioners of the Comelec tendered their courtesy resignations which, except those of Commissioners Bacungan and Felipe, were accepted by President Corazon C. Aquino. On April 11, 1986 Commissioner Felipe was appointed Acting Chairman. On July 23, 1986 he took his oath of office as permanent Chairman, together with Commissioners Leopoldo Africa, Haydee Yorac, Andres Flores, Anacleto Badoy, and Dario Rama as members of the "new" Commission on Elections. On February 15, 1988 Hilario G. Davide, Jr., was appointed Chairman with Alfredo E. Abueg, Jr., Haydee B. Yorac, Leopoldo L. Africa, Andres R. Flores, Dario C. Rama and Magdara B. Dimaampao as Commissioners. Commissioner Haydee B. Yorac was appointed as Acting Chairman when

Hilario G. Davide, Jr. was appointed Chairman of the Presidential Fact Finding Commission in December 1989, pursuant to Administrative Order No. 146. On June 6, 1991 Christian Monsod was appointed by President Aquino as Chairman of the Commission to serve the unexpired term of Davide. When Monsod retired on February 15, 1995 President Fidel V. Ramos appointed Court of Appeals Justice Bernardo Pardo as Chairman of the Commission. Pardo's term was cut short when he was appointed by President Joseph Estrada as Associate Justice of the Supreme Court in October 1998. Commissioner Luzviminda Tancangco was appointed Acting Chairman of the Commission. On January 11, 1999 President Estrada appointed Sandiganbayan Justice Harriet Demetriou as Chairman of the Commission. After the events of January 2001 that led to the ouster of President Estrada from power, Demetriou tendered her courtesy resignation which was accepted by President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo. On February 19, 2001 President Arroyo appointed Justice Alfredo Benipayo as Chairman of the Commission. However, the Commission on Appointments did not confirm his appointment due to opposition of some Commissioners led by Luzviminda Tancangco. On June 5, 2002 President Arroyo appointed Metropolitan Manila Development Authority Chairman and former Mandaluyong City mayor Benjamin S. Abalos, Sr. to replace Benipayo.

On January 26, 2008, Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo appointed former Supreme Court Associate Justice Jose Melo, 77, to replace Chair Abalos. The United Opposition (Koalisyon ng Nagkakaisang Pilipino) opposed Melo's appointment. But Melo needs to be confirmed by the Commission on Appointments (CA), so Commissioner Romeo A. Brawner was appointed ad interim Acting Chairman on February 2, 2008 and will stay as Chairman until Melo is confirmed by the CA. On March 25, 2008, former Supreme Court justice Jose Melo was sworn in as new chairman of the Commission on Elections (Comelec) by acting Chair Romeo A. Brawner. Melo's ad interim appointment (Congress is not in session) was sent by the Malacaan to the Commission on Appointments. On May 29, 2008, Romeo A. Brawner died from a massive heart attack. Brawner, appointed to the Comelec to replace the controversial Virgilio Garcillano, was supposed to end his term on February 2, 2011. Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, on July 2, 2008, appointed former Acting Judge (Br. 74, RTC, Malabon) Leonardo Leonida and retired Justice of the Court of Appeals Lucenito Tagle as Commissioners of the Commission on Elections. On November 7, 2008, President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo has appointed Armando Velasco, as new election commissioner, and reappointed bypassed Commissioners Leonardo L. Leonida and Lucenito N. Tagle. Eduardo Ermita stated "Velasco replaced Comelec commissioner and former

Iligan City Judge Moslemen Macarambon, Jr. whose appointment had been bypassed several times by the Commission on Appointments (CA)."

Functions of the Commission

Under the Constitution, the Commission on Elections is independent of the Executive, Legislative and Judicial branches of the Philippine Government. It has the following functions: Judicial Functions

to exercise exclusive jurisdictions over all contests relating to the elections, returns, and qualifications of all elective regional, provincial and city officials and appellate jurisdiction over all contests involving all municipal officials decided by trial courts of general jurisdiction;

to decide, except those involving the right to vote, all questions affecting elections, including determination of the number and location of polling places, appointment of election officials and inspectors, and registration of voters;

to file petitions in court for inclusion or exclusion of voters; and to investigate and, where appropriate, prosecute cases of violations of election laws, including acts or omissions constituting election fraud, offenses and malpractices.

Ministerial Functions

To enforce and administer all laws and regulations relative to the conduct of and elections, plebiscites, initiatives, referendum, and recalls.


to deputize, with the concurrence of the President of the Philippines, law enforcement agencies and instrumentalities of the Government, including the Armed Forces of the Philippines, for the exclusive purpose of ensuring free, orderly, honest, peaceful credible elections;

to register political parties, organizations or coalitions and accredit citizens' arms of the Commission.

Reportorial Function

To submit to the President and the Congress a comprehensive report on the conduct of each election, plebiscite, initiative, referendum, or recall.

Recommendatory Functions

To recommend to Congress the enactment of effective measures to minimize election spending including limitation of places where propaganda materials shall be posted, and to prevent and penalize all forms of election frauds, offenses, malpractices, and nuisance candidates; and

to recommend to the President the removal of any officer of employee it has deputized, or the imposition of any other disciplinary action, for violation or disregard of, or disobedience to its directive, order, or decision.

Other Functions

To perform other functions as may be provided by law, including fiscal autonomy.


Organizational Structure


The Commission is under the over-all control of the Chairman and the Commissioners, who constitute the policymaking body that lays down the guidelines and regulations for elections, referenda, plebiscites, initiatives and recalls. The Commission sits either en banc or in two divisions in order to expedite disposition of election cases including pre-proclamation controversies.

The Chairman is the Chief Executive of the Commission. Under him is the Executive Director (ED) whose duty is to implement policies and decisions and to take charge of the administrative affairs of the Commission. Assisting the Executive Director are two deputies: a Deputy Executive Director for Administration (DEDA) and a Deputy Executive Director for Operations (DEDO).

In the field, there are 16 Regional Election Directors (RED), 80 Provincial Election Supervisors (PES), 1,646 Election Officers (EO) and their staffs. The election officers are based in every city and municipality. Their main function is to supervise the conduct of electoral activities within their areas of responsibility as field representatives of the Commission.

In the central office, there are ten departments, with their corresponding divisions, namely: the 1. Administrative Services Department (ASD), a. Cash Division


b. Property Division c. Data Processing Division d. General Services Division e. Internal Records Division f. Library Division 2. Election and Barangay Affairs Department (EBAD), a. Precincts Division b. Registration Division 3. Electoral Contests Adjudication Department (ECAD), a. First and Second Division b. Judicial Records Division 4. Education and Information Department (EID), a. Information Division b. Public Relations Division 5. Election Records and Statistics Department (ERSD), a. Records and Statistics Division (RSD) b. National Central File Division (NCFD) c. Voters Identification Division (VID) 6. Finance Services Department (FSD), a. Budget Division b. Accounting Division c. Voucher Processing Division 7. Law Department, a. Investigation and Prosecution Division (IPD) b. Legal Opinion and Research Division (LORD)

8. Personnel Department, a. Personnel Division b. Manpower Development Division c. Health Services Division 9. Planning Department, a. Planning and Programming Division b. Management Systems Development Division c. Management Information System Division 10. Information Technology Department (ITD). a. Systems and Programs Division b. Systems and Operations Division c. Management Information System Division Other offices include the: 1. Office of the COMELEC Secretary, 2. Office of the Clerk of Court, and the 3. Internal Audit Office


CHAPTER 2 Practicum of Narrative Experiences


Practicum Orientation
Before students where deployed in different business organizations for their on-the-job-training, orientation in school was conducted by Mr. Florante Bardon, Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences. He gave an initial clear overview to the students about the real scenario or situation in the real fields of their prospective careers. He focused his talked in different aspects of Onthe-Job Training such as:

Rules and regulations Duties and responsibilities Safety measures Duration period of the training During the first day of my of my on-the-job training at the Commission

on Election, the assistant of the election officer assisted me on the jobs that I will be doing in the entire duration of my training.


Over-all Program Objectives

The objectives of the on-the-job-training are as follows: Fill areas of gaps with knowledge and skills, and change all negative attitudes to positive attitude.

To facilitate students to apply and contribute knowledge and ideas towards the solution of specific organizational problems or project tasks.

To enhance the academic program by bridging the gap between theory and practice.

To emphasize to the students the importance of being able to follow directions, pay attention to details, and accept supervision.

To foster an understanding in students of the benefits and responsibilities


Importance of the On-The-JobTraining

On the Job training is rather important. How can employees be expected to do a job without being trained for it? They have to learn what is expected of them and what they can expect from the job. It gives student an opportunity to ask questions and to practice what they have been taught. It also gives the supervisors a chance to become familiar with the trainees and to gain some insight into their potential. Training is the process of acquiring knowledge and skills. It ensures that workers are better able to perform their jobs. Students learn discipline, organization, and people skills while they train out in the workforce. Since on-the-job training is supervised by real employees in real-life work situations, anything can happen, and students must learn "on their feet". Sometimes, this sink or swim method of learning can be quite beneficial. Students will adjust to working, and they will gain invaluable experience that they can take with them as they move forward with future careers and education.


Practicum Experiences
The entire journey of my on-the-job-training provided me opportunities to go t h r o u g h t h e a c t u a l m e t h o d o l o g i e s o f a s p e c i f i c j o b u s i n g t h e r e a l t o o l s , equipments and documents. In effect, the workplace becomes a development venue for me as a t trainee to learn more about my chosen field and practice what I have learned in school. I have acquired experiences and knowledge that I can use in my future job. Overall, the on-the-job-training experience became one of my keys to become successful in my chosen field when I graduate.


Scope of Work
The main function of the Commission on Election is to exercise exclusive jurisdictions over all contests relating to the elections, returns, and qualifications of all elective regional, provincial and city officials and appellate jurisdiction over all contests involving all municipal officials decided by trial courts of general jurisdiction. Several of the major jobs of the Municipal Comelec Office are distributing the voters id of the constituents of Malilipot, validating the list of registered voters and registration of non registered voters. The assigned jobs for me are as follows: Assist clients Locate names of clients acquiring voters id Stack files Other duties that may be assigned by the supervisor

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Objective of Work to be Accomplished

The objectives of the work to be accomplished are as follows: 1. To help the supervisor and his assistant in their daily tasks 2. To make sure that the duties given to me are properly executed 3. To learn from the duties and responsibilities assigned to me 4. To apply the knowledge and skills that Ive learned in school

Contribution of the Work to the Company

Since the next election will be in 2013, there are lots of works to be accomplished in the Commission of Election office. Being a trainee in the said office, Ive been an additional workforce, thus making the everyday jobs in the office a lot easier and convenient for the supervisor and for his assistants because I can do the easy jobs for them so that they can be more productive.

Chapter 3 Evaluation of Experiences


Insights Gained from All Phases of On-The-JobTraining

As the trainee was working at the Commission on Election, he learned to work hard and strive harder. The on-the-job-training is indeed a very useful program for students to show and develop the skills they have and to develop themselves into the type of professional they all should be. During the OJT, the trainee learned to interact with other people more than in school. Although people differ, making friends with the staff is not difficult. By interacting with them, the trainee learned to work with patience. The training inside the agency is learning experience each day. The trainee learned to appreciate the lessons studied in school. He was able to realize the importance of theories and formulas that were discussed inside the classroom, and also to understand that everything that was taught at school can be a weapon to be used in the future career.


Problems Encountered
The first problem that was encountered by the trainee was how to get along with the staffs in the office. The other thing is that the office was not that big to accommodate numerous clients as a result, the office cannot serve a large number of clients at the same time.

Solutions Offered
The trainee did his best to be friendlier to the staff. When there are many clients to be served, the trainee makes sure that first come first serve basis is observed and only three to five clients at a time are allowed to enter the office to accomplish their transaction.


The trainee realized that learning is a lifetime commitment that will continue even when you already have a job. The training served as a stepping stone, it served as the beginning of a real life scenario of having a job. The training gave the students more initiative and acquired many things that can help them in their chosen field. The trainee developed camaraderie, and cooperation among the employees and the people of the office. I therefore conclude that having a requirement such as On-the-job Training will help the students to boost their knowledge and skills. On-thejob Training is a very effective way of developing trainees to explore their intellectual ability.


On the job Training are part of a college curriculum that aims to train and orient students about the work and their future career. OJT is very important not only to teach students their chosen career but to show students the reality about working. The reasons why OJT should not be taken for granted are as follows:

Aside from the high evaluation grade that you will receive from the employer, the employer may absorbed or offer you a job after graduation.

Your background OJT experience is very important when applying a job. Employers often asked about the OJT experience and how it is related on the job that you are applying for.

The OJT experience that you have can land you a great job. Your superior in the company that you are working for as an OJT may recommend your skills to the company affiliates or to other company that he/she knows.

OJT will be your training ground. If you still have no idea on what is meant to be a worker, OJT will give you at least 10% of career realities.


The company that you are currently applying in often makes a background check to successful applicants. If you have included your OJT adviser or employer in your character references, the company may contact them to ask information about your skills and knowledge as their student or intern.

You can consider your OJT experience as your guide on your first days at work, especially if your OJT and current work are related. You can use your experience and observation as an OJT to your current job if you still have issues on adjustments.


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