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Physics 5D - Heat, Thermodynamics, and Kinetic Theory

Website for this class: http://physics.ucsc.edu/~joel/Phys5D Homework will be posted at the Phys5D website. Solutions are due at the beginning of class. Late homework will not be accepted since solutions will be posted on the class website (password: Maxwell) just after the homework is due, so that students can see how to do the problems while they are still familiar. Course Schedule




Date

1. Sept 27
2. Oct 4
3. Oct 11
4. Oct 18
5. Oct 25
6. Nov 1
7. Nov 8
8. Nov 15
9. Nov 22

10. Nov 29
11. Dec 6

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Topic

Readings 17.1-17.5 17.6-17.10 18.1-18.5 18.6-19.3 19.4-19.9 19.10-20.2 20.3-20.5

Temperature, Thermal Expansion


Ideal Gas Law



Kinetic Theory of Gases, Changes of Phase



Mean Free Path, Internal Energy of Gases

Heat and the 1st Law of Thermodynamics

Heat Transfer; Heat Engines, Carnot Cycle



The 2nd Law of Thermodynamics, Heat Pumps
Midterm Exam (in class, one page of notes allowed)

Entropy, Disorder, Statistical Interpretation of 2nd Law


20.6-20.10

Thermodynamics of Earth and Cosmos; Overview of the Course Final Exam (7:30-10:30 pm, in class, two pages of notes allowed)

Website for homeworks: http://physics.ucsc.edu/~joel/Phys5D

Physics 5D Homework Set #1 Fall 2011


DUE at the beginning of class Tuesday October 4 Questions: 1. Giancoli, Chapter 17, Question 7. 2. Giancoli, Chapter 17, Question 15. Explain your reasoning. To earn full credit on the following problems, you must exhibit the steps that lead to your nal result. The homework grades will be based on the clarity of your method of solution as well as on your nal answer. Problems: 3. Giancoli, Chapter 17, problem 12. 4. Giancoli, Chapter 17, problem 21. 5. Giancoli, Chapter 17, problem 22. General Problems: 6. Giancoli, Chapter 17, problem 62. 7. Giancoli, Chapter 17, problem 66. Derive the formulas for each case (a), (b), and (c). 8. Giancoli, Chapter 17, problem 71. 9. Giancoli, Chapter 17, problem 78.
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Giancoli - Chapter 17 Temperature, Thermal Expansion, and the Ideal Gas Law

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17-1 Atomic Theory of Matter


Atomic and molecular masses are measured in unified atomic mass units (u). This unit is defined so that the carbon-12 atom has a mass of exactly 12.0000 u. Expressed in kilograms: 1 u = 1.6605 x 10-27 kg. Brownian motion is the jittery motion of tiny flecks in water; these are the result of collisions with individual water molecules.
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17-1 Atomic Theory of Matter


solids

On a microscopic scale, the arrangements of molecules in solids (a), liquids (b), and gases (c) are quite different.

liquids

gases
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Thermometers are instruments designed to measure temperature. In order to do this, they take advantage of some property of matter that changes with temperature. Early thermometers: History of thermometers: Galileo thermoscope 1593 Daniel Fahrenheits
alcohol thermometer 1709 mercury thermometer 1714

Anders Celsius Lord Kelvins absolute scale


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1742 1848

17-2 Temperature and Thermometers


Common thermometers used today include the liquid-in-glass type and the bimetallic strip.

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17-2 Temperature and Thermometers


Temperature is generally measured using either the Fahrenheit or the Celsius scale. The freezing point of water is 0C, or 32F; the boiling point of water is 100C, or 212F TF F = 32 F + 1.8 TC TK = TC + 273.15 K Absolute zero = 0 K
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= 273.15 C

17-2 Temperature and Thermometers


A constant-volume gas thermometer depends only on the properties of an ideal gas, which we will see do not change over a wide variety of temperatures. Therefore, it is used to calibrate thermometers based on other materials.

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17-3 Thermal Equilibrium and the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics


Two objects placed in thermal contact will eventually come to the same temperature. When they do, we say they are in thermal equilibrium. The zeroth law of thermodynamics says that if two objects are each in equilibrium with a third object, they are also in thermal equilibrium with each other.

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17-4 Thermal Expansion


Linear expansion occurs when an object is heated.

Here, is the coefficient of linear expansion.

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17-4 Thermal Expansion

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17-4 Thermal Expansion


Volume expansion is similar, except that it is relevant for liquids and gases as well as solids:

Here, is the coefficient of volume expansion. For uniform solids, 3.

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Railroad trains go clickety-clack because: A. steel rails cannot be manufactured longer than a certain length. B. spaces have to be left between sections of rail to account for thermal expansion. C. the sound is artificially produced to help passengers go to sleep.
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17-4 Thermal Expansion


Conceptual Example 17-6: Opening a tight jar lid. When the lid of a glass jar is tight, holding the lid under hot water for a short time will often make it easier to open. Why?

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Does a hole in a piece of metal get bigger or smaller when the metal is heated? A. Bigger, because the distance between every two points expands. B. Smaller, because the surrounding metal expands into the hole.

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Does a hole in a piece of metal get bigger or smaller when the metal is heated? A. Bigger, because the distance between every two points expands B. Smaller, because the surrounding metal expands into the hole.

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17-4 Thermal Expansion


Example 17-7: Gas tank in the Sun. The 70-liter (L) steel gas tank of a car is filled to the top with gasoline at 20C. The car sits in the Sun and the tank reaches a temperature of 40C (104F). How much gasoline do you expect to overflow from the tank?

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17-4 Thermal Expansion


Example 17-7: Gas tank in the Sun. The 70-liter (L) steel gas tank of a car is filled to the top with gasoline at 20C. The car sits in the Sun and the tank reaches a temperature of 40C (104F). How much gasoline do you expect to overflow from the tank? Answer: The coefficient of volume expansion of gasoline is = 0.00095/C, so the expansion of the gasoline is V = V0 T = (0.00095/C) (70 L) 20C
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= 1.3 L

17-4 Thermal Expansion


Water behaves differently from most other solidsits minimum volume occurs when its temperature is 4C. As it cools further, it expands, as anyone who leaves a bottle in the freezer to cool and then forgets about it can testify. Volume Density

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When water above 4 C is heated, the buoyant force on an object of constant volume immersed in it A. increases. B. is unchanged. C. decreases.

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When water above 4 C is heated, the buoyant force on an object of constant volume immersed in it A. increases. B. is unchanged. C. decreases, since Galileo Thermo meter

FB = weight of displaced fluid


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17-5 Thermal Stresses


A material may be fixed at its ends and therefore be unable to expand when the temperature changes. It will then experience large compressive or tensile stressthermal stresswhen its temperature changes. The force required to keep the material from expanding is found from:

where E is the Youngs modulus* of the material. Therefore, the stress is: *Giancoli 12-4

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