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Solid waste management the case of Kebele 08/15 (Yeka sub city)

1/ ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
First our gratitude and deep aspiration goes to our instructor Ato Feyira A. who have helped and encouraged us in carrying out solid waste management practically by performing this project by giving us directions upon the preparation of the solid waste management in case of kebele 08/25 in Yeka sub city. Next our special thanks goes to 08/15 kebele administration and other offices in that kebele like office of woman affairs, health office, and small scale enterprises who participating in house to house solid waste collection and some of the communities giving us information about waste management. Finally, we also thank the institute of urban development studies for their best support delivered to us in carrying out this project.

ECSC, Engineering 1

IUDS,

Department of urban

Solid waste management the case of Kebele 08/15 (Yeka sub city)

2. INTRODUCTION
Solid wastes are all the wastes rising from human and animal activities that are normally solid and discarded as useless or unwanted (George 1993). In the 18 centuries the disposal of human and other waste did not pose a significant problem at that time (Zeresenay, 2002). The population was small and the amounts of land available for the assimilation for wastes were large. A technology approach to solid waste management began to develop in the later part of the 19th century and technological advancement in continuing the development of garbage grinders, composition trucks, and pancreatic collection systems. These days the solid waste, which is becoming more heterogeneous and complex, is adding up on its negative effective from time with civilization. The complex it become the more dangerous it turns out before mankind and environment in terms of health and habitability as a whole (Areda, 2000). In the developing countries like Africa and urban population has been growing at a faster rate. This increasing population in urban areas needs better and adequate service. However, municipalities are unable to meet the demand because of in adequate revenue and the weak technical capacity they have. Even though the problem of urban environment in Ethiopia is felt almost in all major urban centers to a varying degree, it is more pronounced in Addis Ababa.

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IUDS,

Department of urban

Solid waste management the case of Kebele 08/15 (Yeka sub city)

2.1. BACKGROUND Since Addis Ababa is the capital city of Ethiopia, enjoys a mid Afro-Alpine climate with an average temperature of 16C0, diplomatic capital for Africa (OAU, ECA), regional head quarters like UNDP, UNICEF, UNICEF, UNHCR, FAO,ILF, ICO, and ITU. The population of the city is 3035,135 live in 10 subcities1 and 204 kebels divided for administrative purpose. It is center for modern economic and social activities that infrastructure services are found relatively in better situation than other cities of Ethiopia. However their development is too slow to meet the demands of the increasing population due to both natural growth and rural urban migration. In particular, the complete inadequacy of the dry waste management is major environmental problem in Addis Ababa. The daily waste generation is estimated 0.252kg/capita/day. The current daily waste generation of the city is 2,297m 3 or 851 tones. Of municipal waste per day, 65 % (1,482m 3) is collected (Addis Ababa city SBPDA, 2003). The remaining 35 per cent of waste is disposed off through informal means, except smaller percentage going to incineration and dumped on open sites, drainage channels, rivers and valleys as well as on the streets. The rivers are widely used as disposal sites. As simple observation around rivers bank indicates, large percentage of the uncontrolled waste goes to the rivers. Although the hygiene and environmental sanitation regulation issued by the Addis Ababa city administration (Pro.No.1,1994) prohibits people from disposing waste along roads, avenues, rivers, ponds, means for disposal. The rapid population growth rate of 3.8 per cent is also resulting in a rise of approximately 5 per cent of urban waste generation (Addis Ababa City
1

and other sites, the

regulation is continuously violated by the people due to lack of alternative

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IUDS,

Department of urban

Solid waste management the case of Kebele 08/15 (Yeka sub city)

Administration, 1998). This implies that if the current waste collection and disposal capacity is not matched with the growing generation. These environmental problems also have socio-economic consequences. Poor environmental quality of cities can deprive citizens of a good quality of life as it affects their health and consequently, adversely affect productivity and economic development (Geenhuizen and Van Nijkamp, 1995). Inadequate municipal and industrial dry waste collection and disposal creates a range of environmental problems in Addis Ababa. A considerable amount of waste ends up in open dumps or drainage system, threatening both surface water and ground water quality and causing flooding, which provides a breeding ground for diseases - carrying pests. Open air burning of waste, spontaneous combustion in landfills, and incinerating plants that lack effective treatment for gas emissions are causing air pollution. The situation is making worse in slums where households cannot make use of garbage collection containers. Lack of the most basic solid waste services in crowded, low-income neighbors is a major contributor to the high morbidity and mortality among the urban poor. The adverse effect of inadequate solid waste service on productivity and economic development of the city expected to be significant. As effort to improve dry waste management, the city administration has transferred the service provision of dry waste management to the newly established Addis Ababa City Sanitation, Beatification and Park Development Agency (since January 2003), with objective to make the city naturally balanced, green and favorable environment through integrated management and urban recreational area development.

ECSC, Engineering 4

IUDS,

Department of urban

Solid waste management the case of Kebele 08/15 (Yeka sub city)

Yeka subcity administration is one of the sub city that make up Addis Ababa city administration. Yeka covers an area of 56.04 Sq.Kms, and it has 11 kebele administration. Kebele 08/15 which is our study area one of 11 kebeles in Yeka sub city. The Kebele covers an area of 5.7 Sq.Kms and has an estimated population concentration more than 45,000.

2.2. STATMENT OF THE PROBLEM


ECSC, Engineering 5 IUDS, Department of urban

Solid waste management the case of Kebele 08/15 (Yeka sub city)

The total amount of waste to be collected per annum is set to be 65% of the total volume generated in a year, 35% uncollected every year. Any person while walking on the city corner all public spaces like road sides and open space, eye caching piles of garbage, flying festal (which is increasingly used for packaging ), rubbish, construction, demolition and moved earth from new construction sites, littering, affect the urban space indefinitely. In practice 85% of the waste is collected through the container system. Although the objective is to service every 2-3days, besides, some households are located 1 km away from their closest container that people tend to through their waste in sewer and ditches. All solid waste collected by the municipality to single land fill, Repi dumping site 40 years old (located south of the city ) that is provided to be difficult to prevent scavengers from scratching through hazardous waste.

The efficiency of this method is limited because of the capacity of the city council to organize adequate number of vehicles and waste containers, which in term has direct relationship with revenue generation of the city. More over the city council is mainly sole responsible for its management. However, being responsible doesnt require the government to perform the service with its own human resources and equipment. A.A City Administration may choose to arrange of Recently 74 micro and small
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Solid waste management the case of Kebele 08/15 (Yeka sub city)

enterprises are engaged primary collector house to municipal container improved collection of waste and created job for job less youths. All problems discussed above are almost faced in our study area of Yeka sub city Kebele 08/15. 2.3. OBJECTIVE 2.3.1. GENERAL OBJECTIVE The general objective of the study is to assess the extent and coverage of solid waste managements in Yeka sub city kebele 08/15 in addition to the role of small and micro enterprise and their contribution and to come up with policy recommendations.

2.3.2. SPECIFIC OBJECTIVE 1. Identifying the extent and coverage of solid waste management in the kebele. 2. Assessing the existence managerial capacity of kebele for the provision of solid waste management 3. To assess the level of solid waste management at house hold level. 4. To evaluate the contribution and roles of small and micro enterprises in solid waste management in the case of keble 08/15 and to assess problems regarding the collector and come up with some appropriate recommendation. 5. To determine the possible areas of community participation in solid waste management.

ECSC, Engineering 7

IUDS,

Department of urban

Solid waste management the case of Kebele 08/15 (Yeka sub city)

6. To analyze the common steps in solid waste services delivery practice. 7. To analyze the recommended possible major measures to alleviate solid waste management problem. 8. To assess the quantity and composition of the solid waste in Yeka sub city kebele 08/15 9. For students who participate in this paper to have a knowledge in a management of solid waste. 2.4. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY Studying the Extent & coverage of solid waste management system Helps to identify some of the major institution problem in the service delivery of Yeka sub city Kebele 08/15. The finding of the study is significant for the following reasons. 1. The Yeka sub city and the Kebele 08/15 adminstration can use the findings of this paper for designing a more effective method of solid waste management system. 2. This study can help private institutions to engage in the delivery of this service. 3. NGOs who have interest in assisting yeka sub city Kebele 08/15 with financial and technical support in the areas of solid waste management, can use the study as reference for their objective. 4. The study finding can initiate other research further similar services. 5. The study will highlight the role of the different stake holders and the extent to which they have by active in addressing the waste management problem.

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IUDS,

Department of urban

Solid waste management the case of Kebele 08/15 (Yeka sub city)

2.5. SCOP OF THE STUDY The study is limited to Yeka sub city kebele 08/15 of A.A city administration. 2.6. LIMITATION OF THE STUDY The shortage of time to study in detail deeply from the community. The absence compiled information and data from kebele administration due to the kebele administrations are organized newly. These cause the administrators, experts /others not to have the previous information about the keble. The study was conducted using a small sample size. This creates possible problems in performing a detailed analysis. Therefore, this paper is not expected to provide all details of solid waste management of the study area.

2.7. METHOD OF DATA GAZERING Internet browsing, Assessing written documents, researches letters, literatures, Interviewing kebele administration and waste collectors, Site investigation and observation, Interviewing the community living in the kebele.

3. REIVEW OF RELATED LITRATURE


3.1. Solid Waste Management Management of solid waste in Addis Ababa is handled by the Solid Waste Management Team, in the Environmental Health Department of Region 14
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Solid waste management the case of Kebele 08/15 (Yeka sub city)

Health Bureau. The Team is responsible for arranging collection and disposal of waste, street cleaning and organizing sanitation operations. It could be defined as the discipline associated with the country of generation, storage, collection, transfer and transport, processing and disposal of solid waste in according with the best principle of public health, economic, engineering, conservation, aesthetics and other environmental consideration. 3.2. DEFFINTIONS Domestic waste: Wastes produced from households activities including food preparation, cleaning and fuel burning plus garden waste old clothes and furniture, obtained equipment, packaging and news sprint. In lower income, countries domestic, waste is dominated largely by food ad ash wastes, while in middle and higher income countries there is a large proportion of paper, plastic, metal, glass and discarded manufactured items. Commercial waste: Wastes from shop, offices, restaurants, hotels and similar commercial establishments. The waste typically consists of similarity to domestics waste. In lower income countries food markets may contribute large proportion of commercial waste. Institutional wastes: Waste from schools, hospitals, government offices and military bases. Institutional waste is similarly to both domestics and commercial waste, although there is generally a large proportion of paper tat food waste. Hospital wastes inevitable include potentially infectious and hazardous
ECSC, Engineering 10 IUDS, Department of urban

Solid waste management the case of Kebele 08/15 (Yeka sub city)

materials such as used bandage (glove), sharp objects like needle with syringes and items containments with body fluids. It is important to separate hazardous and non hazardous components in health care waste reduce the risk to health. Street sweeping: Dominated by dust and soil, together with carrying amounts paper, metal and other litter that is picked up from the streets. In some countries street sweeping varying amounts of household waste dumping at the side of road, plant remains and animals manure. Construction and demolition waste: The composition depends of the types of building materials used in particular area but is typically soil, stone, back, wood, clay, reinforced concrete and ceramic materials. Inevitably some constriction waste will need disposal, even though some may be recycled within the construction site.

Sanitation waste (Night soil) human waste: Improper disposal of this material can contaminate the surrounding and be a source of infectious disease. Some of the important observable differences include the following: 1. the quantity of waste generation caries with income level 2. the density of waste is much higher in low income countries 3. There is a high proportion of biodegradable vegetable waste in less developed countries.

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IUDS,

Department of urban

Solid waste management the case of Kebele 08/15 (Yeka sub city)

4. The composition of waste different from not only from country to country but also with in a country depending on income level residential and administration area. Waste Generation Waste factor: There is limited information available on waste quantities generated in Ethiopia .A brief review analysis of existing studies on waste generation of solid waste was 0.15kg per day per person with a 1% annual growth rates and approximately waste density of 370kg/m3. But other studies show the precipitate generation is 0.2kg per day per person. Beside on the only available study carried out to date, for A.A (the Louis Berger study) , the percentage composition by weight for combustible materials (leaves, grass, etc) is estimated to be about 22% for non combustible (stone etc) 3%, for fine greater than 10mm size 28% and for recallable materials (paper, wood, metals, plastics, rubber etc) 13%. The organic components of the solid waste of A.A constitute about 66% by weight. The standard waste factors (kg/person/day) for urban and rural areas in Africa countries can be combined with population data to estimate the potential range in waste generation. (Typical estimates for urban waste generated in less developed countries range from 0.2kg to 0.8kg per persons per day). Uncertainty of waste factors There are many sources of uncertainty related to the estimated waste factors including:

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IUDS,

Department of urban

Solid waste management the case of Kebele 08/15 (Yeka sub city)

Waste generation changes with time, particularly as a country develops and the population shift allocation. There is limited information on the type of waste included in the waste factor from the different studies. There is often inconsistency in the point of measurement of waste generation in many rural areas much of the households waste is burned in households and the points of measurement could be before or after stage.

Measurement of waste generation needs to be undertaken over long time periods in order to get a representatives sample.

Moreover, the crowdedness settlement of poor neighborhoods in A.A coupled with lack of the most basic solid waste services could be a major contributor of high morbidity and mortality infants and children,. The address effect of inadequate solid waste service on productivity and economic development of the inhabitants of poor neighborhoods n Addis Ababa including the study sea is expected to be significant.

4.

ANALYSIS OF WASTE MANAGMENT


4.1Collection

Municipal waste collection is handled in three ways: 1. door-to-door, 2. block and

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IUDS,

Department of urban

Solid waste management the case of Kebele 08/15 (Yeka sub city)

3. communal collections using three types of collection vehicles: o Side load trucks, o Closed compacting type trucks, and o Container lift trucks (Environmental Health Department, 1997). 1. Door-to-door collection. In this collection system, which covers less than 15% of the total amount of waste collected in the city, households living along accessible streets dump their waste in the trucks at a specific time in the day. It is used in accessible areas where 8m3 transfer stations are lacking. Trucks should pass 2-3 times per week but because of, it is much less than that. 2. Block collection. The municipality provides 8m3 refuse containers to clients upon their request. Clients using this type of service are: large hotels, enterprises, institutions. 3. Container system: Large 8m3 refuse containers are placed at different sites in the kebeles. Residents are expected to carry and dump their waste in the containers. These containers are taken by municipality trucks to the dump site where they are emptied. Currently, there are around 14 metallic containers distributed in the kebeles . Approximately 76% of the waste collected from residential, 9% from commercial, and 6% from road sides are collected through this system.

ECSC, Engineering 14

IUDS,

Department of urban

Solid waste management the case of Kebele 08/15 (Yeka sub city)

The refuse containers serve the community at large, without any direct charge. It is assumed that they will be filled within 1 - 3 days. In places where containers are filled fast, the intention is to have a servicing once or even twice a day. But in this specific kebele, in practice, refuse containers are emptied every 2-3 days on average. INAPPROPRIATENESS OF THE SYSTEM It is known that the desired walking distance to waste collection points should not exceed 150 m from the housing units, in order for household members, usually women or children, to bring their waste to the collection point. A large majority of households in Kebele live away from accessible roads. For such households, the walking distance to a collection container may reach 0.5 - 1.00 km. It is unrealistic to expect anyone to carry the waste over such a distance. Clearly, the container system is not adapted to households living in congested areas. Other systems have to be devised to solve the waste collection problem in these areas.

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IUDS,

Department of urban

Solid waste management the case of Kebele 08/15 (Yeka sub city)

All the equipment used for collecting waste in Addis Ababa comes from industrialized countries, where the waste characteristics, the climate, the existing infrastructures, and the socio-economic context are different from what is found in Ethiopia or in low-income countries in general. It is not surprising, therefore, that the system does not work efficiently once conditions are not the same. The means and mechanisms for collecting and disposing of waste in Addis Ababa should be based on the reality of the city's environment and its socio-economic context, rather than on practices and equipment used in the developed world. 4.2. Disposing: In the study area, the disposing system is totally facilitated by the Municipality using different trucks when the containers are filled by the household collectors. 4.3. Management: We have seen that all the management system of solid waste is

coordinated by the Kebele administration with different stakeholders by organizing collectors, by teaching the community, by applying different regulation on violators, and other mechanisms.

5. DISCUSSION
5.1. INTRODUCTION
ECSC, Engineering 16 IUDS, Department of urban

Solid waste management the case of Kebele 08/15 (Yeka sub city)

Solid wastes are all the wastes rising from human and animal activities that are normally solid and discarded as useless. Main solid wastes which found in 08/15 kebele are festals, worn-out clothes, shoes, died animals, etc. 5.2. SOURCE OF SOLID WASTE As explained by the kebele administration and responsible bodies, there are many sources of solid waste. The main ones are: Residence solid waste E.g. old cloth and furniture Commercial solid waste e.g. pakaging materials,food waste, chat (geraba)

Institutional solid waste e.g., paper, bandage.

Street solid waste e.g, dust and soil together with varying amount of paper

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IUDS,

Department of urban

Solid waste management the case of Kebele 08/15 (Yeka sub city)

Night soil (human waste). Construction and demolishing waste

Due to shortage of data about the number of each sources i.e., the number of residential houses, the number of hotels etc. we cant predict the amount of waste generation from each source. This is due to the kebele administration is structured in a new arrangement, they didnt have all data about the kebele. 5.3. GENERATION RATE OF SOLID WASTE IN THE KEBELE Even if there is no detail written data about the generation rate of solid waste in the kebele, the kebele administration said that the amount of waste generation is 75 % from household , 17% from street, 6% from hotel and 2% from others. 5.4. STEPS IN SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT AND DELIVERY 5.4.1. COLLECTION 4.4.1.1. Waste collectors In the kebele there are 6 waste collector associations which are organized by the responsible body in the kebele to collect wastes from household. The
ECSC, Engineering 18 IUDS, Department of urban

Solid waste management the case of Kebele 08/15 (Yeka sub city)

association has a total member of 54 of which 8 are males and the rest are females.These bodies collect solid waste from house hold to the containers. And they will be paid by the kebele based on the number of containers they filled.

5.4.1.2. Qorales The term qorale is short for "Korkoro yaleh, or, in English, "Have you gotten any scrap metal?" which is what the young boys shout when going round for collection. These bodies as other kebeles of Addis Ababa, collect different materials that are going to be waste. This facilitate the solid waste collection and management system in the kebele. 5.4.2. Waste Disposal System Generally, sanitation in kebele 08/15 is poor in solid waste specially around Megenagna Taxi Station however this is not an unusual problem which is found only in this kebele it is rather a far flung problem among the other kebele of Addis Ababa. Of course, there are but few clean areas that are found in areas of good housings.
ECSC, Engineering 19 IUDS, Department of urban

Solid waste management the case of Kebele 08/15 (Yeka sub city)

From the site observation, the data we get, and interviews made, solid waste disposed in the following there ways 1. Disposing at any spot which is vacant and in some cases at drainage channels. 2. By paying to house to house collectors disposing at dumpsters. On the other hand, sewage is disposed by: Back filling the used latrine and digging a new one By throwing to stream (Specially those near the stream) Municipal disposal (kebele disposal)

Due to the shortage of containers, carelessness, dishonestness and due to other things, and its vicinity, inhabitants use plastic bags to urinate, wastes of the trashed material and disposed it in the near by open ditch, and around the container. 5.4.3. SOLID WASTE STORAGE In the kebele there are about 14 containers which are used as a temporarily storage of the solid waste which is collected by the collectors the residents.

5.4.4. TRNSPORTATION SYSTEM 5.4.4.1. from HH to container Solid wastes are transported from HH to container by simple pushcart by collector.
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Solid waste management the case of Kebele 08/15 (Yeka sub city)

5.4.4.2. final disposal The solid waste finally transported by: side load trucks, closed compacting type trucks, and container lift trucks

from container to

5.5. MANAGEMENT SYSTEM 5.5.1. ROLE OF ACTORS FROM THE KEBELE ADMINSTRATION Actors in the Kebele level who are responsible for the solid waste management directly and indirectly are as follows. 5.5.1.1. Beauty and Sanitation Processor This department is under Kebele administration, which is responsible for the total waste management in the Kebele. 5.5.1.2. Office of Womens Affair Office of woman affairs are also participate in solid waste management by initiating females from the Kebele to collect solid waste from home to home and put it into the container. Since the office organizes them in a group,it follow up for future carrier. 5.5.1.3. Office of Health
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Solid waste management the case of Kebele 08/15 (Yeka sub city)

As told by the office head the office participate in the solid waste management by giving awareness to the community to collect and put their waste to prevent diseases caused by improper management of wastes in general.

5.5.1.4. Regulatory Body This department is also under the Kebele administration who participates in the solid management of the Kebele. The member of the department goes through the site and visit any illegal activities .They thought to the community no to have any waste up to 20m radius from their house. If this is so; they will be punished according to the proclamation about environmental protection. Due to this the community keeps their surrounding clean even from other neighborhood at the community. 5.5.1.5. Municipality Public sectors The sub city solid waste collection and disposal team play a predominant role in SW transpiration and disposal services by involved directly to these activities. The team has program to transport the waste from each transfer station periodically since the team lack adequate waste trucks in practice they could not perform as they intended. For that reason, the frequency which the containers are pickled is from one to two weeks an average. 5.5.1.6. House to house collectors There are legally established households in yeka sub city. They charge 10 birr per household per package .the scopes of House to house collectors are omitted to collect waste from each households by door to door collection system and discharging it in to communal containers.
ECSC, Engineering 22 IUDS, Department of urban

Solid waste management the case of Kebele 08/15 (Yeka sub city)

5.6. Financial capacity applied to SWM. The Kebele administration collects money from kebele communities 10 birr per house hold and from 2500 households 25000.00 birr is collected to facilitate SWM. The collected money used to pay for house to house collector groups and for loading and unloading trucks. 5.7. Legal considerations of solid waste management One of the objectives of the Ethiopian FDRE constitution (proclamation NO 1(1995) is to ensure the existence of a clean and health environment. It provides that all persons have the right to a clean and healthy environment. Based on the constitution, different proclamation have been drafted by environmental representative. These proclamations are the following: Proclamation for the establishment of environmental protection organ. Environmental pollution control proclamation Environmental pollution impact assessment proclamation Strategic environmental assessment Environmental audit Environmental standard Other laws. protection authority and enacted by the council of

5.7.1. Legal and policy aspects of solid waste management The 1987 E.C federal democratic republic of Ethiopia constitution empowers government to legislate their own regulation and by laws concerning their

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IUDS,

Department of urban

Solid waste management the case of Kebele 08/15 (Yeka sub city)

own affair and this constitution also cover the environmental proclamation under the heading environmental objectives under the article 92. According to this, the kebele is used article No 13/1996 waste

management, collection and disposing to punish individuals who discarded their waste illegally out of containers and storage places. The Kebele uses the format to punish illegal persons who illegally dispose wastes out of storage sites according to the above articles

6. CONCLUSION AND RECOMEDDATION


6.1. CONCLUSION There is no data base for kebele 08/15 on solid waste characteristics which type of community member generates the greatest amount and what is the nature of this waste .But from interviewing with the waste collectors, waste generates from residential and commercial areas dominate in the kebele. The quantity of waste generation is high in high income areas and low in low income areas. Factors affecting solid waste generation in kebele 08/15 include family size of house hold, living standard of inhabitants, type of activity taking place in the house and distance of disposal site. Particularly, family size and income have strong correlation to waste generation. Management of solid waste had given low attention relative to generation of wastes by the kebele due to the following major problems: Financial constraints, Weak institutional organization and management system, Lack of community participation,
IUDS, Department of urban

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Solid waste management the case of Kebele 08/15 (Yeka sub city)

In appropriate location of waste storage containers, Limited number of refuse truck, Absence of involvement of ngos in the waste management programs etc

6.2. RECOMMENDATION On the bases of the above conclusion, we recommend the following strategies to improve SWM system of kebele 08/15.

1. building capacity Emphasis should be given to capacity building of workers under sanitation and public health care team through on job training, experience sharing with other Kebeles. We recommend the respected sub city to provide additional containers lifting truck to improve waste disposal system, because, it is difficult to accomplish waste collection activity and to enhance efficiency of service. develop collection vehicle root on the map for both door to door and container system Reconsidering the distribution of containers in kebele. 2. Practicing policy rules and regulations We recommend to practice consistence and detailed policy on SWM, because, decision making become difficult and bulky and may even lead to

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IUDS,

Department of urban

Solid waste management the case of Kebele 08/15 (Yeka sub city)

in appropriate decision. Therefore, clearly defined implementable policies should be formulated. 3. Increasing the awareness of the community On the importance creating healthy environment and also on the mechanisms of controlling generation of waste at the source , alternation disposal mechanisms and share of responsibilities the public educating women should be given the highest priorities, since in the society cleanness of the family , housing unities and immediate surrounding is responsibilities of women. 4. stake holders participation The provision of SWM at present is responsibility of Kebele. The efforts by NGOs, the private sector role is limited because of the lack of attractive mechanisms designed to manage and integrated partnership and cooperation by Kebele So the Kebele should encourage and participate different NGOs , privet sectors, community organization (Idir,Ekub) and other stakeholders. 5. Introduce ecological waste Mgt. Organize informal recyclers, use waste as the industrial input like bottle factories. Promote composting by initiating small micro interprise, and can be achieved through. Provision of open land for composting. Facilitating access to biodegradable waste agriculture as income generating schame.

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IUDS,

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Solid waste management the case of Kebele 08/15 (Yeka sub city)

Encourage the environmental economical and social advantages of waste segregation, reuse, recycling and composting activities in Kebele 6. Establish additional refuse containers in all direction at accessible site depending on the rate of solid waste generation at Kebele.

7. REFERENCE

Internet browsing, Assessing written documents, researches letters, literatures, Interviewing Solid waste management, Takele Tadese, 2006, Univercity of Gonder

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