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Bachelor of Technology Programme ME2114E Mechanics of Materials II

NAME:

A0107520A

LOH ENG ZHI

Objectives Introduction Experimental Procedures Sample Calculations Results (Tables & Graphs) Discussion Conclusion Pg 3 Pg 3 Pg 4 Pg 5 Pg 6 Pg 11 Pg 13

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A0107520A

LOH ENG ZHI

Objectives
To learn the correct sequence to use tensometer, strain-meter, to obtain the bending and torsional stresses results, as well as trouble shooting. To analyze and calculate the bending and shear stresses at the surface of the shaft subjected to both bending and twisting using strain gauge technique. To compare the experimental stresses results with theoretical stresses results, study what the reasons behind will be.

Introduction
Frequently, shaft subjected to both bending and twisting are encountered in real life engineering applications. By applying St.Venants principle and the principle of superposition, the stresses at the surface of the shaft may be analyzed and calculated. To compare and study the experimental results with the theoretical results by using the strain gauge technique are the main purposes of this lab experiment. As the strain gauge technique only determine the states of the strain at about a point. Hooks law equations are also introduced to calculate the stress components. So, the elastic constants of the test material are first determined and recorded during this experiment.

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A0107520A

LOH ENG ZHI

Experiment Procedures
A. Determination of elastic constants 1) Measure the diameter of the tensile test piece (measure the values for a few times, taking the average value) and mount it onto the electronic tensometer. 2) Use a quarter bridge configurations and for each tensile load applied to the test piece, record the longitudinal and transverse strains in order to evaluate the Youngs modulus (E) and Poissons ratio (). B. Combined bending and torsion test 1) Measure the dimensions of the free end of both a and b shaft (measure the values for a few times, taking the average value). 2) Connect the strain gauges to the strain-meter using a bridge configuration and balance all the gauges. 3) Record the strain readings for each loading on the shaft. 4) Compute the stresses from the strain readings. 5) Using a full bridge configuration given, record the strain-meter reading for each applied load.

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Sample Calculations:
Part B Combined Bending and Torsion Test: As we get the values of 1, 2, 3 & 4 from Table 2, we can get the value of a and b with the formula: a = (1 + 4) (2 + 3) b = (1 + 2) (3 + 4) e.g When load P = 0.5kg, a = (1 + 4) (2 + 3) = (24 + 15) x 10-6 (-11 - 23) x 10-6 = 73 x 10-6 b = (1 + 2) (3 + 4) = (24 - 11) x 10-6 (-23 + 15) x 10-6 = 21 x 10-6

Comparing Experimental Stresses & Theoretical Stresses: 1. The Experimental Bending Stress is calculated using the following formula: x = E(1 4) / (1= [(70.1 x 109)( 2415)x10-6] / (1 - 0.3) = 0.901 MPa *While E = 70.1GPa and v = 0.3 which can get from the Graph 1 and Graph 2 2. The Experimental Shear Stress is calculated using the following formula: xy = E(1 2) / 2(1= [(70.1 x 109)( 24+11)x10-6] / [2 x (1 - 0.3)] = 0.944 MPa The Theoretical Bending Stress is calculated using the following formula: x = 32bP / d3 = (32 x 0.1 x 0.5 x 9.81) / [ x (15.86 x 10-3)3] = 1.252 MPa The Theoretical Shear Stress is calculated using the following formula: 3 xy = 16aP / d = (16 x 0.15 x 0.5 x 9.81) / [ x (15.86 x 10-3)3] = 0.939 MPa

3.

4.

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Results (Tables & Graphs):

Part A - Determination of Elastic Constants Diameter of Tensile Test Piece (mm) D1 9.52 D2 9.49 Daverage 9.51 Cross Section Area (mm2) 71.03

Cross Sectional Area, A = d2/4 = (9.512)/4 = 71.03 mm2 Table 1 Load (N) 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 Direct Stress x (MPa) 2.816 5.631 8.447 11.263 14.079 16.894 Longitudinal / Axial Strain, x (10-6) 45 83 122 162 202 244 Transverse Strain, y (10-6) -14 -25 -37 -49 -61 -73

Direct Stress, x = Tensile Load / Cross Sectional Area = 200 N / 71.03 mm2 = 2.816 MPa

Part B - Combined Bending and Torsion Test a 0.15 m Table 2 Load P (kg) 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 Strain (10-6) [Quarter Bridge Configuration] b 0.10 m d (diameter of the shaft) 15.86 x 10-3 m

1
0 24 46 68 90 115 136

2
0 -11 -23 -33 -43 -54 -66

3
0 -23 -46 -69 -91 -112 -136

4
0 15 25 37 49 61 73

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A0107520A

LOH ENG ZHI

Table 3: Comparing Quarter Bridge Configuration with Full Bridge Configuration Quarter Bridge Configuration Full Bridge Configuration Load P (kg)

0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 Table 4 Load P (kg) 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0

0 73 140 207 273 342 411

0 21 44 67 89 112 133

0 67 135 200 267 336 406

0 25 47 68 91 115 135

Bending Stress, x (MPa) Theoretical Experimental 0.000 0.000 1.252 0.901 2.505 2.103 3.757 3.104 5.009 4.106 6.262 5.408 7.514 6.309

Shear Stress, xy (MPa) Theoretical Experimental 0.000 0.000 0.939 0.944 1.879 1.860 2.818 2.723 3.757 3.586 4.696 4.557 5.636 5.446

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Discussion
1. Compare the theoretical stresses with the experimental values. Discuss possible reasons for the deviations if any, in the results obtained. Answer: From Table 4 and Graph 3, the theoretical stresses results are around 22% higher than the experimental stress values, for both the bending stress and shearing stress. Possible reasons for deviations: a) Strain hardening of the shaft b) Experimental error when doing the measurement

2. From the results of step (B5), deduce the type of strain the strain-meter readings represent. Answer: a is the axial strain from combined bending and torsion, while b is the lateral strain.

3. Apart from the uniaxial tension method used in this experiment, how can the elastic constants be determined? Answer: We can determine the elastic constants by using compressive load method (To apply a compressive loading on the material).

4. Instead of using Equations (3) and (8) for strains, develop alternative equations to enable the determination of strains from the four gauges readings. Answer: The shear strain xy, by transformation of axes is given by xy /2 = -[(1 2) x sin2 ]/2 + (12 x cos2 )/2 when = 450, xy = 1 2 21 = + + xy And, 22 = 23 = 24 = - xy - xy + xy

+ + +

So, the alternative equations to enable the determination of strains: x = [(1 4) + (2 3)] / [2(1-v)]

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A0107520A

LOH ENG ZHI

5. Develop stress equations for combined bending, and twisting, of hollow shafts with K as the ratio of inside to outside diameter. Answer:

So:

Where K = (Di / D0) *Which Di = Inside Diameter, D0 = Outside Diameter

6. In certain installations shafts may be subjected to an axial load F in addition to torsional and bending loads. Would the strain gauge arrangement for this experiment be acceptable to the determination of stresses? Give reasons for your answer. For simplicity, a solid shaft may be considered. Answer: Yes, the strain gauge arrangement for this experiment is acceptable to the determination of stresses. Reasons: a) According to the principle of superposition, for all linear systems, the net response at a given place and time caused by two or more stimuli is the sum of the responses which would have been caused by each stimulus individually. b) For this experiment, the strain gauges make an angle of 45O with the axis of the shaft,
when calculating the strain value, need to times sin45O to find out the resultant strain in axial direction.

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Conclusion
From this experiment, it lets me to have a better understanding of the stresses at the surface of the shaft can be analyse by applying St. Venants principle and the principle of superposition. It also uses the strain gauge technique to determine the states of strain at about a point. And from the results achieve between the experimental and theoretical, it is found to be different.

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