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Analysis Of Hydrocarbons 4

Analysis of Hydrocarbons Jennifer Alambra, Ma. Nancy Anulat, Alfonso Apepe*, Jacqueline Arsenal 3Bio4 Department of Biological Sciences - College of Science, University of Santo Tomas, Manila ABSTRACT The unknown hydrocarbon sample was differentiated and characterized by the use of three tests. The outcomes of these tests are as follows: Nitration test (negative), Bromine test (positive) and Basic Oxidation test (positive). From these results the unknown sample can be classified as non-aromatic and unsaturated. INTRODUCTION Hydrocarbons are organic compounds that consist of only C and H atoms. They include the alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, and aromatic hydrocarbons. Because of their relatively non-polarity, all hydrocarbons are insoluble in water. When hydrocarbons burn in sufficient oxygen, carbon dioxide and water are the sole products. The main structural difference among hydrocarbon families is the presence of double or triple bonds between carbon atoms. The alkanes are saturated organic compounds, or those with only single bonds. Unsaturated organic compounds are those which have double or triple bonds. [1] Many common natural substances, e.g., natural gas, petroleum, and asphalt, are complex mixtures of hydrocarbons. The coal tar obtained from coal by coking is also a mixture of hydrocarbons. Natural gas, petroleum, and coal tar are important sources of many hydrocarbons. These complex mixtures can be refined into simpler mixtures or pure substances by fractional distillation. During the refining of petroleum, one kind of hydrocarbon is often converted to another, more useful kind by cracking. Useful hydrocarbon mixtures include cooking gas, gasoline, naphtha, benzene, kerosene, paraffin, and lubricating oils. Many hydrocarbons are useful as fuels; they burn in air to form carbon dioxide and water.

UNKNOWN A NIRATION TEST + Light Yellow Solution with oil 4 Drops Dark Orange + Brown Precipitate 11 Seconds

UNKNOWN B Yellow Orange Solution + 7 Drops Colorless No Precipitate More than 30 Seconds

REFERENCE STANDARDS + Toluene + Yellow Oil / Yellow Solution Cyclohexene + 24 Drops Colorless Toluene + With Brown Precipitate 5 Seconds Cyclohexene Color Brown / No Yellow Oil Hexane 6 Drops Orange Solution Naphthalene Without Brown Precipitate 14 Seconds

BROMINE TEST

BASIC OXIDATION

UNKNOWN A: Alkylated Saturated Aliphatic UNKNOWN B: Non-alkylated Unsaturated Aromatic

Analysis Of Hydrocarbons 2
Analysis of Hydrocarbons Myra Gurango, Geneva Guy, Micah Hernandez* and Joyce Lagarde Department of Chemistry, University of Santo Tomas, Manila, Philippines Abstract The organic compounds hexane, toluene, cyclohexene and naphthalene in hexene were subjected to parallel chemical testing to differentiate their intrinsic physical properties in terms of structure and behavior. The physical state and color were noted by simple physical observation. Nitration Testing was conducted for preliminary parallel testing until a positive result of yellow oil was seen. For the second and final testing, oxidation was done through introducing 3 drops of KMnO4 reagent and 2 drops of 10% NaOH solution to 5 drops of the sample organic compound in a test tube. The identity of the hydrocarbon was determined, thus having naphthalene in hexane as the yielded identity of the given sample. Introduction Hydrocarbons are compounds that contain only carbon and hydrogen atoms. Hydrocarbons may be divided into two large classes namely: Saturated hydrocarbons and unsaturated hydrocarbons. Saturated hydrocarbons are the simplest type of organic compounds. They are hydrocarbons in which all carbon- carbon bonds are single bonds. An example of a saturated hydrocarbon is an alkane. Unsaturated hydrocarbons are hydrocarbons that contain one or more carbon-carbon multiple bonds like double bonds, triple bonds, or both. Saturated and Unsaturated hydrocarbons have similar physical properties, but their chemical properties are different. Unsaturated hydrocarbons are chemically more reactive than saturated ones. This is because of the presence of carbon-carbon multiple bonds in such compounds and these multiple bonds serve as locations were chemical reactions can occur.

Analysis Of Hydrocarbons
Analysis of Hydrocarbons Jessa Grace B. Castillo* and Stephanie Chua Department of Chemistry, University of Santo Tomas, Manila, Philippines ______________________________________________ Hydrocarbons are organic compounds containing only hydrogen and carbons and further divided in major types. Hydrocarbons react differently in reagents. The basis of determining an unknown hydrocarbon is due to the differences in reactions of hydrocarbons. An unknown compound is determined using tests. The unknown gives a positive result in nitration test and gives no brown precipitate in oxidation test. The unknown is an aromatic and nonalkylated compound. _______________________________________________ Introduction: Hydrocarbons are organic compounds that composed of only hydrogen and carbon. There are two major types of hydrocarbons; aliphatic (saturated and unsaturated) and aromatics. Aliphatic compounds are characterized by a continuous or branched chain arrangement aliphatic compounds are subdivided into two; saturated and unsaturated. Saturated hydrocarbons are characterized by single bonds between adjacent carbon atoms. Saturated hydrocarbons are alkanes and cycloalkanes, this compounds are relatively inert and do not react with common laboratory reagents. Alkanes do, however react with oxygen, halogens and other substances under control conditions. All members of alkane series have the general chemical formula CnHn-1. Alkanes are insoluble in water; other physical properties vary with molecular weight. Members C1 to C4 are gasses at room temperature and pressure; C5 to C17 are liquids. Higher members are solids and usually called as paraffin. Cycloalkanes or alicyclic compounds are rings of carbons. Cycloalkanes have a general formula of CnH2n. They are less flexible than the open chains, because open chain molecules can rotate to reduce stress while alicyclic compounds have less freedom of rotation. Larger cycloalkanes have increasingly more rotational...

Category: Science Autor: reviewessays 27 February 2011 Words: 988 | Pages: 4 Analysis of Hydrocarbons Jessa Grace B. Castillo* and Stephanie Chua Department of Chemistry, University of Santo Tomas, Manila, Philippines ______________________________________________ Hydrocarbons are organic compounds containing only hydrogen and carbons and further divided in major types. Hydrocarbons react differently in reagents. The basis of determining an unknown hydrocarbon is due to the differences in reactions of hydrocarbons. An unknown compound is determined using tests. The unknown gives a positive result in nitration test and gives no brown precipitate in oxidation test. The unknown is an aromatic and non-alkylated compound. _______________________________________________ Introduction: Hydrocarbons are organic compounds that composed of only hydrogen and carbon. There are two major types of hydrocarbons; aliphatic (saturated and unsaturated) and aromatics. Aliphatic compounds are characterized by a continuous or branched chain arrangement aliphatic compounds are subdivided into two; saturated and unsaturated. Saturated hydrocarbons are characterized by single bonds between adjacent carbon atoms. Saturated hydrocarbons are alkanes and cycloalkanes, this compounds are relatively inert and do not react with common laboratory reagents. Alkanes do, however react with oxygen, halogens and other substances under control conditions. All members of alkane series have the general chemical formula CnHn-1. Alkanes are insoluble in water; other physical properties vary with molecular weight. Members C1 to C4 are gasses at room temperature and pressure; C5 to C17 are liquids. Higher members are solids and usually called as paraffin. Cycloalkanes or alicyclic compounds are rings of carbons. Cycloalkanes have a general formula of CnH2n. They are less flexible than the open chains, because open chain molecules can rotate to reduce stress while alicyclic compounds have less freedom of rotation. Larger cycloalkanes have increasingly more rotational freedom. In naming saturated compounds, names ends with ane. Unsaturated hydrocarbons on the other hand readily undergo addition reactions and oxidation reactions. Unsaturated Hydrocarbons are characterized by double and triple bonds between adjacent carbon atoms; alkenes and alkynes. Alkenes, often called olefins, have the general formula CnH2n. Alkenes are more chemically active than the saturated hydrocarbons because the double bond is susceptible to attack by other reagents. Systematic names for alkanes are derived by appending the suffix ene to the root name. Rotation around the double bond cannot occur and substituted alkenes can therefore exist as cis-trans stereoisomer. The geometry of the double bond can be specified by application of the Cahn-Ignold-Prelog sequence rule; assigning higher priority with the atom with higher atomic number. Aromatic compounds do not readily undergo addition reactions but are characterized by substitution reactions in which another atom or group of atoms replaces a ring hydrogen. The compounds were named aromatic

because many of them have a strong odor. Aromaticity means a distinctive type of chemical stability or low reactivity because of resonance. According to Huckel 4n + 2 rule, a molecule is aromatic only if it has a total of 4n + 2 π electrons, where n is an integer. Aromatic compounds react with electrophiles to give substitution products, in which cyclic conjugation is retained, rather than addition products, in which conjugation is destroyed. Hydrocarbons react differently in different reagents, there are three known tests that can be used to determine what type of hydrocarbon a molecule is: nitration, basic oxidation and the bromine test. In this experiment, the various types of hydrocarbon were characterized using parallel chemical tests and a scheme was devised to distinguish hydrocarbons from each. Results and Discussion: Hydrocarbons, although all contains only carbon and hydrogen, react differently in reagents due to the difference in properties. The difference in the reactions of hydrocarbons is the basis of determining an unknown hydrocarbon. Parallel chemical test such as nitration test, oxidation and bromine test are used to determine what type of hydrocarbon is a compound. Table 1.1 Results of chemical tests Nitration Test Basic Oxidation Test Bromine Test Hexane 2 Layers: upper layer- clear lower layer-clear Violet Cloudy soln Cylohexane 2 layers: upper layer- clear lower layer- yellow Brown ppt Cloudy soln Cyclohexene Yellow globules Brown ppt Clear Naphthalene Yellow globules Blue green soln, white crystal ppt Clear Toluene 2layers: upper layer-clear lower layer-yellow Blue green Cloudy Unknown Yellow globules Blue green soln, white crystal ppt Clear Nitration is a chemical reaction in which a nitro (=NO2)) group is added to a hydrocarbon compound replacing a hydrogen. In nitration, H2SO4 and HNO3 are reacted with the samples. Simple aromatic hydrocarbon will react with the warm sulfuric acid to form a sulfonic acid which will dissolve and then precipitated when =NO2 is reacted. Yellow globules indicate that a hydrocarbon is aromatics, if no yellow globules are present, the hydrocarbon is aliphatic. In basic oxidation test, a loss of the color purple of the permanganate solution indicates that a reaction has taken place and that the hydrocarbon is unsaturated. The presence of brown precipitate will indicate that the aromatic is alkylated, if no brown precipitate is present the aromatic is non-alkylated.

In bromine test, alkenes and alkynes will readily add bromine across the multiple bonds unless there are electron withdrawing groups on the multiple bond. One observes the rapid disappearance of the red-brown bromine color. Aromatic compounds can react with bromine more slowly to give bromine substitution and the formation of HBr. A colorless solution in bromine test will indicate an unsaturated aliphatic hydrocarbon; a colored solution will indicate a saturated solution. The unknown is positive in nitration test and do not form brown precipitate in oxidation reaction. The unknown is aromatic and non-alkylated. Experimental: A set of standards were prepared and the unknown. The standards are hexane, cyclohexane, cyclohexene, naphthalene and toluene. Five drops of the standards and the unknown were placed in 6 different test tubes. For the nitration test, 8 drops of nitrating agent (1:1 mixture of conc. HNO3: conc H2SO4) were added to each test tubes. The results were noted. The same set up is prepared for the basic oxidation test. In each test tube, 3 drops of 2% KMnO4 and 2 drops of 10% NaOH were added. Observations were noted. The same set up is used in the bromine test. Three drops of Br2 in DCM were added to each test tube, observations were noted. References: March, J. Advanced Organic Chemistry, 4th ed.; Wiley-Interscience: New York, 1992; Chapter 2 Grant, G. H.; Hinshelwood, C.N.J. Chem. Soc., 1933, 258