Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 196




Section 2.01 ~ Salzburg, Austria


Lesson 2.01 - Einfache Gesprche unter Freunden

German/Lesson 1
<< Vorwort |

Lektion 1 | Lektion 2 >> |

Grammatik 1-1 ~ Introduction to German grammar

Knowing the parts of speech (how words function in a sentence) is important for anyone attempting to learn a second language. English speakers will find many strong parallels between their language and German. However, as noted in the introduction, German grammar signalshow words indicate their function in a sentenceare more complex than English, and identifying the meaning of words in a German sentence is difficult without understanding these clues or signals to word function that come from the grammatical rules. The basic lessons (Level II) of this textbook are set up to first introduce the parts of speech, and then bring in the rules that govern these. Pay particular attention to both word endings and sentence word order as you progress in learning the German language. Following is a short conversation piece (Gesprch). Play the audio file first, then attempt to repeat what you hear, reading the spoken parts Auf der Strae of the conversation. Go back and forth (listening and then speaking) until the German flows easily from your lips. This may take considerable practice. Refer to the vocabulary (Vokabeln) below to understand the meaning of the German sentences you are hearing and speaking.

German/Lesson 1


Gesprch 1-1 ~ Die Freunde

Heinrich trifft Karl auf der Strae. Heinrich und Karl sind Freunde. Heinrich: Guten Tag, Karl. Wie geht es dir? Karl: Guten Tag. Danke, es geht mir gut. Und dir? Heinrich: Danke, es geht mir gut. Auf Wiedersehen. Karl: Auf Wiedersehen!

Audio: OGG (97KB) In this conversation we learn several simple greetings exchanged between friends meeting very briefly on the street.

Vokabeln 1-1
This first vocabulary (Vokabeln) may seem a bit long considering you have been presented with only the brief conversation piece above, but it also contains all of the German words you have encountered up to this point in the Level II textbook, including words in photo captions and lesson section headers. The layout of the Vokabeln is explained in the Lesson Layout Guide in the German~English textbook introduction, but the four parts of the Vokabeln are labeled in this first lesson to reenforce the concept. Note that column 3 may contain (in parentheses) additional notes about a word in column 1. Also, you can find the greeting phrases that appear in the simple conversations above (and many others) in Appendix 2, a German-English phrase book. NOUNS der die der das die die die das die das Anhang, die Anhnge Brcke Freund, die Freunde Gesprch, die Gesprche Grammatik Lektion Strae Tor Vokabeln Vorwort SHORT PHRASES
auf der Strae Auf Wiedersehen Es geht mir gut Guten Tag! Und dir? unter Freunden Wie geht es dir? Wie geht's? on the street Good bye I am fine Good day And you? between friends How are you How are you? (lit: 'How goes it with you?') (casual, but more commonly used) (lit: 'It goes with me good') (greeting) (implied: 'And how are you?')

appendix, appendices (singular and plural) bridge friend, friends (singular and plural) conversation, conversations grammar (note irregular stress) lesson (note irregular stress) street gateway word list, vocabulary foreword, preface (introduction to a book)

VERBS gehen treffen go meet, come upon (geht is "goes") (trifft is "meets")

OTHER "SMALL" WORDS (adjectives, adverbs, prepositions, etc.)

German/Lesson 1 danke dir einfach es gut mir und wie?

<< Lesson Layout Guide Pronunciation Guide >>

112 thank you; thanks (with or for) you simple it good (with or to) me and how?

Gesprch 1-2 ~ Die Studenten

Markus ist Student. Er studiert Biologie. Er begegnet Katrin. Sie studiert Mathematik. Markus und Katrin sind Freunde. Markus: Hallo, Katrin! Wohin gehst du? Katrin: Ich gehe einkaufen. Der Khlschrank ist fast leer. Ich brauche Wurst und Kse. Und du? Wohin gehst du? Markus: Zur Uni. Ich habe viel zu tun. Katrin: Gut! Dann bis bald. Tschss. Markus: Tschss, Katrin.

Here again, two friends (college students) meet casually and discuss briefly what each is doing.

Grammatik 1-2 ~ Word Order in Questions

Basic or normal word order in simple German sentences is the same as in Englishsubject then verb then verb object: Ich habe Kse ~ I (subject) have (verb) cheese (verb object = what you "have") Unlike with English sentence structure, a question sentence in German is formed by reversing subject and verb: Hast du Kse? ~ Have (verb) you (subject) cheese? This is called inverted word order. Examples are provided in Gesprch 1-1 and Gesprch 1-2. As another example, consider the statement: Er studiert Biologie ('He studies biology'). A question statement might be: Was studiert er? ('What studies he?'; although in English, we would usually say: "What is he studying?"). The normal word order of subject (er or "he") then verb (studiert or "study") is reversed and, in this case, an interrogative (was or "what") added onto the front replacing the unknown (to the speaker) object (here, "biology"). Additional examples of questions formed from basic statements illustrate inverted word order: Wie geht es dir? from Es geht mir gut. ('It goes well with me.') Wohin geht sie? from Sie geht einkaufen. ('She goes shopping.') Was ist fast leer? from Der Khlschrank ist fast leer. ('The fridge is almost empty.') Was brauche ich? from Ich brauche Wurst und Kse. ('I need sausage and cheese.') Versteht sie mich? from Sie versteht mich. ('She understands me.')

German/Lesson 1


Grammatik 1-3 ~ Introduction to pronouns

A pronoun (Pronomen) is a short word that takes the place of a noun previously mentioned in the sentence, paragraph, or conversation. A pronoun substitutes for a noun or noun phrase and designates persons or things asked for, previously specified, or understood from context. A specific pronoun in English as well as German has person, number, and case. You will be encountering all of the common German pronouns in the next several lessons, so we will track these as they appear. The following familiar personal pronouns are introduced in this lesson (Lektion 1): ich I mich me mir me du you dich you dir you er he sie she es it (1st person, singular, nominative case) (1st person, singular, accusative case) (1st person singular, dative case) (2nd person, singular, nominative case) (2nd person, singular, accusative case) (2nd person singular, dative case) (3rd person singular, nominative case) (3rd person singular, nominative case) (3rd person singular, nominative case)

Pronoun person describes the relationship of the word to the speaker (that is, 1st person is the speaker; 2nd person is spoken to; and 3rd person is spoken about). Pronoun number refers to whether the word represents one (singular) or more than one (plural) person or object. Finally, case indicates how the pronoun is used in a sentence, as will be explained over the next several lessons. For now, note in the examples you have already encountered, the three cases of 1st person singular pronouns in German: ich, mich, and mir. In English these are: 'I', 'me', and (to or with) 'me' in essence, there are really just two cases in English: subjective ('I') and objective ('me'). You will shortly see that there are similarities, yet distinct differences, in the cases as used by the English and German languages.

Vokabeln 1-2
NOUNS die Antwort, die Antworten die Biologie die Freundin, die Freunde der Kse der Khlschrank die Mathematik das Pronomen der Student, die Studentin die Uni die bersetzung die Universitt die Wurst answer(s) biology (female) friend, friends cheese refrigerator mathematics pronoun student, (female) student university translation university sausage, banger (a short form of die Universitt) (lit. "over-setting") (note irregular stress) (note irregular stress) (note irregular stress) (singular and plural) (note irregular stress) (compare der Freund)

SHORT PHRASES Dann bis bald! zu tun VERBS then until (we) soon (meet again) ("until then") to do

German/Lesson 1 begegnen brauchen einkaufen gehen haben studieren verstehen meet need, want, require go shopping have study understand



an bald bis dann du er fast hallo ich leer mich schn sehr sie tschss viel was? wohin? to (towards) soon until then you he almost hello I empty, vacant me beautiful very she so long much what? where? (good bye) (in this case, 'nice' or 'fine')

<< Lesson Layout Guide Pronunciation Guide >>

bersetzung 1-1
By referring back to lesson examples, you should be able to write out the following sentences in German. On a piece of paper, first number and write each English sentence. Then review the lesson above and produce a German sentence that says the same thing as each English sentence. After all seven lines are translated, follow the Antworten (answers) link to compare your work with the correct ones. Do not be too concerned at this point if your spelling of the German verbs do not match the answers. You will learn all about German verb forms in later lessons. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Good day, Mark! How are you? Thanks, I am well. And you? Good bye, Henry! Catherine needs cheese. She understands the lesson well. So long, Mark! Until we meet again. Where is he going? Antworten >


Lesson 2.02 - Fremde und Freunde

German/Lesson 2
<< Lesson 1 |

Lektion 2 | Lektion 3 >>

Fremde und Freunde ~ Strangers and Friends

Grammatik 2-1 ~ Introduction to Verbs

A verb is that part of speech that describes an action. Verbs come in an almost bewildering array of tenses, aspects, and types. For now, we will limit our discussion to verbs used in the present tense i.e., describing an action occurring in the present. You should start to recognize that the form a verb takes is related to the subject of that verb: the verb form must match the person of the subject. This requirement is sometimes evident in English, but always so in German. Consider the following English and German sentences (the verb is studieren in every case):
I study biology. Ich studiere Biologie.

She studies mathematics. Sie studiert Mathematik. Today we study German. Heute studieren wir Deutsch. (Note a subject verb reversal) What are you studying? Was studierst du? (Notice subject verb reversal in question sentence)

Several things are illustrated by these sentence pairs. First, all verbs in German follow the rule just stated that a verb form must agree with its subject. Starting in Lektion 6 we will learn the verb forms associated with each person in German. Second, this rule in English applies mostly to the verb 'to be' (e.g., I am, you are, he is, etc.). In some English verbs, the 3rd person singular form is unique, often taking an 's' or 'es' ending: "I give at the office", but "He gives at the office" (and "She studies..." above). Finally, some German verbs are best translated with an English 'to be' verb form added. This is called the progressive form in English ('What are you studying?'), but it does not exist in German. Thus, a verb like nennen can best be translated as "to name" or "to call". The following example may make this clearer. In the present tense, the following statements in English: 'They are calling the corporation, "Trans-Global"' 'They name the corporation, "Trans-Global"' 'They call the corporation, "Trans-Global"' 'They do call the corporation, "Trans-Global"' are all expressed in German in only one way: Sie nennen die Firma, "Trans-Global". And the question statement: 'Do they call the corporation, "Trans-Global"?' becomes, in German: Nennen sie die Firma, "Trans-Global"?

Grammatik 2-2 ~ Pronouns in the Nominative Case

Most of the personal pronouns introduced in Lektion 1 are used as subjects of their verbs. These represent the nominative case in German (as in English). We will shortly learn three other cases in German: the accusative for direct objects, the dative for indirect objects, and the genitive for expressing possession. For now, remember that the singular personal pronouns in English (nominative case) are "I", "you", and "he/she/it" (1st, 2nd, and 3rd persons) and the nominative case is used as the subject of a verb. In German, these pronouns are rendered as ich, du, and er/sie/es. In these example sentences, the subject of the verb is underlined:

German/Lesson 2


Ich gehe einkaufen.

I go shopping.

Er studiert Biologie. He studies biology. Es geht mir gut. Wohin gehst du? It goes well with me. ( = I am fine).

Where are you going? (Notice subject verb reversal in question sentence)

There are, of course, plural personal pronouns in the English nominative case: "we", "you", and "they"; and in German, these nominative case pronouns are wir, ihr, and sie. These appear in the following examples (again, subject underlined):
Wir gehen einkaufen. Ihr versteht die Frage. We go shopping. You all understand the question.

Ihr habt die Anleitungen. You (all) have the instructions. Sie verstehen die Arbeit. They understand the work.

In both English and German, the 3rd person singular also has gender. As you will next learn, the 2nd person (person being addressed) in German has both familiar and polite (formal) forms. Further, it is worth repeating here although introduced in Grammatik 2-1 above and to be covered in detail in future lessons that the verb form changes when the subject changes. That is, in German the verb form must match the subject of a sentence. Here are some examples; compare with the previous three example sentences above and note how the verb form changed to match the sentence subject (subject and verb underlined):
Ich verstehe die Arbeit. Du gehst einkaufen. I understand the work. You go shopping.

Ich habe alle Antworten. I have all the answers. Er hat die Anleitungen. He has the instructions.

In the last example, the English verb form ('have') also changed based upon the subject of the sentence.

Gesprch 2-1 ~ Die Geschftsleute

Herr Schmidt trifft Frau Baumann. Sie sind Geschftsleute und sie arbeiten an dem Hauptsitz. Herr Schmidt: Guten Tag, Frau Baumann! Frau Baumann: Guten Tag, Herr Schmidt! Herr Schmidt: Wie geht es Ihnen? Frau Baumann: Sehr gut, danke. Und Ihnen? Herr Schmidt: Auch gut. Frau Baumann: Schn. Haben Sie Herrn Standish schon getroffen? Herr Schmidt: Aus England? Nein. Ist er zu Besuch? Frau Baumann: Ja. Das ist richtig! Auf Wiedersehen, Herr Schmidt! Herr Schmidt: Auf Wiedersehen, Frau Baumann!

In this conversation, although the subject matter is basically casual, a more formal form of German is being used intoning respect between coworkers in an office setting. The polite form is expressed by the pronouns as explained below (Grammatik 2-3).

German/Lesson 2


Vokabeln 2-1
die Anleitungen das Deutsch der Fremde die Firma die Frage die Geschftsleute der Hauptsitz der Tag instructions German (language) foreigner, stranger company, firm, business concern question business people head office day, daytime (die Leute = people) (das Haupt = head or chief) (more common is die deutsche Sprache)

aus England Das ist richtig! Frau Baumann Herr Schmidt zu Besuch arbeiten getroffen nennen alle an Ihnen heute ihr ja nein richtig sie Sie wir
Pronunciation Guide >>

from England That is right! Ms. Baumann Mr. Schmidt visiting work (have) met name, call all at (with or to) you today you (plural), you all yes no correct they you we

(past participle of treffen)

(polite form)

(note: also "she") (polite form)

Grammatik 2-3 ~ Familiar and Polite Pronoun Forms

Many pronouns were introduced in Lesson 1. In Grammatik 2-1 and Gesprch 2-1 we have been presented with the following additional pronouns: Ihnen (to) you ihr you (2nd sie they (3rd Sie you (2nd wir we (1st (2nd person singular, dative case) person, plural, nominative case) person, plural, nominative case) person, singular, nominative case) person, plural, nominative case)

In the conversations between friends presented in Gesprche 1-1 and 1-2 (Lektion 1) the familiar form of the personal pronouns (e.g., du, dir) was used. However, German also has a polite or formal form of some of these personal pronouns. The polite form is used in conversations between strangers and more formal situations, as illustrated in the Gesprch 2-1: greetings between business associates.

German/Lesson 2 The polite form is always first-letter capitalized in German, which can be helpful in differentiating Sie (you) from sie (she and they); Ihnen (you) from ihnen (them). However, you will soon learn that the form of the verb (see Grammatik 2-3 below) is most telling, as shown by these example pairs using the verb, haben (have):
Haben Sie eine Zigarette? Do you have a cigarette? (polite form of you)


Sie hat keine Wurst und keinen Kse. She has no sausage and no cheese. Sie haben viel Arbeit. Haben sie zu viel Arbeit? They have much work (to do). Do they have too much work?

Because the first letter in a sentence is always capitalized, we cannot determine (without the verb form) whether the second and third examples begin with sie ('she' or 'they') or with Sie (polite 'you'); a problem that would also exist in conversation. The fourth example, where subject and verb are reversed in a question, demonstrates the pronoun 'they'; compare it with the polite 'you' in the first example. It is relatively easy for an English speaker to appreciate how context, especially in conversation, overcomes confusion considering that English has fewer forms for these pronouns than German. However, this fact does present some difficulty when learning German, since improper use of a pronoun may just create confusion in speaking or writing German.

Gesprch 2-2 ~ Die Geschftsmnner

Herr Schmidt und Herr Standish begegnen sich am Hauptsitz:

Vereinigtes Knigreich von Grobritannien und Nordirland

Bundesrepublik Deutschland

Herr Schmidt: Guten Morgen, Herr Standish! Wie geht es Ihnen? Herr Standish: Danke sehr, es geht mir gut. Und Ihnen? Herr Schmidt: Nicht so gut. Ich bin mde. Herr Standish: Wie bitte? Mde? Warum? Herr Schmidt: Ich habe so viel Arbeit. Herr Standish: Das kann ich verstehen. Zu viel ist zu viel. Herr Schmidt: Das ist richtig. Auf Wiedersehen, Herr Standish! Herr Standish: Auf Wiedersehen, bis morgen.

Vokabeln 2-2
die Bundesrepublik Deutschland Federal Republic of Germany die Geschftsmnner Grobritannien der Morgen die bersetzung businessmen Great Britain morning translation (die Geschftsleute is preferred) (technically Vereinigtes Knigreich von Grobritannien und Nordirland)

German/Lesson 2 bis morgen Guten Morgen! nicht so gut so viel Wie bitte? zu viel bis kein mde nicht sich warum ?
Pronunciation Guide >>

119 until tomorrow Good morning not so well so much How is that? too much until no tired not each other why ?


(in the sense on "none")

Grammatik 2-4 ~ Personal pronoun gender

In both English and German the 3rd person personal pronouns have gender (Grammatik 1-3). However, in English, the pronoun "it" is used for most inanimate or non-living things. There are a few exceptions: a ship might be referred to as "she". However, in German, the 3rd person personal pronoun reflects the gender of the noun (antecedent) referred to by the pronoun. For examples:
Der Khlschrank ist fast leer. Er ist fast leer. Ich brauche die Wurst. Das Gesprch ist schwer. It (masculine) is almost empty.

Ich brauche sie. I need it (feminine). Es ist schwer. It (neuter) is difficult.

The following table summarizes these gender relationships:

3rd person pronouns masculine er feminine neuter sie es he she it

bersetzung 2-1
You may, at this point, try the flash cards developed for Level I German. This set has a few words and concepts not yet presented in Level II, but for the most part can be very helpful in enhancing your vocabulary. Go to FlashcardExchange.com [1]. Translate the following sentences into German. Pay attention to whether familiar or polite form of the pronoun is requested: 1. 2. 3. 4. Good day, Ms. Neumann. How are you? [in polite conversational form] I am well, thank you. And you? [in polite form] I am well, thank you. And you? [in familiar form] Katrin is studying math.

5. They meet each other at the head office. 6. I do understand the instructions. 7. Is she visiting from England?

German/Lesson 2 8. How is that? You have too much work? [in polite form] 9. Good bye, Mr. Smith. Until tomorrow morning? Antworten >


[1] http:/ / www. flashcardexchange. com/ card_set. php?id=248162


Lesson 2.03 - Die Zahlen

German/Lesson 3
<< Lesson 2 |

Lektion 3 | Lektion 4 >> |

Die Zahlen ~ The Numbers

Lektion 3 ~ Zhlen von 1 bis 12

Counting in any language is a valuable skill best learned early on. In German as in English, there are both cardinal (counting) and ordinal (place or order) numbers, and number formation is similar in that the first twelve numbers are unique. Above twelve, numbers are formed by combination. For example, 13 is dreizehn and 14 is vierzehn. Higher numbers will be the subject of later lessons. Note in the table how ordinals are formed from the cardinals in German by adding te. 'Ten' becomes 'tenth' in English; zehn become zehnte in German. As in English, there are several nonconforming variants: erste, dritte, and siebte.

cardinalnumbers ordinalnumbers one two three four five six seven eight nine ten eleven twelve eins zwei drei vier fnf sechs sieben acht neun zehn elf zwlf 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th 11th 12th erste zweite dritte vierte fnfte sechste siebte achte neunte zehnte elfte zwlfte

Learning the German words for the numbers provides an excellent opportunity to practice German pronunciations. Following are some helpful hints for English speakers attempting to count in German. A "dental sound" is made by moving the tongue into the back of the upper teethalmost as if the word started with a 't'. A "gutteral sound" comes from deep in the throat. Also, remember, in words of more than one syllable, the emphasis is on the first syllable. final consonants are cut off quickly in German, not drawn out as in many English words. English speakers might call this being curt or brusque with each word. eins say 'eyen-zah' but drop the 'ah'; 'z' is between an 's' and 'z' zwei sounds like 'zveye'; the 'w' is between a 'v' and a 'w' drei sounds like "dry", but with dental 'd' and roll the 'r' vier sound is between "fear" and 'fee-yahr' fnf say 'foon-fah' without the 'ah'; very slight 'r' after the '' sechs sounds like "sex", but with a more dental leading 's' sieben sounds like "see Ben" (use dental 's') acht sounds like 'ahkt'; the 'ch' is guttural neun sounds like "loin" with an 'n' zehn sounds like the name, "Zane", but the 'z' is more dental elf sounds pretty much like "elf" (the German 'e' is a little higher) zwlf sounds like 'zwolf', but the 'o' is closer to 'u' in 'up'

Audio: OGG (385KB)

German/Lesson 3


Grammatik 3-1 ~ Telling time (hours)

Knowing the numbers from 1 to 12, you can now begin asking and telling time in German.

Der Uhrturm von Graz

Gesprch 3-1

Zwei Jungen, Heinrich und Karl, sind Freunde. Sie begegnen sich eines Nachmittags. Heinrich: Karl. Wie geht's? Karl: Hallo! Heinrich: Willst du spielen? Ich habe einen Ball. Karl: Wie spt ist es? Heinrich: Es ist ein Uhr. Karl: Dann kann ich bis zwei Uhr spielen. Heinrich: Das ist gut. Wir spielen eine Stunde lang!

Asking for the time is accomplished by the sentence: Wie spt ist es? ("How late is it?"). The answer places the hour in the line Es ist ____ Uhr ("It is __ o'clock"), substituting the correct cardinal value (except ein is used instead of eins). One could also ask: Wieviel Uhr ist es? (not used very often anymore) or respond Es ist eins or Es ist drei, etc.which may be imprecise, unless the time is close to the hour. The following sentences also relate to telling time:

German/Lesson 3


Er fragt nach der Uhrzeit.

He asks the time.

Sie begegnen sich eines Nachmittags. They meet each other one afternoon. Es ist halb vier. Es ist Viertel nach zwlf. Es ist Viertel vor elf. Es ist drei Viertel elf.* Es ist fnf vor neun. Es ist fnf Minuten vor neun. Es ist zehn nach elf. Es ist zehn Minuten nach elf. Es ist acht nach. Es ist zehn vor. Es ist drei durch.* Es ist elf Uhr drei Es ist elf Uhr und drei minuten It is half past three (3:30). It is a quarter after twelve (12:15). It is a quarter to eleven (10:45). It is a quarter to eleven (10:45). It is five minutes to (until) nine (08:55). It is five minutes to (until) nine (08:55). It is ten minutes after eleven (11:10). It is ten minutes after eleven (11:10). It is eight minutes after the last full hour (??:08). It is ten minutes to (until) the next full hour (??:50). It is between three and four (03:??). It is three minutes after eleven (11:03). It is three minutes after eleven (11:03).

* this is only regional - many Germans may not understand Knowing how to express the quarter, half, and three quarter hours will allow you to give the time more precisely. We will, of course, revisit this subject. Once you know how to count beyond twelve, the hour's division into 60 minutes can be expressed. Also, Germans (like most Europeans) utilize what is known in America as "military time" or a 24-hour clock.

Vokabeln 3-1
Also included in the vocabulary for Lesson 3 are the ordinal and cardinal numbers 1 through 12 from Lektion 3 above. der der das der die die der die das die Ball Junge, die Jungen Lernen Nachmittag Stunde Uhr Uhrturm Uhrzeit Viertel Zahl, die Zahlen ball boy, boys learning, study afternoon hour watch (timepiece); also "o'clock" clock tower time, time of day quarter number, numbers until two o'clock very well (lit.: "that is good") one (unspecified) afternoon I can play it is do you want ...? (familiar form)

bis zwei Uhr das ist gut eines Nachmittags ich kann... spielen es ist willst du ...?

German/Lesson 3 fragen spielen zhlen dann halb nach spt vor zu

Pronunciation Guide >>

124 ask (a question) play count then half, halfway to about, after late before, until to

Grammatik 3-2 ~ Introduction to Nouns

A noun is a fundamental part of speech, occurring in sentences in two different ways: as subjects (performers of action), or objects (recipients of action). As a generality, a noun is the name of a "person, place, or thing". Nouns are classified into proper nouns (e.g. "Janet"), common nouns (e.g. "girl"), and pronouns (e.g. "she" and "which"). A proper noun (also called proper name) is a noun which denotes a unique entity. The meaning of a proper noun, outside of what it references, is frequently arbitrary or irrelevant (for example, someone might be named Tiger Smith despite being neither a tiger nor a smith). Because of this, they are often not translated between languages, although they may be transliterated for example, the German surname "Kndel" becomes "Knoedel" in English, as opposed to "Dumpling". Proper nouns are capitalized in English and all other languages that use the Latin alphabet; this is one way to recognize them. However, in German both proper and common nouns are capitalized (as are certain formal pronouns; see Grammatik 2-3).

Grammatik 3-3 ~ Gender of Nouns

We have seen evidence of word gender in the pronouns we have been enountering; notably 'he', 'she', and 'it' in English and er, sie, and es in German. Just like many other languages (but not English), German has genders for nouns as well. Noun gender is indicated by the definite article, which should always be learned as part of the noun. For this reason, nouns presented in each lesson's Vokabeln include the gender appropriate definite article.

Definite Articles
The definite article (bestimmter Artikel) is equivalent to an English 'the', and the three basic gender forms of definite articles in German are as follows:
der masculine die feminine das neuter

To say 'the book' in German, you would say das Buch, because Buch is a neuter noun. To say 'the man' in German, you would say der Mann, because Mann is a masculine noun. To say 'the woman' in German, you would say die Frau, because Frau is a feminine noun. Noun gender does not always derive from actual gender where gender might be applicable. For example, 'the boy' is der Junge (masculine); but 'the girl' is das Mdchen (neuter). Also, nouns that have no inherent gender are not necessarily neuter. From this lesson: 'the watch or time piece' is die Uhr ('feminine').

German/Lesson 3 Because German is generally more structured than English, it is important when learning German nouns to always learn them with their gender correct definite article; and in the Vokabeln nouns are always given with their associated definite article. That is, you must memorize the word for 'book' in German as das Buch, not simply Buch. Not just definite articles, but indefinite articles and adjectives have endings that must match the gender of the noun they precede. Using the wrong gender can alter the meaning of a German sentence, so in forming a proper sentence with Buch, you will need to know that it is a neuter noun.


Indefinite Articles
in addition to the definite articles"the" in English and der-words in Germandiscussed above, both languages have indefinite articles (unbestimmter Artikel). Indefinite articles precede nouns in the same way that definite articles do, but convey a general or indefinite sense. These are "a" or "an" in English. Thus, 'the book' or das Buch refers to a definite or specific book, whereas 'a book' or ein Buch is indefinite about which book is referred to. Indefinite articles also have gender as shown here:
ein der masculine

eine die feminine ein das neuter

Here are some examples of indefinite articles (underlined) used in German sentences:
Ich habe einen Ball. Heute lesen wir ein Buch. I have a ball. Today we read a book.

Markus trifft einen Studenten auf der Strae. Mark meets a student on the street. Die Geschftsleute haben eine Antwort. Ein Freund spielt Ball mit ihm. The business people have an answer. A friend plays ball with him.

Why, you ask, are there words like einen in some sentences abovea spelling that does not appear in the gender table? The tables for both the definite and indefinite articles above are simplified at this stage, giving only articles in the nominative case (applied to words that are subjects of verbs). In the very next lesson you will start to address all the other cases in German. However, the nominative case is the one used to signify the gender of a noun, as in our Vokabeln.

Vokabeln 3-2
das die der das der Buch Frau Kndel Mdchen Mann book woman dumpling (young) girl man read

Pronunciation Guide >>

German/Lesson 3


bersetzung 3-1
Translate the following sentences into German: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

I am reading until ten o'clock. It is nine thirty. It is a quarter to ten. Cathy is a student at the university. She meets Mark on the street. Henry has a ball. The girl is a friend. Mr. Smith has a question.
Antworten >


Lesson 2.04 - Eine Geschichte ber Zrich

German/Lesson 4
<< Lesson 3 |

Lektion 4 | Lektion 5 >>

Lesestck 4-1 ~ Eine Geschichte ber Zrich

Zrich ist die grte Stadt der Schweiz. Sie liegt am Ausfluss des Zrichsees und ist die Hauptstadt des gleichnamigen Kantons, des Kantons Zrich. Zrich ist ausgesprochen schn gelegen, am nrdlichen Ende des Zrichseesbei klarem Wetter hat man eine gute Sicht auf die Glarner Alpen. Zrich ist das Zentrum der schweizer Zrich: am Ausfluss des Zrichsees Bankenwirtschaft. Neben den beiden Grossbanken ('Credit Suisse' und 'UBS') haben auch etliche kleinere Bankinstitute ihren Sitz in der Stadt.
Although this short story contains quite a number of impressive German nouns and adjectives, with the aid of Vokabeln 4-1 following you should have no trouble reading and understanding it. The passage makes considerable use of the German genitive case (English possessive case), which you have not yet learned. However, a clue applicable here: translate des as "of the" or "of" and note there are other der-words that also mean "of the".

Vokabeln 4-1
die Alpen der Ausfluss die Bankinstitute die Bankenwirtschaft das Ende die Grossbanken die Hauptstadt das Haus der Kanton das Lesestck Alps outlet, effluence banking institutes banking business end major banks capital city house canton reading passage (Swiss state) (of a lake)

German/Lesson 4
die Schweiz die Sicht der Sitz das Wetter das Zentrum das Zrich der Zrichsee Switzerland view office weather center (centre) Zurich Lake Zurich (city and canton in Switzerland)


d.h. (das heit) Glarner Alpen man hat... nach Hause

i.e. ("that is" in Latin) Glarner Alps one has... (toward) home (compare: zu Hause = "at home")

anrufen geben (gab, gegeben) kommen (kam, gekommen) liegen (lag, gelegen) am (an dem) ausgesprochen bei beiden etliche gleichnamig grte klar klein neben nrdlich schweizer
Pronunciation Guide >>

call, telephone give come lie (lay, lain) at the markedly in two a number of, quite a few, several same named largest clear small besides northern of or pertaining to Swiss

Grammatik 4-1 ~ Introduction to adjectives

An adjective is a part of speech which can be thought of as a "describing word"typically, an adjective modifies a noun. In both English and German, adjectives come before the noun they describe or modify. In many other languages (such as French) they usually come after the noun. Here are some examples of adjectives (underlined) you have already encountered:

German/Lesson 4


Ich habe viel Arbeit. Wir haben keinen Kse.

I have much work. We have no cheese.

Bei klarem Wetter hat man eine gute Sicht. In clear weather, one has a good view Zrich ist die grte Stadt. Zurich is the largest city.

Because nouns are capitalized in German, it is fairly obvious in these sentences where the adjectives occur: just before the nouns they modify. Note how the endings on German adjectives can change, depending upon the noun (keinen Kse; klarem Wetter; gute Sicht)specifically, the gender and case of the noun they are modifying. Before explaining the basic rules governing adjective endings, you need to have a better understanding of person, gender, and case in German nounsconcepts that will be explored in the next few lessons. Finally, realize that the ordinal numbers you learned in Lektion 3 are, in fact, adjectivessubject to the same rules governing word endings for adjectives.
Wer ist das dritte Mdchen? Who is the third girl?

Wir verstehen nur die erste Lektion. We understand only the first lesson.

Gesprch 4-1 ~ Das neue Mdchen

Markus und Helena sind Freunde. Markus: Lena, wer ist das neue Mdchen? Die Brnette dort drben. Helena: Ich glaube, sie heit 'Karoline'. Markus: Sie ist sehr schn. Helena: Sie ist hbsch, wenn man kleine Mdchen mit langen dunklen Haaren mag. Markus: Ja. Ihre Haare gefallen mir sehr. Helena: Markus, du bist ein Ferkel!

This short conversational passage contains more examples of adjectives.

Vokabeln 4-2
die die das das Brnette Haare Mdchen Ferkel brunette hair(s) girl piglet appeal to believe name, call like, desire, wish there over there dark her cute short long new

gefallen glauben heien mag dort (dort) drben dunkel ihr hbsch klein lang neue

German/Lesson 4 wenn wer?

Pronunciation Guide >>

130 if who?

Grammatik 4-2 ~ Nouns and pronouns in the accusative and dative

As was noted previously when the concept of case was introduced for pronouns (Grammatik 2-2), there are four cases used in German. Recall that the nominative case in German corresponds to the subjective case in English and applies to nouns and pronouns used in a sentence as the subject of a verb. Nouns (and pronouns) that are used as objects of transitive (action) verbs are in the English objective case. If these are direct objects (recipients of the action of a verb), then these nouns are in the accusative case in German. If indirect objects, then these nouns are in the dative case in German. Essentially, the English objective case is divided, in German, into an accusative case used for direct objects and a dative case used for indirect objects.

For comparison with English, recall that the singular personal pronouns (nominative case) are "I", "you", and "he/she/it" (1st, 2nd, and 3rd persons). The objective case, personal pronouns in English are "me", "you", and "him/her/it"and are used for both direct and indirect objects of verbs. For example: He gives it [the Direct Object] to me [the Indirect Object]. The German accusative case, personal pronouns (singular) are: mich, dich, ihn/sie/es. The German dative case, personal pronouns (singular) are: mir, dir, ihm/ihr/ihm. Thus, the above English example sentence becomes, in German: Er gibt es [the Direct Object] mir [the Indirect Object]. Because mir is a dative pronoun, there is no need in German to use a modifier as in English, where "to" is used as a signal of an indirect object. The following table summarizes the German pronouns in three cases for both singular and plural number:
Singular NOM. 1st person ich ACC. mich DAT. mir Plural NOM. wir ACC. uns DAT. uns

2nd person du (Sie*) dich (Sie*) dir (Ihnen*)

ihr (Sie*) euch (Sie*) euch (Ihnen*) sie ihnen

3rd person er, sie, es ihn, sie, es ihm, ihr, ihm sie

* Polite form Recall from Gesprch 2-1 the "incomplete" sentence Und Ihnen? ('And you?'). Note that the pronoun agrees in case (here, dative) with the implied sentence Und wie geht es Ihnen? The same rule is evident in Gesprch 1-1 (Und dir?). Such agreement is important to convey the correct meaning. Tables giving the German personal pronouns in all cases can be found in an appendix: Pronoun Tables.

German/Lesson 4


Nouns do not change their form (spelling) relative to case in German; instead, a preceding article indicates case. You have learned the nominative case definite and indefinite articles (Grammatik 3-3: der, die, das and ein, eine. ein) for each of the three noun genders. Now we will learn the accusative (used to signal a direct object) and dative (used to signal an indirect object) articles. First, the definite articles:
Singular Plural

NOM. ACC. DAT. NOM. ACC. DAT. Masculine der Feminine Neuter die das den die das dem der dem die die die die die die den den den

This table might seem a bit overwhelming (and there is yet one more case in German: the genitive!), but some points to note can make memorizing much easier. First, as you can see from the table, gender does not really exist for plural nouns. No matter what the noun gender in its singular number, its plural always has the same set of definite articles: die, die, den for nominative, accusative, and dative cases. The plural der-words are similar to the feminine singular der-words, differing only in the dative case. Another point: the dative for both masculine and neuter nouns is the same: dem. Finally, for feminine, neuter, and plural nouns, there is no change between nominative and accusative cases. Thus, only for masculine nouns is there a definite article change in the accusative compared with the nominative. The following examples demonstrate the use of the definite article in various parts of speech:
Du hast die Wurst und den Kse. You have the sausage and the cheese. (accusative case)

Die Geschftsleute verstehen die Arbeit The business associates understand the work. (nominative and accusative cases) Zrich ist die grte Stadt. Zurich is the largest city. (nominative case)

In the last example, you need to know that in both English and German, the noun (or pronoun) that follows the verb 'to be' is a predicate noun, for which the correct case is the nominative. That is why, in English, 'It is I' is grammatically correct and 'It is me' is simply incorrect. The indefinite articles are as follows:
Singular NOM. ACC. DAT. Masculine ein Feminine Neuter eine ein einen einem eine ein einer einem

Of course, there are no plural indefinite articles in German or English (ein means "a". "an", or "one"). It is important to see that there is a pattern in the case endings added to ein related to the der-words in the definite articles table above. For example, the dative definite article for masculine nouns is demthe indefinite article is formed by adding -em onto ein to get einem. The dative definite article for feminine nouns is derthe indefinite is ein plus -er or einer. These ending changes will be covered in greater detail in a future lesson. You will see that there are a number of words (adjectives, for example) whose form relative changes by addition of these endings to signal the case of the noun they modify. Finally, we can see a pattern relationship between these "endings" and the 3rd person pronouns as well:

German/Lesson 4


NOM. ACC. DAT. Masculine indef. article ein einen einem ihn eine sie ein es ihm einer ihr einem ihm

3rd pers. pronoun er Feminine indef. article eine

3rd pers. pronoun sie Neuter indef. article ein

3rd pers. pronoun es

We could construct a similar table to compare the definite articles to the 3rd person pronouns. And in that case, we would also see how the plural definite articles (die, die, den) compare with the third person plural pronouns (sie, sie, ihnen).

Grammatik 4-3 ~ Interrogatives

You have encountered nearly all of the interrogatives commonly used in German (review Grammatik 1-2): wann warum was wer wie wieviel wo wohin when why what who how how much where where (to)

Warum sind Sie mde? Was ist das? Wer ist das Mdchen? Wie geht es dir? Wieviel Uhr ist es? Wo ist das Buch? Wohin gehst du?

In a question, interrogatives replace the unknown object and establish the class of answer expected.
Was haben Sie? Wieviel Arbeit ist zu viel? What do you have? (Expected is a 'thing')

How much work is too much? (Expected is a 'quantity') (Expected is a sense of 'time') (Expected is a 'place')

Wann gehst du nach Hause? When do you go home? Wo ist der Zrichsee? Where is Lake Zurich?

Note that the English construction for some of the questions differs from the German in that the former uses the progressive form of "do".

bersetzung 4-1
Translate the following sentences into German: 1. 2.

They have a good view of the Alps. Lake Zurich is very beautiful. Antworten >


Review 2.01
German/Lesson 5
<< Lektion 4 | Lektion

5 | Lektion 6 >>

Lesson 5 is a review (Wiederholung) lesson to summarize the German language lessons presented in Lessons 1 through 4. You should, then, return to Lektion 1 and review (that is, reread) each of the four lessons back up to this point. For a more advanced course, you might now incorporate each of the advanced lessons into this "review" process. That is: review Lesson 1, then do Lesson 1A, review Lesson 2, then do Lesson 2A, etc.

Parts of Speech and Word Order

Sentences are composed of parts that perform specific functions. You have been introduced to most (but not all) the major parts of speech: pronouns/nouns, verbs, and adjectives; and how these are expressed in German compared with English. Consider the following: Ich brauche Wurst und Kse I (pronoun as subject) need (verb) sausage and cheese (nouns as direct objects) Haben sie zu viel Arbeit? Have (verb) they (pronoun subject) too much (adjectives) work (noun direct object)? Word order in a simple sentence follows that used in English. Subject and verb are reversed to form a question. In English, but not in German, the question sentence could also be stated (and, in fact, occurs more often in the US) as 'Do they have too much work?'

Nouns are words that typically occur in sentences as either subjects (performers of some action) or objects (recipients of some action). Most nouns are the name of either a "person, place, or thing" and, in German, are always capitalized. Every noun in German has an "assigned" gender (masculine, feminine, neuter), and we learn each noun with its nominative case, definite article (der, die, das, respectively) in order to also learn that gender. Thus, a Vokabeln section for nouns is presented thusly: der die der das die die die Anhang, die Anhnge Brcke Freund, die Freunde Gesprch, die Gesprche Grammatik Lektion Strae appendix, appendices (singular and plural) bridge friend, friends (singular and plural) conversation, conversations grammar (note irregular stress) lesson (note irregular stress) street


Section 2.02 ~ Zrich, Switzerland


Lesson 2.05 - Die Wohnung

German/Lesson 6
<< Lektion5 |

Lektion 6 | Lektion 7 >>

Die Wohnung ~ The Apartment

Gesprch 6-1 ~ Ein Bruder besucht Markus

Markus studiert Biologie an der Universitt. Er besucht die Vorlesungen und dann geht er nach Hause. Er wohnt nicht bei seinen Eltern; er mietet sich eine kleine Wohnung. Sie hat nur drei Zimmer. Gegen Abend zeigt er sie seinem Bruder. Markus: Karl. Herein! Karl: Tag, Markus! Mutti grt dich. Karl sieht sich um. Karl: Mir gefllt deine Wohnung. Markus: Danke. Sie hat drei Zimmer. Es gibt eine Kche, ein Wohnzimmer, und ein Schlafzimmer. Karl: Ich habe sie gern! Markus: This incomplete story and conversation introduces terms for items around the house (or apartment). Vokabeln 6-1 der Bruder die Eltern die Kche das Schlafzimmer die Vorlesung university) die Wohnung das Wohnzimmer das Zimmer, die Zimmer es gibt gegen Abend gern haben gladly have") Herein! sich umsehen zeigen besuchen brother parents kitchen bedroom class, instruction apartment, flat living room room(s) there is towards evening like Come in! look around show visit, attend

(at a

(i.e., "to


German/Lesson 6


gren mieten sein adjective)

greet rent his (a possessive

Grammatik 6.1 ~ Introduction to verb conjugations In German, every grammatical person has, or potentially has, its own unique verb form. Describing the various verb forms is called verb conjugation. This variation in verb form is certainly one of the things that makes German grammar somewhat difficult for English speakers to learn. In English, only the 3rd person singular might differ from the verb form used with all of the other persons (see Grammatik 1-3) and that difference is made by adding an ending of 's' or 'es'. For example: I/you/we/they 'go', but he/she/it 'goes'. Let us have a closer look at German verbs. Usually, the infinitive form of a verb in German ends with -enfor examples, consider these verbs you have already learned: gehen ('go'), haben ('have'), and studieren ('study'). In order to "build" the different verb forms (that is, conjugate a verb), first cut off the '-en' ending from the infinitive. Then append a new ending according to the grammatical person. For regular verbs it works essentially as follows:
pronoun ich du er/sie/es wir ihr sie verb gehe gehst geht in English: I you go go

he/she/it goes go

gehen we geht

you (pl.) go go

gehen they

As you see in this example using the verb gehen, the singular 1st person ends with -e, the 2nd person with -st and 3rd person (no matter what gender) ends with -t. As for the plural forms, note that 1st and 3rd person in plural number (see Grammatik 1-3) are built the same way as the infinitive. Again note that, in English, only the verb form for the 3rd person singular is "unique". An easy way to remember the regular verb endings is the following mnemonic "Elephants standing together enjoy trumpeting endlessly". Seems simple enough. However, realize we are discussing here only the regular verb forms in the present tense (Prsens). You will learn quite soon that, unfortunately, there are many exceptions from these simple rules. An important one is the irregular verb sein ('to be') which is irregular in English as well (I am, you are, he is...).

German/Lesson 6


pronoun verb in English: ich du er/sie/es wir ihr sie bin bist ist I you he/she/it am are is are

sind we seid

you (plural) are are

sind they

At least 1st and 3rd person plural are the same. Another important verb is haben ('to have'):
pronoun ich du er/sie/es wir ihr sie verb habe hast hat in English: I you he/she/it have have has have

haben we habt

you (plural) have have

haben they

You see, it's not too irregularonly the 2nd and 3rd person singular constitute a small exception since the 'b' has vanished. English is somewhat curious in this respect as well: 'I have', but 'he has'. Future lessons will introduce you to the many irregular verbs in German. But you should now recognize what is happening to the verbs in German sentences. They are reflecting the person and number of their nominative case subjects. Recall these sentences from past lessons (verbs underlined here): Danke, es geht mir gut (verb is gehen) Ich habe viel Arbeit haben) Ist er zu Besuch? Du bist ein Schwein! Wie heien Sie? heien, and pronoun is formal) Wir spielen eine Stunde lang! spielen) Sie liegt am Ausfluss des Zrichsees. Zurich (verb is liegen) Thanks, it goes well with me I have much work (verb is Is he visiting? (verb is sein) You are a pig! (verb is sein) What are you called? (verb is We play for one hour! (verb is It lies at the outlet of Lake

German/Lesson 6


Grammatik 6.2 ~ Case in German nouns Through our discussions on the personal pronouns, you have learned how pronouns have case. Nouns also have caseand in German, noun case can be expressed by the definite article (der). Recall this table from Lektion 3:
der masculine die feminine das neuter

These der-words reflect noun gender in the nominative caseappropriate whenever a noun is used as the subject of a sentence. For other cases, the der words change. Expanding the table to present nominative (NOM.), accusative (ACC.), dative (DAT.), and genitive (GEN.) cases:
NOM. ACC. DAT. GEN. der die das die den die das die dem der dem den des der des der masculine feminine neuter plural

Note, there are also der-word forms to be used for plural nouns. Fortunately, these are the same, no matter what the gender of the singular noun. For future reference, you can find the der-words summarized in Anhnge Drei. The following examples demonstrate the use of the definitive article in various parts of speech: Du hast die Wurst und den Kse. cheese. Die Geschftsleute verstehen die Arbeit understand the work. cases) Sie liegt am Ausfluss des Zrichsees. (the) Lake Zurich. You have the sausage and the (accusative case) The business associates (nominative and accusative It lies at the outlet of

(genitive case) Zrich ist die grte Stadt der Schweiz. Zurich is the largest city in (of the) Switzerland. (nominative and genitive cases) In the last example, remember that in both English and German, the noun (or pronoun) that follows the verb 'to be' is a predicate noun, for which the correct case is the nominative. That is why, in English, 'It is I' is grammatically correct and 'It is me' is incorrect. So consider the following (and note that case of each definite article is the same as in the last example above): Zrich ist der Kanton der gleichnamigen Stadt. of the same named city. Zurich is the canton

German/Lesson 6


Grammatik 6.3 ~ Commands Ruf sie an, bitte! or Ruf sie bitte an! Gehen Sie nach Hause! Kommt mit! Gib es mir! Call her, please. Go home (formal). Come with (plural)! Give me it!

Notice that in these sentences there are no subjects (except for #2). In German, as in English, there is a commandative form, a way to demand something using an understood you. In English, there is only one you-form and one command form. In German, since there are three you's, there are three ways to command. If the subject is singular (du), then the verb has no ending. If it is irregular, it takes the du-form, such as in essen (Iss!) or lesen (Lies!). If there is a plural subject (ihr), then the verb takes the ihr-form. Nothing else is changed. Most of the time, ihr-commands are used with children, but that is not always the case. In both of these sentences, the du or ihr is omitted. Formal is normal. The Sie stays (after the verb) and the verb is in its formal form. Although it is worded like a question, in written or spoken form, it is easy to tell the difference.


Lesson 2.06 - Mathematik

German/Lesson 7
<< Lektion6 |

Lektion 7 | Lektion 8 >>

Einfache Mathematik ~ Simple Mathematics

Lernen 7 ~ Zhlen von 13 bis 100

Once you have memorized the numbers from 1 to 12 (see Lernen 3), counting higher in German becomes very much like counting in English. From 13 to 19, add -zehn (10; "-teen" in English) after the cardinal number root: 13 dreizehn (irregular in English: 'thirteen') 14 vierzehn 15 fnfzehn 16 sechzehn (note that the 's' in sechs is dropped and the 'ch' is pronounced like the 'ch' in ich) 17 siebzehn (note that the 'en' in sieben is dropped) 18 achtzehn 19 neunzehn Above 19 the counting system is constant: add -zig ("-ty" in English) to the cardinal root. Thus, we get: 20 zwanzig 21 einundzwanzig (note: 'one-and-twenty') 22 zweiundzwanzig (note: 'two-and-twenty') And the same for 30, 40, 50....etc. 30 dreiig (this is an exception to the -zig Rule) 40 vierzig 50 fnfzig 60 sechzig 70 siebzig 80 achtzig 90 neunzig 100 hundert So, combining these, we get: 34 vierunddreiig (note: 'four-and-thirty') 143 hundertdreiundvierzig (note: 'hundred-three-and-forty') 170 hundertsiebzig 199 hundertneunundneunzig It would be excellent practice towards learning these numbers by counting (in German, of course) from 1 to 199or counting along any continuous sequence that comes to mind. For example, start with your age and count to 50 (count down if appropriate).

German/Lesson 7


Grammatik 7-1 ~ Math Calculations

The following table presents the symbols used for basic mathematics.

+ = > < 3

plus minus mal geteilt/dividiert durch ist gleich ist grer als ist kleiner als drei hoch zwei

We can use these symbols to ask and answer simple problems in mathematics. Some of the examples that follow include first a question (Frage) and then the answer (Antwort): Wieviel ist sechs und sieben? How much is 6 and 7? Sechs und sieben ist dreizehn 6 and 7 is 13 Wieviel ist fnfzig plus achtzehn? How much is 50 + 18? Fnfzig plus achtzehn ist gleich achtundsechzig 50 + 18 = 68 Wieviel ist siebzig minus zehn? How much is 70 - 10? Siebzig minus zehn ist gleich sechzig 70 - 10 = 60 Wieviel ist neun durch drei? How much is 9 divided by 3? Neun durch drei ist gleich drei 9 3 = 3 Funf ist grer als zwei 5 > 2 Acht ist kleiner als siebzehn 8 < 17

Vokabeln 7-1
Counting to 199 is also included in the vocabulary for Lektion 7. die Antwort die Frage answer question

geteilt/dividiert durch over [math] grer als greater than kleiner als smaller than geteilt/dividiert gleich hoch mal minus plus wieviel? divided, forked, split equal, same, even tall, to the power of [math] times [math] minus plus how much?


Lesson 2.07 - Mein, Dein, und Sein

German/Lesson 8
<< Lektion 7 |

Lektion 8 | Lektion 9 >>

Grammatik 8-1 ~ Colors

yellow: gelb blue: blau red: rot black: schwarz white: wei orange: orange pink: pink violet: lila cyan: trkis brown: braun grey: grau light-grey: hellgrau dark-grey: dunkelgrau

Grammatik 8-2 ~ Possessive Adjectives, Pronouns, and the Genitive Case

Recall the following from Gesprch 3-1: Karl: Ja. Und danach bringst du mich auf deinem Motorrad zu meiner Wohnung. Which translates: Carl: 'Yes. And after that take me on your motorcycle to my apartment'. The sentence demonstrates two of the possessive adjectives. These are (singular) 'my', 'your', and 'his/her/its' in English and mein, dein, and sein/ihr/sein in German. Note that because these are adjectives, the word ending must reflect the case and gender of the noun being modified (see Grammatik 4-1 above). In German, the genitive case correspond to the English possessive case or to the objective case proceeded by of to denote possession. If the possessive is not followed by a noun, it becomes a possessive pronoun. In general, possessive pronouns are rather rarely used in German (see Pronoun Tables).

German/Lesson 8


NOM. ACC. DAT. POSS. ADJ. I, me you he, him she, her it we, us you (all) they, them ich du er sie es wir ihr sie mich dich ihn sie es uns euch sie Sie mir dir ihm ihr ihm uns euch mein dein sein ihr sein unser eurer

ihnen ihr Ihnen Ihr

you (formal) Sie

The pattern in the case endings of the possessive adjectives is that seen in Lektion 4 for the word ein. We can generalize these endings as in the following table, where we can express plural endings because other so-called ein-words do have plurals:
Ein-group Endings NOM. ACC. DAT. Masculine -Feminine Plural --e --e --en --e --e --em --er --en Neuter -- -- --em

The small group of words that take these endings (in addition to ein) includes the possessive adjectives and kein ("not any" or "no" in the sense of none).


Lesson 2.08 - Einkaufen gehen

German/Lesson 9
<< Lektion 8 |

Lektion 9 | Lektion 10 >>

Einkaufen gehen ~ Going shopping

Lernen 9 ~ Die Kleidungsstcke (articles of clothing)

German die Bluse der Grtel das Hemd das Kleid die Hose der Hut die Kleidung die Jeans die Mtze/Haube der Pullover der Rock der Schuh die Shorts die Socke der Stiefel das T-Shirt English blouse belt shirt dress pants (US)/trousers hat clothes (casual) jeans cap pullover skirt shoe shorts sock boot T-shirt German plural die Blusen die Grtel die Hemden die Kleider die Hosen die Hte die Kleidungsstcke die Jeans die Mtzen die Pullis, die Pullover die Rcke die Schuhe die Shorts die Socken die Stiefel die T-Shirts

Gesprche 9-1 ~ Katrin macht Besorgungen

Katrin macht Besorgungenbesonders sucht sie neue Schuhe. Sie geht in das Einkaufszentrum. Katrin: Entschuldigen Sie. Ich brauche Schuhe. Wo sind sie? Verkufer: Wir haben viele Schuhe. Welche Farbe mchten Sie? Katrin: Ein Paar Schuhe in Wei, bitte. Verkufer: Da drben.

Katrin probiert ein Paar Schuhe an. Verkufer: Passen sie? Katrin: Nein, sie sind zu klein. Verkufer: Mchten Sie diese Schuhe? Diese hier sind grer. Katrin: Ja, danke. Katrin probiert die Schuhe an. Sie passen prima. Verkufer: Sie kosten neununddreiig Euro neunzehn. Katrin: Die Schuhe sind billig. Dann kaufe ich sie.

German/Lesson 9


Vokabeln 9-1
Included in this vocabulary lesson are the German nouns for various articles of clothing (Lernen 9 above). die das der die die das der der Besorgungen Einkaufszentrum Euro Farbe Klamotten Paar Preis Verkufer errands shopping mall uro color gear, stuff (things) pair, couple price sales clerk, sales assistant 39.19 try on need buy cost would like fit [clothing] seek, look for especially cheap topnotch, super which

neununddreiig Euro neunzehn anprobieren brauchen kaufen kosten mgen passen suchen besonders billig prima welche

2-2 Shopping-related Verbs

There are a lot of verbs that have to do with shopping for clothes. The most prominent are listed below. anziehen - to put on (clothes) aussehen - to appear nehmen - to take wollen - to want (somewhat impolite) These verbs are used often, so it is necessary to learn them. Among them are separable verbs, irregular verbs, and modals.

Separable Verbs
Anprobieren, aussehen and anziehen are separable verbs. It is easy to see this, as they each have a prefix of 'aus' or 'an'. When using the verb as the main verb of a sentence, separate the prefix and put it at the end of the sentence. When the verb is in infinitive form, leave it just as you see it.

Irregular Verbs
Ausehen and nehmen are the two irregular verbs on this list. Both experience a change in the first 'e' in the du-form and er/sie/es-form. Du siehst ... aus und er/sie/es sieht ... aus. Du nimmst und er/sie/es nimmt.

Mchten and wollen are the two modals introduced here. Modals are similar to the helping verbs in English and cause the other verb to go to the end in the infinitive form. They also have a strange conjugation. Mchten changes in er/sie/es form to mchte (the same as the ich-form). In fact all modals have the same er/sie/es-form and ich-form.

German/Lesson 9 Wollen is like most other modals: it has a different vowel in singular and plural, except when using formal you. Ich will (not to be confused with future tense), du willst, er/sie/es will, wir wollen, ihr wollt, und sie/Sie wollen. All of this verb conjugation and more can be found in Reference Table II.


3 Accusative Case
You have already learned the pronouns and articles in the nominative case. Now it is time for the accusative case.

3-1 Example Story 2

You now need more clothes. You drive to a mall and go to the clothing department store. Du suchst zwei Jeans, drei Hemden und einen Grtel. Du siehst die Jeans und nimmst zwei. Du kaufst jetzt nur die Hemden und den Grtel. VERKUFERIN: Die Grtel sind da. DU: Haben Sie auch Grtel in Braun? VERKUFERIN: Ja, da hinten. Du nimmst den Grtel in Braun, aber er ist billig. Du kaufst zwei. VERKUFERIN: Noch etwas? DU: Ja, ich brauche drei Hemden. VERKUFERIN: Hemden haben wir. Sie sind hier. Du nimmst ein Hemd in Blau, und zwei in Rot. Du probierst die Hemden, die Jeans, und die Grtel an. Alles passt. DU: Was kosten diese Klamotten? VERKUFERIN: Zwei Jeans, drei Hemden, und zwei Grtel kosten fnfundsechzig Euro. You give the clerk the money and take the clothing home.

3-2 Accusative Case Articles

Remember that in the nominitive case, the articles are der, die, das, and die, listed in MFNP (masculine, feminine, neuter, and plural) order. Well, in the accusative case, only the masculine form changes to den. An easy memory hook is "Der goes to den and the rest stay the same." The ein-forms undergo the same change. Masculine "ein" goes to "einen" and the rest stay the same.
Nom. Acc. Nom. Masc. der Fem. die den die das die ein eine ein Acc. einen eine ein

Neut. das Plur. die

does not exist does not exist

German/Lesson 9


3-3 Prices
Two easy words describe prices. billig - cheap teuer - expensive These adjectives are applied to the products you buy, never to the word "Preis". Anyway, you rather say "Das ist billig/teuer." (meaning the product you buy) than "Der Preis ist niedrig/hoch."

3-4 A DDR Joke

In einem Kaufhaus in der DDR fragt ein Kunde: "Haben sie keine Unterhosen?". Die Verkuferin antwortet: "Nein, wir haben keine Badehosen. Im zweiten Stock haben wir keine Unterhosen!"
fragen DDR Kaufhaus Kunde Unterhosen Badehosen Im zweiten Stock to ask Deutsche Demokratische Republik (German Democratic Republic, long since reunited with the BRD) very big shop client underpants swimming trunks on the second floor


Review 2.02
German/Lesson 10
<< Lektion 9 | Lektion

10 | Lektion 11 >>

Lesson 10 is a review (Wiederholung) lesson to summarize the German language lessons presented in Lessons 6 through 9. You should, as well, return to Lektion 6 and review (that is, completely reread) each of the four lessons back up to this point. For a more advanced course, you should now incorporate each of the advanced lessons into this "review" process. That is: review Lesson 6, then do Lesson 6A, review Lesson 7, then do Lesson 7A, etc. If the advanced lessons have already been completed, then now review lessons in the order 6 -> 6A -> 7 -> 7A -> 8, etc.

Verb Conjugation
You have learned that there is a relationship between the subject of a verb and the form that verb takes in German. Some verbs follow a predictable regular pattern, while others are less predictable (irregular verbs). verb: pronoun Basicform ich du er/sie/es wir ihr sie Sie (formal) knnen (can) gehen (go) verb I (irreg.) verb II knnen gehen kann gehe kannst gehst kann geht knnen gehen knnt geht knnen gehen knnen gehen sein (to be) verb III (irregular) sein bin bist ist sind seid sind sind

As you can see, any verb uses the same declination for wir, sie and Sie. Also, er/sie/es uses the same declination for all three genders.


Section 2.03 ~ Hannover, Germany


Lesson 2.09 - Verbtempus und Wortstellung

German/Lesson 11
<< Lektion 10 |

Lektion 11 | Lektion 12 >> |

Ein Treffen in Hannover (WIP)

(Don't be too afraid, it's a lot of text but simple grammar!) Katja hat sich mit einem Freund, Markus, verabredet, den sie im Chat kennengelernt hat. Sie hat ein Foto von ihm gesehen, und vielleicht gefllt er ihr ja. Am "Krpcke", der grten U-Bahnstation in Hannover, steigt sie aus der U-Bahn. Tglich betreten Hunderte von Menschen diese Station, Schler, Studenten, Angestellte und Rentner. Sie ist 22, studiert seit 2 Jahren Tiermedizin in Hannover, und ist im Moment ledig. Sie geht auf die Rolltreppe, betritt die Stufen, und fhrt zwei Stockwerke nach oben. Whrenddessen schaut sie nach unten. Ihre U-Bahn hat die Station verlassen. Eine andere U-Bahn hat bereits gehalten, und die Fahrgste sind aufgestanden und ausgestiegen. Sie kommt auf der zweiten Ebene an und geht weiter, Richtung Sonnenlicht, in die Pasarelle. Die Pasarelle fhrt Richtung Hauptbahnhof, und links und rechts locken die Schaufenster der Geschfte. Nach einer Weile hat sie die Rolltreppe erreicht, die zum Hauptbahnhof fhrt. Nun sieht sie in voller Breite den Hauptbahnhof von Hannover, und davor einen Sockel mit einer Statue von einem Pferd mit Reiter. Dort hat Markus schon fnf Minuten gewartet und begrt sie, bevor sie sich ins Eiscafe nebenan setzen.

Katja Markus sich verabreden Chat kennenlernen kennengelernt das Foto sehen gesehen vielleicht gefallen er gefllt ihr Krpcke U-Bahn die grte die Station aussteigen tglich betreten Hunderte diese Female first name Male first name to make a date Internet Chat to get to know someone Partizip Perfekt von kennenlernen Photographic Picture to see Partizip Perfekt von "sehen" perhaps to please someone (with dative) She likes him (he pleases her, literally) The name of Hanover's biggest subway station subway greatest (feminine here) the station getting off (a train, investment etc.) daily to enter hundreds female form of "this"

German/Lesson 11
der Schler, die Schler(pl) "pupil" (British engl.) der Student der Angestellte student Clerk


der Rentner, die Rentner(pl) pensioner studieren im Moment ledig gehen Rolltreppe die Stufe fahren whrenddessen schauen ihre verlassen verlassen eine andere bereits der Fahrgast die Fahrgste aufstehen aufgestanden ausgestiegen die Ebene weitergehen sie geht weiter das Sonnenlicht die Richtung Richtung Sonnenlicht die Passarelle fhren Hauptbahnhof Richtung Hauptbahnhof links rechts locken das Schaufenster die Schaufenster das Geschft die Geschfte der Geschfte nach einer Weile erreichen erreicht die zum Hauptbahnhof fhrt to study currently a person not having a partner to go escalator stair to drive (often specializing from engl. to travel towards) "during this" look her (form for female possessions of a female person) to leave Partizip Perfekt von "verlassen" another (feminine object) already passenger passengers (pl) to stand up Partizip Perfekt von "aufstehen" Partizip Perfekt von "aussteigen" level/plateau to go on she goes on sunlight direction towards sunlight passage way lead central station (in most German cities this is in the city centre) in direction of the central station left right tempt (not to confuse with "die Locken" = locks, curls!!) display window plural of "das Schaufenster" the shop the shops of the shops After a while reach Partizip Perfekt von erreichen that leads to the central station

German/Lesson 11


Word Order
Inverted word order occurs under several circumstances, among which are: Interrogatives Time Expressions Subordinating Conjunctions For interrogatives, a simple statement, "Du hast das Buch." becomes "Hast du das Buch?" when converting it to a question. The method is simply switching the verb and subject of the sentence. Time expressions, such as "Nach der Schule" prefacing a sentence cause inverted word order. The formula is "Time Expression", "Verb", "Subject" and "Rest of sentence." Practically applied, "Every day, I go to school" becomes "Jeden Tag gehe ich zur Schule." Subordinating conjunctions connect a dependent clause to an independent clause. Some subordinating conjunctions are: dass (that), obwohl (although), seit (since), weil (because), and wenn (if, when). The formula for a dependent clause is "subordinating conjunction" "subject" "rest of clause" "verb" and is offset from the independent clause by a comma. Here are some examples (the dependent clause is underlined): Ich kann das Buch nicht kaufen, weil ich kein Geld habe. Ich kaufe das Buch fr dich, da du kein Geld hast. Wenn unsere Eltern uns besuchen, schenken sie uns Geschenke. I can't buy the book because I have no money. I am buying the book for you, as you have no money. When our parents visit us, they give us presents.


Lesson 2.10 - Undeveloped

German/Lesson 12
<< Lektion 11 |

Lektion 12

Ein Treffen in Hannover (WIP)

(Don't be afraid. There is a lot of text, but not much grammar.) Katja hat sich mit einem Freund, Markus, verabredet, den sie im Chat kennengelernt hat. Sie hat ein Foto von ihm gesehen, und vielleicht gefllt er ihr ja. Am "Krpcke", der grten U-Bahnstation in Hannover, steigt sie aus der U-Bahn. Tglich betreten Hunderte von Menschen diese Station, Schler, Studenten, Angestellte und Rentner. Sie ist 22, studiert seit 2 Jahren Tiermedizin in Hannover, und ist im Moment ledig. Sie geht auf die Rolltreppe, betritt die Stufen, und fhrt zwei Stockwerke nach oben. Whrenddessen schaut sie nach unten. Ihre U-Bahn hat die Station verlassen. Eine andere U-Bahn hat bereits gehalten, und die Fahrgste sind aufgestanden und ausgestiegen. Sie kommt auf der zweiten Ebene an und geht weiter, Richtung Sonnenlicht, in die Pasarelle. Die Pasarelle fhrt Richtung Hauptbahnhof, und links und rechts locken die Schaufenster der Geschfte. Nach einer Weile hat sie die Rolltreppe erreicht, die zum Hauptbahnhof fhrt. Nun sieht sie in voller Breite den Hauptbahnhof von Hannover, und davor einen Sockel mit einer Statue von einem Pferd mit Reiter. Dort hat Markus schon fnf Minuten gewartet und begrt sie, bevor sie sich ins Eiscafe nebenan setzen.

Katja Markus sich verabreden Chat kennenlernen kennengelernt das Foto sehen gesehen vielleicht gefallen er gefllt ihr Krpcke U-Bahn die grte die Station aussteigen tglich betreten Hunderte diese Female first name Male first name to make a date Internet Chat to get to know someone Partizip Perfekt von kennenlernen Photographic Picture to see Partizip Perfekt von "sehen" perhaps to please someone (with dative) She likes him (he pleases her, literally) The name of Hanover's biggest subway station subway greatest (feminine here) the station getting off (a train, investment etc.) daily to enter hundreds female form of "this"

German/Lesson 12
der Schler, die Schler(pl) "pupil" (British engl.) der Student der Angestellte student Clerk


der Rentner, die Rentner(pl) pensioner studieren im Moment ledig gehen Rolltreppe die Stufe fahren whrenddessen schauen ihre verlassen verlassen eine andere bereits der Fahrgast die Fahrgste aufstehen aufgestanden ausgestiegen die Ebene weitergehen sie geht weiter das Sonnenlicht die Richtung Richtung Sonnenlicht die Passarelle fhren Hauptbahnhof Richtung Hauptbahnhof links rechts locken das Schaufenster die Schaufenster das Geschft die Geschfte der Geschfte nach einer Weile erreichen erreicht die zum Hauptbahnhof fhrt to study currently a person not having a partner to go escalator stair to drive (often specializing from engl. to travel towards) "during this" look her (form for female possessions of a female person) to leave Partizip Perfekt von "verlassen" another (feminine object) already passenger passengers (pl) to stand up Partizip Perfekt von "aufstehen" Partizip Perfekt von "aussteigen" level/plateau to go on she goes on sunlight direction towards sunlight passage way lead central station (in most German cities this is in the city centre) in direction of the central station left right tempt (not to confuse with "die Locken" = locks, curls!!) display window plural of "das Schaufenster" the shop the shops of the shops After a while reach Partizip Perfekt von erreichen that leads to the central station

Inverted word order occurs under several circumstances, among which are:

German/Lesson 12 Interrogatives Time Expressions Subordinating Conjunctions For interrogatives, a simple statement, "Du hast das Buch." becomes "Hast du das Buch?" when converting it to a question. The method is simply switching the verb and subject of the sentence. Time expressions, such as "Nach der Schule" prefacing a sentence cause inverted word order. The formula is "Time Expression", "Verb", "Subject" and "Rest of sentence." Practically applied, "Every day, I go to school" becomes "Jeden Tag gehe ich zur Schule." Subordinating conjunctions connect a dependent clause to an independent clause. Some subordinating conjunctions are: dass (that), obwohl (although), seit (since), weil (because), and wenn (if, when). The formula for a dependent clause is "subordinating conjunction" "subject" "rest of clause" "verb" and is offset from the independent clause by a comma. Here are some examples (the dependent clause is underlined):
Ich kann das Buch nicht kaufen, weil ich kein Geld habe. Ich kaufe das Buch fr dich, da du kein Geld hast. Wenn unsere Eltern uns besuchen, schenken sie uns Geschenke. I can't buy the book because I have no money. I am buying the book for you, as you have no money. When our parents visit us, they give us presents.



Lesson 2.11 - Undeveloped


Lesson 2.12 - Undeveloped


Review 2.03




Section 3.01 ~ Bonn, Germany


Lesson 3.01 - Markus


Lesson 3.02 - Gesprche unter Geschftsmnnern

German/Level III/Gesprche Unter Geschftsmnnern
Lektion 1 | Lektion 2 | Lektion 3 | Lektion 4 | Lektion 5 | Lektion 6 | Lektion 7 | Lektion 8 | Lektion 9 | Lektion 10 | Lektion 11 | Lektion 12

Lektion Zwei fr Fortgeschrittene

Gesprch 2-3 ~ Katrin geht einkaufen

Katrin geht einkaufen. Sie braucht Wurst und Kse, aber sie findet viele leckere Lebensmittel in dem Delikatessengeschft. Katrin: Hallo. Ich brauche Kse. Verkufer: Ich habe einen leckeren Schmelzkse. Er heit 'Brimsen'. Katrin: Nein. Ich suche Hartkse. Haben Sie einen 'Jarlsberg'? Verkufer: Nein. Aber ich habe einen guten Schweizer Kse. Er schmeckt hnlich. Katrin: OK. Verkaufen Sie den stckweise? Verkufer: Ja. Ein Stck? Katrin: Bitte. Und haben Sie Wurst? Verkufer: Ja gewiss. Wir haben viele Wurstsorten. Katrin: Ich suche Wrstchen. Verkufer: Ich habe 'Nrnberger Schweinswrste'. Katrin: Das ist gut.

Vokabeln 2-3
das Delikatessengeschft der Hartkse das Lebensmittel, die Lebensmittel der Schmelzkse die Schweinswurst der Schweizerkse das Stck der Verkufer das Wrstchen die Wurstsorten Deli, Delicatessen hard cheese food, foods soft cheese pork sausage Emmenthaler cheese, Swiss cheese piece sales clerk small sausage types of sausage (das Geschft = business)

Bitte Nrnberger Schweinswrste

finden heien find call, name

If you please a type of small, pork sausage (pl.)

German/Level III/Gesprche Unter Geschftsmnnern

schmecken suchen verkaufen taste seek, look for sell (compare with einkaufen & der Verkufer)


hnlich ein lecker nicht stckweise

similar a, an, any, one tasty, delicious not piecemeal, by the piece (compare with das Stck)

Pronunciation Guide >>

Grammatik 2-5 ~ Word Formation

As in any language, many words in German are constructed from other smaller words that provide similar meaning, although the connections can sometimes be obscured by the passage of time. Construction of new words from word combinations is especially prevalent with German nouns, and understanding word roots can therefore be helpful in learning new words. As an example, consider the phrase Auf Wiedersehen the standard translation into English being 'Good bye', although it means literally 'upon reunion' (in essence, "until we meet again"). The noun, das Wiedersehen, consists of wieder, 'once again' (or 're-' as a prefix), and sehen or 'see'. The noun die Geschftsleute provides a direct example of a compounded noun: the first part of each deriving from das Geschft ('business') and the second part from die Leute ('people'). The gender of a compound noun follows the base or last noun. There are other examples in the this lesson, but these may not be immediately obvious unless you already have a good command of German words. However, you should train yourself to view new words in terms of the meanings of their component parts. Consider all of the various words used in this lesson to describe types of cheeses: der Hartkse, der Schmelzkse, der Schweizerkse; or nouns and verbs related to buying and selling (Kaufen und Verkaufen).

Grammatik 2-6 ~ Personal Pronouns: nominative case

Here are the personal pronouns in the nominative case:
Singular 1st person ich I wir ihr (Sie*) Plural we you

2nd person du (Sie*) you

3rd person er, sie, es he, she, it sie (all genders) they

Polite form.

The nominative case is that of the subject of a verb. The pronoun subject of these sentences is underlined in the German and the English:

German/Level III/Gesprche Unter Geschftsmnnern


Es geht mir gut. Das kann ich verstehen. Du bist ein Schwein!

It goes well (for) me. That I can understand. You are a pig!

Und knnen Sie mir sagen...? And can you tell (to) me...?

This last sentence is an example from Gesprch 2-3 using the polite form of 'you'. Whether singular or plural must be established by context. This next sentence translates with sie as 'they':
Und knnen sie mir sagen...? And this one, with sie as 'she': Und kann sie mir sagen...? And can she tell me...? And can they tell me...?

as evidenced by the form taken by the verb 'can' (knnen). Other uses of the nominative case in German will be explored in future lessons. Tables of the pronouns in all cases are summarized in the grammar appendix: Pronoun Tables. NOTE: An intransitive verb cannot be followed by an object in English or German. A pronoun following an intransitive verb such as 'to be' is called a predicate pronoun and should be in the nominative case. In English 'It is I' is correct; 'It is me' is incorrect.

Grammatik 2-7 ~ More on verb forms

Just as English sometimes adds the verb "to be", forming the progressive, note also in Grammatik 2-2 (in both question sentence examples) that English also may insert the verb 'to do' (called the emphatic form), especially useful when forming a question. This is not done in German:
Haben Sie zu viel Arbeit? becomes in English:. Do you have too much work? Hast du jede Wurst? becomes in English: Do you have every sausage? Does Helena have ten fingers? (Notice polite form of 'you' here)

Hat Helena zehn Finger? becomes in English:

Again, in the present tense, the English sentences: 'I write a letter.' 'I do write a letter.' are all, in German: Ich schreibe einen Brief. 'I am writing a letter.' means: Ich schreibe gerade einen Brief.

Vokabeln 2-4
der Brief das Einkaufen der Finger, die Finger das Kaufen das Schwein das Verkaufen letter shopping finger, fingers buying pig selling (use of the verb form is preferred) (compare with die Schweinswurst)

knnen schreiben

can write

German/Level III/Gesprche Unter Geschftsmnnern jede zehn any ten


Andere Wrter 2A
Using these additional vocabulary words, you should be able to restate Gesprch 2-2 above, altering the meaning (or time of day) of the conversation. der Abend Guten Abend! morgen frh zu wenig abend abends falsch morgen morgens schlecht
Pronunciation Guide >>

evening Good Evening (greeting) tomorrow morning too little evening evenings false, wrong tomorrow in the morning bad

bersetzung 2-2
Write these sentences in German. Pay attention to the additional words presented in Andere Wrter 2A: 1. Good evening Catherine.Where are you going? 2. I'm looking for a good Swiss cheese. 3. That is wrong! Too little is too little. Antworten >


Lesson 3.03 - Mach dir keine Sorgen!

German/Level III/Mach Dir Keine Sorgen!
Lektion 1 | Lektion 2 | Lektion 3 | Lektion 4 | Lektion 5 | Lektion 6 | Lektion 7 | Lektion 8 | Lektion 9 | Lektion 10 | Lektion 11 | Lektion 12

Lektion Drei fr Fortgeschrittene

Gesprch 3-3 ~ Mach dir keine Sorgen!

Beim Ballspielen macht Karl sich Sorgen um die Uhrzeit. Karl: Wie spt ist es jetzt? Heinrich: Es ist erst halb eins. Karl: Kannst du mir bitte sagen, wenn es Viertel vor zwei ist? Heinrich: Warum? Karl: Dann muss ich nach Hause gehen. Heinrich: Und jetzt ist es schon ein Uhr einunddreiig. Karl: Du bist komisch! Hier, ich kicke dir den Ball zu. Heinrich: Ja. Dann kann ich ihn dir zurckkicken. Karl: Ja. Und danach bringst du mich auf deinem Motorrad zu meiner Wohnung.

Vokabeln 3-3
das die das die das die die Ballspiel Minute Motorrad Sorge, die Sorgen Viertel Woche Wohnung ball game minute motorcycle problem(s), worry(-ies) quarter, one-fourth week apartment do not worry! go home kick kick back, return kick when, while after that your only half now comical, funny my already (usually, "at the")

mach dir keine Sorgen! nach Hause gehen kicken zurckkicken beim danach dein erst halb jetzt komisch mein schon

German/Level III/Mach Dir Keine Sorgen! zurck warum back why



Grammatik 3-5 ~ Numbers

Gender of Ordinals
Ordinal numbers are adjectives, and therefore have forms for each of the three genders in German. The forms are derived from the feminine form (as introduced in the beginning of Lesson 3) by adding an 'r' (masculine) or an 's' (neuter). Thus: erste (feminine), erster (masculine), and erstes (neuter). Examples: ~ erster Mann ('first man'); letzter Mann ('last man'); siebter Himmel (7th heaven) ~ zehnte Frau ('tenth woman'); zweite Woche ('second week') ~ drittes Mdchen ('third girl')

Grammatik 3-6 ~ Expressions of Time

Idioms used in Telling Time
As in English, there are a number of idiomatic phrases associated with giving or telling time. For example, note that the half hour is given as approaching the next hour. The German preposition, um, is used to mean "at" a given time.
Es ist halb elf. Er kommt um sieben Uhr. It is half past ten (10:30). He is coming at seven o'clock.

Sie kommt immer ungefhr um acht Uhr. She always comes around eight o'clock. Wir essen gegen sieben Uhr. Sie gehen nach Hause auf eine Stunde. Es ist viertel zehn1 1 We eat about seven o'clock. They go home for an hour. It is a quarter past nine

This idiom (Es ist viertel zehn) is used especially in the southern parts of Germany, but is becoming popular among young Germans throughout the Country.

Periods of the Day

There are a number of adverbial phrases used in German to denote time periods during the day. Common ones are listed here:
am Morgen am Mittag in the morning; also as morgens2 or des Morgens at noon, midday; also as mittags or des Mittags2

am Nachmittag in the afternoon; also as nachmittags or des Nachmittags2 am Abend am Tage in der Nacht gegen Abend gegen Morgen in the evening; also as abends or des Abends2 in the daytime at night towards evening towards morning

German/Level III/Mach Dir Keine Sorgen!



Forms like morgens and des Nachmittags would tend to be used to indicate customary or habitual actions, as in this sense: Morgens spiele ich. = In the morning I (usually) play. However, these forms aren't used much anymore.

Additional Notes
The first sentence in Gesprch 3-3 uses Beim Ballspielen in the sense of "during the ball game" or "while playing ball". Beim is a contraction of bei dem or "at the". However, das Ballspiel is a noun that represents an action ("playing with a ball"), so it is correct to use beim in the sense intended here. It is not the most beautiful way of saying thisbut is correct. With the infinitive of a verb you can use beim too: Beim Spielen means "while playing". This form is more common in modern German language.

Vokabeln 3-4
der der der der der die der Abend Himmel Mittag Morgen, die Morgen Nachmittag Nacht Tag, die Tage evening heaven noon, noontime morning(s) afternoon night day(s) depart (from a trip) for (duration), after towards, about, approximately last (at) about, approximately

abreisen auf gegen letzt(er) ungefhr

Note that morgen does not change in plural; thus, Die Morgen = "the mornings". It is uncommon to use it in plural, unless as a measure of land Vier Morgen Land = "four 'morgens of land". For a plural use of "mornings", it is better to substitute die Vormittage.

Andere Wrter 3A
Using these additional vocabulary words, you may be able to restate Gesprch 3-3 above, altering the meaning (or time of day) of the conversation. die Hlfte die Viertelstunde
Pronunciation Guide >>

half quarter of an hour

German/Level III/Mach Dir Keine Sorgen!


bersetzung 3-2
Translate the following sentences into German: 1.

I am always at home in the morning.

Antworten >


Section 3.02 ~ Innsbruck, Austria


Lesson 3.04 - Die Geschftsleute

German/Level III/Die Geschftsleute
Lektion 1 | Lektion 2 | Lektion 3 | Lektion 4 | Lektion 5 | Lektion 6 | Lektion 7 | Lektion 8 | Lektion 9 | Lektion 10 | Lektion 11 | Lektion 12

Lektion Vier fr Fortgeschrittene

Gesprch 4-2 ~ Die Geschftsleute

Herr Schmidt und Herr Standish, als sie sich am Hauptsitz endlich begegnen. Frau Baumann ist auch da.
Herr Schmidt: Guten Morgen, Herr Standish! Darf ich mich vorstellen: mein Name ist Schmidt, Johann Schmidt. Herr Standish: Es freut mich sehr, Sie kennen zu lernen. Ich heie Miles Standish. Herr Schmidt: Ich glaube, dass Sie Frau Baumann schon kennen. Herr Standish: Ja, gewiss. Wie geht es Ihnen, Frau Baumann? Frau Baumann: Danke, es geht mir gut. Herr Schmidt: Verstehe ich es richtig, dass Sie gestern ankamen und morgen ins Wiener Bro reisen mssen? Herr Standish: Ja, am Montag fuhr ich mit dem Schnellzug durch den rmelkanaltunnel. Wenn ich meine Arbeit abgeschlossen habe, werde ich am Donnerstag nach Zrich und Wien reisen. Herr Schmidt: Sehr gut. Bitte sprechen Sie vor Ende der Woche noch mit Frau Kaufmann. Frau Baumann: Sie arbeitet in der Geschftsbibliothek. Herr Schmidt: Das ist richtig. Die Bibliothek. Herr Standish: Ich werde es sofort tun. Herr Schmidt: Alles klar. Frau Baumann: Spter werden wir eine Versammlung in der Buchhaltung abhalten. Herr Standish: Sehr gut. Auf Wiedersehen Frau Baumann. Auf Wiedersehen Herr Schmidt. Herr Schmidt: Auf Wiedersehen.

Vokabeln 4-3
der die die die das der die der der der das die das rmelkanaltunnel Arbeit Bibliothek Buchhaltung Bro Donnerstag Geschftsbibliothek Montag Name Schnellzug Sehen Versammlung Wien Chunnel (England-France channel tunnel) work library accounting office office Thursday company (business) library Monday name express train vision meeting Vienna (Austria)

German/Level III/Die Geschftsleute das Wiedersehen die Woche das Zrich alles klar am Montag dann wenn Darf ich... ? Es freut mich sehr Guten Morgen! Ja, gewiss vor Ende der Woche Wiener Bro abhalten abschlieen ankommen (kam an, angekommen) fahren geben kennen lernen mssen reisen sehen tun sich vorstellen werden wrde bitte da durch endlich gestern nach natrlich mich mit schnell sofort wieder
Pronunciation Guide >>

172 reunion week Zurich all right, everything clear on Monday at such time when May I... ? It gives me pleasure Good morning! certainly, of course before the end of the week Vienna branch office hold complete arrive ride give meet, make acquaintance must travel see, look do, accomplish introduce will would please there through, by means of finally yesterday to, towards of course myself (reflexive) with fast, quick, rapid directly, forthwith again, once again



German/Level III/Die Geschftsleute


Grammatik 4-4 ~ Personal Pronouns: Accusative Case

Here are the personal pronouns in the accusative case:
Singular 1st person mich me you uns euch (Sie*) Plural us you

2nd person dich (Sie*)

3rd person ihn, sie, es him, her, it sie (all genders) them

*Polite form. The accusative case is that of the object of a verb. Only transitive verbs take direct objects. The pronoun (and noun in two cases) object in each of these sentences is underlined in the German and the English: Knnen Sie mich verstehen? Ich kann Sie verstehen. Ich kann sie verstehen Ich kann ihn dir zurck kicken! Can you understand me? I can understand you. I can understand (her or them). I can kick it back to you!

Note the order of the pronouns in this last sentence. If the direct object (here: ihn) is a personal pronoun, it precedes the dative (dir); if it were a noun, the dative would precede it, as in these sentences: Hier, ich kicke dir den Ball zu. Here, I kick the ball to you. Darf ich Ihnen meine Freundin vorstellen? May I introduce my friend to you? Other uses of the accusative case in German will be explored in future lessons. Tables of the personal pronouns in all cases are summarized in Pronoun Tables.

Grammatik 4-5 ~ Personal Pronouns in the Dative Case

Here are the personal pronouns in the dative case:
Singular 1st person mir me you uns euch (Ihnen*) Plural us you

2nd person dir (Ihnen*)

3rd person ihm, ihr, ihm him, her, it ihnen (all genders) them

*Polite form. The dative case is that of the indirect object of a verb. The pronoun indirect object of these sentences is underlined in the German and the English: Es geht mir gut Wie geht es dir? Und knnen Sie mir sagen...? Karl gibt ihm den Ball Wie geht es Ihnen? It goes (for) me well How goes it (for or with) you And can you tell me...? Karl gave him the ball. How goes it (with) you? (How are you?)

This last sentence is an example from Gesprch 1-2 using the polite form of 'you'. Whether singular or plural must be established by context. This next sentence translates with ihnen as 'them': Wie geht es ihnen? How goes it with them? (How are they?)

German/Level III/Die Geschftsleute The meaning of ihnen (or Ihnen) would have to come from context in a conversation. Another use of the dative case in German is after these prepositions: aus, bei, mit, nach, seit, von, zu. You will be introduced to the meanings of these prepositions over many future lessons rather than all at once, because some have many meanings in English. Indeed, because each language associates specific prepositions with many common sayings (and these often do not correspond in German and English), these "little" words can be troublesome for students. Nonetheless, you should memorize now the list of prepositions above to always remember their association with the dative case. Tables of the pronouns in all cases are summarized in Appendix 2. Word order in a German sentence with an indirect object depends upon whether that direct object is a pronoun or a noun. If the direct object is a noun, the dative precedes the accusative; if the direct object is a personal pronoun, the accusative precedes the dative:
Ich gebe dem Jungen den Ball. I give the boy the ball. Ich gebe ihm den Ball. Ich gebe ihn ihm. Ich gebe ihn dem Jungen. I give him the ball. I give it to him. I give it to the boy.


English sentence structure is similar.


Lesson 3.05 - Der Englnder in sterreich

German/Level III/Der Englnder in sterreich
Lektion 1 | Lektion 2 | Lektion 3 | Lektion 4 | Lektion 5 | Lektion 6 | Lektion 7 | Lektion 8 | Lektion 9 | Lektion 10 | Lektion 11 | Lektion 12

Lektion Fnf

Rathaus von St. Plten

Gesprch 5-2 ~ Der Englnder in sterreich

Republik sterreich

Wenn er auf den Kontinent fhrt, wandert Herr Standish gern. Heute frh fhrt er in die Stadt St. Plten in Niedersterreich. Er spricht mit einer fremden Frau: Herr Standish: Entschuldigen Sie bitte. Wo ist hier ein Hotel? Die Frau: Gleich dort drben. Das ist das Hotel "Zur Post". Herr Standish: Gibt es ein Restaurant darin? Die Frau: Ja gewiss! Ein Restaurant mit einfacher Kche, besonders zum Abendessen. Aber ich knnte Ihnen ein anderes Restaurant empfehlen. Es heit 'Alt-Wien', und es gibt dort das beste Frhstck. Das Restaurant ist links neben dem Hotel, um die Ecke. Herr Standish: Danke sehr. Und knnen Sie mir sagen, wo das Rathaus von St. Plten ist?

German/Level III/Der Englnder in sterreich Die Frau: Wie bitte? Herr Standish: Wie komme ich zum Rathaus? Die Frau: Rechts um die Ecke und dann immer geradeaus ungefhr ein Kilometer. Herr Standish: Danke sehr. Die Frau: Bitte sehr. Wiedersehen. Herr Standish: Auf Wiedersehen.


Vokabeln 5A
das Abendessen [das] sterreich die Ecke das Frhstck das Hotel der Kilometer die Kche der Kontinent [das] Niedersterreich das Rathaus das Restaurant die Stadt Bitte sehr Entschuldigen Sie Es gibt dort... Gibt es...? Guten Tag immer geradeaus knnen Sie Wie bitte? empfehlen fahren kommen wandern sagen sprechen anderer, andere, anderes besonders bitte das dann darin ein eins fremd gern gleich supper (evening meal) Austria corner breakfast hotel kilometer cooking, cuisine continent (Europe) (federal state of) Lower Austria city hall restaurant city You're welcome Pardon me, excuse me There is there... Is there..? good day (parting) straight on ahead could you (polite form) Pardon me? (polite "come again?") recommend travel come, go, get wander say, tell speak other especially please that then therein a (indefinite article) one (cardinal number) unknown gladly just, right (correct), right here, same

German/Level III/Der Englnder in sterreich heute frh hier ich links neben rechts ungefhr von wie wo zu this morning here (in this place) I (personal pronoun) left (direction) next to right (direction) approximately of (Rathaus von St. Plten = St. Polten City Hall) how (interrogative) where (interrogative) to (zum = contraction of zu dem)


Andere Wrter 4A
der der die die Bahnhof Flughafen Polizeiwache Post train station airport police station post office exact(ly) today

genau heute

Lesestck 5-1 ~ Eine Geschichte ber St. Plten

Karte: St. Plten in sterreich

Niedersterreich ist sowohl flchenmig als auch nach Einwohnern das grte der neun sterreichischen Bundeslnder. Sankt Plten ist die Landeshauptstadt von Niedersterreich. Der Name St. Plten geht auf den heiligen Hippolytos zurck, nach dem die Stadt benannt wurde. Die Altstadt befindet sich dort, wo vom 2. bis zum 4. Jahrhundert die Rmerstadt Aelium Cetium stand. 799 wurde der Ort als "Treisma" erwhnt. Das Marktrecht erhielt St. Plten um 1050, zur Stadt erhoben wurde es 1159. Bis 1494 stand St. Plten im Besitz des Bistums Passau, dann wurde es landesfrstliches Eigentum. Bereits 771 findet sich ein Benediktinerkloster, ab 1081 gab es Augustiner-Chorherren, 1784 wurde deren Kollegiatsstift aufgehoben, das Gebude dient seit 1785 als Bischofssitz. Zur Landeshauptstadt von Niedersterreich wurde St. Plten mit Landtagsbeschluss vom 10. Juli 1986, seit 1997 ist es Sitz der Niedersterreichischen Landesregierung.

German/Level III/Der Englnder in sterreich


Luftbild von St. Plten

Vokabeln 5B
Die Der Der Das Der Die Die Das Die Das Die Das Das Das Die Die Der Das Der Der Die Der Altstadt Augustiner Besitz Bistum Bischofssitz Bundeslnder Chorherren Eigentum Einwohner Gebude Geschichte Jahrhundert Kloster Kollegiatsstift Landeshauptstadt Landesregierung Landtagsbeschluss Marktrecht Name Ort Rmerstadt Sitz old town Augustinian possession, holding diocese bishop's see (a seat of a bishop's authority) federal states men's choir proprietorship inhabitants premises history century monastery, friary monastery college regional or state capital city provincial (state) government day of jurisdictional reorganization right to hold markets name place, spot, city Roman town official place a dioecian region in Bavaria both... and goes back to

Bistum Passau sowohl... als auch zurck auf

aufheben (hob auf, aufgehoben) merged in (or turned into?) befinden sich situated, located (befand sich, haben sich befunden) finden sich* found (located) benennen (benannte, benannt) call (as to label) erhalten (erhielt, erhalten) receive erheben (erhob, erhoben) arise, raise erwhnen (erwhnte, erwhnt) mention stehen (stand, gestanden) stand (stood, stood) werden (wurde, [ist]geworden) become

German/Level III/Der Englnder in sterreich

ab auf bereits bis flchenmig heilig landesfrstlich nach um from up already until, by, up to (no direct translation) ~ when measured in surface holy baronial or princely (holdings) in terms of around


(* one short form of anfinden: findet sich (an); in colloquial language you can cut the "an"; but in THIS special case it is the short form of "(be)findet sich (dort)")
Pronunciation Guide >>

Read more about St. Plten [1] at the German Wikipedia (source of article above).

[1] http:/ / de. wikipedia. org/ wiki/ St. _Plten


Lesson 3.06 - Tour de France

German/Level III/Tour de France
Lektion 1 | Lektion 2 | Lektion 3 | Lektion 4 | Lektion 5 | Lektion 6 | Lektion 7 | Lektion 8 | Lektion 9 | Lektion 10 | Lektion 11 | Lektion 12

Lernen 7-2 ~ Tour de France

(aus Wikipedia, der freien Enzyklopdie) Die Tour de France ist eines der berhmtesten und wichtigsten sportlichen Groereignisse berhaupt. Seit 1903 wird die Tour alljhrlich - mit Ausnahme der Zeit des Ersten und Zweiten Weltkriegs - drei Wochen lang im Juli ausgetragen und fhrt dabei in wechselnder Streckenfhrung quer durch Frankreich und das nahe Ausland. Eine Tour de France der Frauen (grande boucle fminine) mit deutlich krzeren Etappen wird seit 1984 gefahren. Sie steht medial vllig im Schatten ihres mnnlichen Pendants.

Vokabeln 7A
die die der das der das die die die der Ausnahme Enzyklopdie Erste Weltkrieg Groereignis Juli Radrennen Welt Woche, die Wochen Zeit Zweite Weltkrieg exception encyclopedia WW I major event July bicycle race world week, weeks time, period WW II among the most widely renowned, the most popular every year among (one of) most celebrated, most renowned free since athletic altogether, generally during three weeks lasting broad, wide important

(bei weitem) berhmteste alljhrlich bei berhmteste frei, freien (Akkusativ) seit sportlich berhaupt whrend drei Wochen lang weit wichtig
Pronunciation Guide >>


Section 3.03 ~ Bavaria, Germany


Lesson 3.07 - Undeveloped


Lesson 3.08 - Undeveloped


Lesson 3.09 - Undeveloped




Section 01 ~ Kiel, Germany


Section 02 ~ Schaan, Liechtenstein


Section 03 ~ Schaffhausen, Switzerland




Adjectives and Adverbs

German/Grammar/Adjectives and Adverbs
Adjectives are words that describe nouns. Most adjectives are stand-alone words; however, present and past participles can also be used as adjectives. Numbers are also adjectives, though they do not decline. Adjectives may be either predicate or attributive. Predicate adjectives are adjectives connected to a noun through a verb known as a copula. Those verbs in German are sein (to be), werden (to become), and bleiben (to remain). Other verbs, such as machen and lassen impart a predicate adjective onto an accusative object. Predicate adjectives are never inflected.
Ich bin noch ledig. Ich werde bse. (I am still single.) (Despite the argument we remain married.)

Trotz des Streites bleiben wir verheiratet. (I am getting angry.) Die alte Milch wird dich krank machen.

(The old milk will make you sick.)

Attributive adjectives precede the noun that they are describing, and are always declined. Learning the adjective endings is a central part to the study of German. The adjective endings are frequently one of the hardest topics for new students to learn. It is best to commit the declension tables to memory, while attempting to speak independently. Proper use of adjective endings, especially in speaking, will come with repeated use. They are described in the next part of this chapter.

Adjective Endings
This section will make use of the mnemonic Oklahoma, which denotes the fields of nominative masculine; nominative neuter; accusative neuter; nominative feminine; and accusative feminine, which resemble the state of Oklahoma in the tables used below. The concept is used to describe endings in two declension tables: the weak adjective declension, and the indefinite-article/ein-word declension. The endings of attributive adjectives can be divided into two groups: strong endings and weak endings.

Strong Adjective Declension

Case Masculine Neuter Feminine Plural -es -es -em -en -e -e -er -er -e -e -en -er

Nominative -er Accusative Dative Genitive -en -em -en

The strong adjective endings are nearly the same as the der-word endings, with the exceptions of masculine and neuter adjectives in the genitive case (marked in bold).

German/Grammar/Adjectives and Adverbs


Note the shape of the state Oklahoma

Weak Adjective Declension

Case Masculine Neuter Feminine Plural -e -e -en -en -e -e -en -en -en -en -en -en

Nominative -e Accusative Dative Genitive -en -en -en

Make note of the region, Oklahoma, in the nominative and accusitive cases, for weak endings. The use of a weak or a strong adjective ending depends on what precedes it:

Choice of Adjective Ending

Preceding Article Definite Article, der-words Choice of Ending Weak Ending

Indefinite Article, ein-words Within Oklahoma, Strong Ending Outside Oklahoma, Weak Ending No article Strong Ending

The principle guiding adjective endings is that a noun, when possible, should have a primary case ending. Definite articles and der-words always provide a primary case ending. Indefinite articles and ein-words provide primary case endings outside of Oklahoma. Sometimes nouns have no article, in which case adjectives provide the primary case ending.

German/Grammar/Adjectives and Adverbs


Forms in Context of Articles

This terminology - strong and weak endings - is confusing for many students. As the student develops, he or she will develop an ear for case endings, and will recognize when a noun has and has not received a case ending. Nonetheless, it is worth providing the three declension tables that result from this principle.

Adjective Declension following a Definite Article or der-word

Case Masculine the large man Nominative der groe Mann Accusative Dative Genitive den groen Mann dem groen Mann dem kleinen Buch der ruhigen Katze den roten pfeln der roten pfel Neuter the small book das kleine Buch Feminine the quiet cat die ruhige Katze Plural the red apples die roten pfel

des groen Mannes des kleinen Buches

Adjectives following a definite article or der-word always have a weak ending. Within Oklahoma, that is "-e", and outside of Oklahoma, that is "-en". Also dies.., jed.., manch.., welch.., solch.. and all.. get the same ending as in the table above.

Adjective Declension following an Indefinite Article or ein-word

Case Masculine a large man Nominative ein groer Mann Accusative Dative Genitive einen groen Mann einem groen Mann einem kleinen Buch einer ruhigen Katze keinen roten pfeln keiner roten pfel Neuter a small book ein kleines Buch Feminine a quiet cat eine ruhige Katze Plural no red apples keine roten pfel

eines groen Mannes eines kleinen Buches

Note how, within Oklahoma, adjectives take strong endings, and outside Oklahoma, they take weak endings. This is because indefinite articles provide primary endings only outside of Oklahoma. Also mein.., dein.., sein.., ihr.., unser.., euer.. and Ihr.. get the same ending as in the table above.

Adjective Declension with no preceding article

Case Masculine Neuter kleines Buch Feminine ruhige Katze Plural rote pfel

Nominative groer Mann Accusative Dative Genitive groen Mann groem Mann

kleinem Buch

ruhiger Katze roten pfeln roter pfel

groen Mannes kleinen Buches

Forms of nouns without articles are rare compared to those with definite and indefinite articles; however, one must still know the strong declension. Note that the strong adjective declension is almost the same as the der-word endings, with the exceptions of masculine and neuter in the genitive case (in bold).

German/Grammar/Adjectives and Adverbs


Adverbs based on adjectives are one of the simplest parts of German grammar. Any adjective can be used as an adverb simply by placing its uninflected form within the sentence, usually towards the end. Das Ehepaar ging gestern frhlich spazieren. (The married couple went for a walk joyfully yesterday.) Other adverbs have no adjectival equivalent. Many of these express time.
Damals (at that time) Ich bin gestern dort gewesen. (I was there yesterday) (I am normally in the office in the morning.) Morgens bin ich normalerweise im Bro.

Adverbs can also be based on participles (past and present). These are less common. Er betrachtete mich bedrohlich. (He looked at me threateningly.)

Some adverbs are formed by adding -weise to adjectives and nouns in the plural form, and mean "regarding", "with respect to", or "-wise" in English. Construction of new adverbs of this sort is usually frowned upon.

Adverbs based on prepositions

Much of the material in this section will be explained in greater detail in the chapter on prepositions. German has a complex system of adverbs based on prepositions, which are used to indicate direction of motion, location, time, and other concepts. English also possesses such a system, though it is used less. Consider the following sentences in English:
1) Could you take the garbage out? 2) Come over this evening if you get the chance. 3) You should just give up. 4) I will look you up in the phone book. 5) The contract, and the conditions contained therein, is hereby declared null and void. (Legalese)

In both English and German, prepositions and particles derived from prepositions are treated as adverbs. In many cases, these prepositional adverbs are associated with specific verbs. In the first two examples, the italicized prepositions are used as adverbs of motion; in the first example, the word "out" indicates the direction "out of the apartment"; in the second case, "over" not only means means the direction "towards", but also implies visitation of a residence. The third and fourth examples correspond to separable-prefix verbs in German. The word "up" is integral to the verb, which would have a different meaning without the adverb. "To give up", whose infinitive in German would be "to up-give", means "to quit", in sharp contrast to "to give". In the fourth example, it is not even possible to "look someone", whereas it is possible to "look someone up," or "look a candidate's resume over". (English even has inseparable prepositional prefix verbs; compare "to look s.o. over" to "to overlook s.o." Many of these verbs have been replaced by verbs based on Latin and Greek.) The adverbs in the fifth example correspond to da-, wo-, hin- and her- compounds in German. Such compounds are often used in legal texts in English. In such compounds, the object of the preposition is replaced with the words "there" or "here", compounded with the preposition. "Therein" simply means "in it". The German system of adverbs based on prepositions is considerably more rigorous, and forms the basis of a large part of the language's morphology. "To catch on" means "to begin" in English; In German, the primary word for "to begin" is literally "to catch on" (anfangen), from which the equivalent noun, der Anfang (the beginning) is derived.

German/Grammar/Adjectives and Adverbs A remnant of this in English can be found when describe a child's upbringing. As in English, prepositional adverbs in German to varying degrees alter the meaning of their associated verb. Separable-prefix verbs. This topic is better explored in the chapter on verbs. Separable prefixes are themselves adverbs. As in English, many of them are integral to the meaning of the verb. Fangen means "to catch," whereas anfangen means "to begin". Most prepositional adverbs are treated as part of the root word in the infinitive, and are used as such in the construction of participles. However, not all possible separable-prefix verbs are lexical; "vorbeikommen" (to come over), "vorbeibringen" (to bring over), and so on, may not all be listed in a dictionary. It is better to learn "vorbei" as an adverb implying visitation. The German prefix in is of note. It has two adverbial forms. As in it describes location; when describing movement, it becomes ein. Thus, for example, darin means "in there", whereas darein means "in(to) there". Another example is the word, einleiten, to introduce. Hin- and her-. Prepositional adverbs of motion are usually based on hin-, implying motion or direction away from the speaker, and her-, implying motion or direction towards the speaker. Hin and her are themselves stand-alone adverbs meaning the same thing, and describe less-specific motion or direction. (One example in which hin is an integral separable prefix is the verb hinrichten, which means "to execute.) Not all verbs formed from hin- and hercompounds are lexical. Some examples of hin- and her- compounds are: herab (down, down from) hinein (in, inside) hinaus (out, out of, onto) darber hinaus (furthermore, above all) dahin (in the direction/towards of known location) Mastery of hin- and her- requires considerable effort from the student. Da- compounds are also adverbs, corresponding to "there-" compounds in English. They replace specific prepositional objects. Although are used principally in legal texts and therefore sound formal in English, they are often employed in written and spoken German and are convenient replacements for long and complicated prepositional phrases. Their comprehension and active use are essential in German. Da- compounds are formed by adding da- before the preposition, with an "r" inserted before prepositions starting with a vowel. There are exceptions to this, and da- compounds are given a fuller treatment in the chapter on prepositions. Hier- and dort- compounds also exist in German, though they are used less frequently. As in English, they are considered formal, and are used primarily in academic and legal texts. They are best memorized as vocabulary. hierhin und dorthin - hither and thither
() (discussion) Grammar Adjectives and Adverbs Alphabet Cases Nouns Prepositions and Postpositions Pronouns Sentences Verbs


() German Lessons:

Level I

Level II

Level III

Level IV

Level V (discussion)

Grammar Appendices About (including print versions) Q&A Planning




What Is a Noun?
A word that can be used to refer to a person, place, thing, quality, or idea; part of speech. It can serve as the subject or object of a verb. For example a table or a computer. Nouns start with a capital letter in written language.

German, unlike English, has more than one way to make nouns plural, and plural form, like gender, must be memorized with every noun. There are twelve different ways to form plurals in German. They are formed by affixes at the end of the word, and the umlaut of the vowel of the stem. They are - (changing nothing); -; -e; -e; -n; -n; -en; -en; -er; -er; -nen (to feminine suffix -in); -s (mainly with English loan-words); adding "foreign" endings (mainly Latin words); and changing suffixes (mainly Latin words). When German nouns are used in the plural, their gender becomes irrelevant. The plural can almost be thought of as a gender on its own. In the plural, the definite article is always "die" when using the nominative and accusative cases. When using the dative case, "den" is the definite article of all plurals. All plurals not ending in -n or -s affix an -n. The definite article of the plural in the genitive case is "der". Examples Nominative: Die alten Mnner spielen Schach. The old men are playing chess. Accusative: Ich sah die alten Mnner beim Schachspielen. I saw the old men as they played chess. Dative: Ich spielte mit den alten Mnnern Schach. I played chess with the old men. Genitive: Das Schachspiel der alten Mnner war nicht sehr spannend. The old men's chess game was not very exciting.

Although gender and plural form are often arbitrary, there exist certain suffixes whose gender and plural form are regular. They are mainly feminine. -ung, -heit, -keit, -schaft, -ion, and -tt These are all feminine endings, which are pluralized by -en. Diskussion(en) Discussion(s) Universtt(en) University(ies) -unft This endings is feminine and is pluralized by changing the stem vowel and adding -e Unterkunft Lodging

German/Grammar/Nouns Unterknfte Lodgings -ik This ending often doesn't have a plural. When it does however, you add '-en Technik(en) Technique(s) Other When verb infinitives transform into nouns, they do not have a plural form. das Sprechen Language Many masculine nouns are formed by verbal stems without a suffix. Many of these receive an umlaut in their plural form.


German, like many other languages, gives each noun a gender: Masculine, Feminine, and Neuter. Plural nouns also act differently not only with the verb of the sentence, but the article preceding it. The way any particular word is classified may not be logical. Examples: das Mdchen die Person the girl (neuter) the person (feminine - even when talking about a man)

However, not all German Nouns are randomly allocated a gender. The following notes will apply to most nouns but not all. A note on Mdchen: This is derived from the diminutive form of Maid (old, rarely used) - Maidchen. Grammatically it is neuter, but when referenced, nowadays the logical feminine gender takes over: Das Mdchen und ihr Hund. (Das Mdchen und sein Hund would be used in German slang but is rare and shouldn't be used.)

There are far more masculine nouns than of either of the other genders. The masculine nominative definite article is der.

Semantic Groups Which Are Masculine

days times of the day months seasons male persons* male animals alcohol** car*** z.B. z.B. z.B. z.B. z.B. z.B. z.B. z.B. der der der der der der der der Montag Morgen August Sommer Mann, der Knig Lwe, der Hahn, der Ochse Wein, der Likr, der Alkohol, der Champagner Wagen, der Opel, der Mercedes, der BMW

* With, of course, the exception of die Person which remains feminine even when talking about a man. ** However, it is das Bier, die Spirituose(because of the ending "-ose"), das Pils(because it is a beer), das

German/Grammar/Nouns Methanol(because it is a scientific term of a substance) *** Excepting "das Auto". Words with Certain Endings These rules apply always
-ismus: der Kommunismus, der Anglizismus, der Terrorismus -ling: der Lehrling (apprentice), der Liebling (darling), der Schmetterling (butterfly) -or: der Motor -ant: der Elefant


The following groups of nouns are usually (but not always) masculine
Nouns ending in -el: Nouns ending in -er: Nouns ending in -en: der Vogel der Hamster der Kuchen (but not infinitives used as nouns. They are neuter: das Rauchen, das Lachen)

Nouns ending in -aum: Examples: Baum, Traum, Schaum, Raum, Saum, Flaum Nouns ending in -ang: Examples: Drang, Fang, Gang, Hang, Klang, Rang, Anfang, Empfang, Gesang, Tang Nouns ending in -und: Examples: Bund, Grund, Schund, Hund, Fund, Schwund, Schlund, Mund Exceptions: neuter: Pfund Nouns ending in -all: Examples: Ball, Fall, Krawall, Drall, Hall, Wall, Aufprall, Kristall, Knall, Schall, Zufall, Abfall, Vorfall, Schwall Exceptions: neuter: All, Metall, Intervall feminine: Nachtigall

The feminine Gender article is die. It is used in the nominative and accusative singular case. It is also used to indicate nominative and accusative plural for nouns of any gender. e.g. die Katze Feminine or die Katzen feminine plural die Mnner - masculine plural die Mdchen - neuter plural

German/Grammar/Nouns Semantic Groups Female persons and animals are usually feminine (very few exceptions). Examples: die Frau (woman) die Schwester (sister) die Mutter (mother) To change a male designation to feminine, you often use the ending -in. der der der der der Lehrer - die Lehrerin (teacher) Kaiser - die Kaiserin (emperor and empress) Knig - die Knigin (king and queen) Arzt - die rztin (doctor) Lwe - die Lwin


Exceptions das Mdchen (girl) das Kind (child) das Frulein (old fashioned for Miss) A lot of plants and trees are also feminine Examples: die die die die die Buche (beech) Eiche (oak) Rose (rose) Tulpe (tulip) Nelke (carnation)

Exceptions: das Veilchen (violet), der Farn (fern) ... Words With Certain Endings The following rules always apply. German words: -heit: die Gesundheit (health), die Wahrheit (truth) -keit: die Mglichkeit (possibility) -schaft: die Wirtschaft, die Freundschaft -ei: die Trkei, die Mongolei, die Bckerei*
Words derived from verbs with the ending -ung: die Beobachtung (observation; v: beobachen), die Verfolgung (persecution; v: verfolgen)

Words derived from verbs (mostly irregular verbs), ending in -t: die Handschrift (hand writing (n), derived from "schreiben), die Fahrt (journey, trip or ride, derived from fahren) Exceptions

German/Grammar/Nouns * das Ei (egg) has nothing to do with the ending -ei. Das Ei is neuter, including all words derived from: z.B. das Spiegelei, das Rhrei, das Vogelei (different types of eggs) Foreign words: Words with the endings given below are always stressed on the last syllable. -enz: die Intelligenz (intelligence), die Konsequenz (consequence) -i.e.: die Philosophie (philosophy), die Melodie (melody) -ik: die Musik (music), die Politik (politics) -ion: die Nation, die Qualifikation (qualification) -ur: die Kultur (culture)
-tt: Examples:


Universitt, Majestt, Lokalitt, Piett, Integritt, Qualitt, Aktivitt, Prioritt, Nationalitt, Kapazitt

-age: Examples: Garage, Montage, Etage, Spionage, Persiflage, Blamage The following rule applies often. -e: die Lampe (lamp), die Karte (card, map) Exceptions: semantic reasons: der Junge (boy), der Franzose (French man), der Lwe (Lion) others: der Kse (cheese)

The neutral Gender article is das for the nominative and accusative case. Semantic Groups names of colors: das Blau, das Rot, das Gelb, das Hellgrn, das Dunkelbraun Words With Certain Endings This rule applies always: diminutive endings -lein and -chen: das Mdchen (girl), das Huschen (little house), das Bchlein (little book) This rules apply often:
ending -um if the word has Latin origin: : das Zentrum, das Museum ending -ment: das Parlament (parliament), das Fundament (base, basis), das Element (element)

Words that end with -em and are stressed on the last syllable: Examples: Problem, Theorem, System, Extrem

German/Grammar/Nouns Foreign words that end with -ett and are stressed on the last syllable: Examples: Tablett, Etikett, Korsett, Parkett, Kabarett, Ballett Words that end with -ma: Examples: Thema, Trauma, Drama, Dilemma, Prisma, Schema, Koma, Klima, Komma, Karma, Lama, Dogma, Paradigma Exceptions: feminine: Firma Words that end with -o: Examples: Auto, Radio, Video, Kino, Kilo, Bro, Sakko, Solo, Storno, Bistro, Manko, Banjo, Tempo, Motto, Fresko, Embargo, Esperanto, Studio, Ghetto, Foto, Echo, Piano, Cello, Kasino Exceptions: masculine: Tango, Fango, Espresso, Embryo Foreign words that end with -om: Examples: Syndrom, Palindrom, Phantom, Polynom, Binom, Monom, Atom, Axiom, Genom, Symptom, Diplom, Kondom, Chromosom Words With Certain Beginnings Nouns that begin with Ge- are often neuter. Examples: Gedicht, Gericht, Gesicht, Gewicht, Geheimnis, Gebirge, Geschirr, Gedchtnis, Gebiet, Gespenst, Gewissen, Gesetz, Getrnk, Gewand, Gewitter, Geschenk, Gesprch, Gebude, Gehuse, Gemse, Geschft, Getreide, Gercht, Gewerbe Exceptions: masculine: Gedanke, Genuss, Geschmack, Gewinn, Geruch feminine: Gewalt, Gestalt, Geschichte, Gemeinde, Gefahr Nouns Derived From Certain Verbclasses Verbs used as noun (roughly corresponding to the gerund) das Rauchen (Smoking), das Lesen (Reading)


Tips For Learning

As most German articles can not be attributed to certain rule, it is best to always learn the article when learning the noun. You may think of the article as necessary information belonging to every noun. You avoid a lot of looking-up-time that way.



Looking Up Gender in Dictionaries

Most dictionaries do not give the article. Instead, you find different sets of abbreviations which tell you to which class the noun in question belongs. The most common sets of abbreviations are: r, e, and s. r: der, masculine; e: die, feminine; s: das, neuter. The abbreviations of this type are usually given before the noun. m, f, and n. m: masculine; f: feminine; n: neuter. The abbreviations of this type are usually given after the noun. m, w, and s. m: mnnlich, masculine; w: weiblich, feminine; s: schlich, neuter. The abbreviations of this type are usually given after the noun.

Adjectival Nouns Weak Nouns Mixed Nouns
() (discussion) Grammar Adjectives and Adverbs Alphabet Cases Nouns Prepositions and Postpositions Pronouns Sentences Verbs

() German Lessons:

Level I

Level II

Level III

Level IV

Level V (discussion)

Grammar Appendices About (including print versions) Q&A Planning






Adjectival Nouns


Weak Nouns


Mixed Nouns


German Pronouns Declined
Nominative Accusative Dative Genitive Singular I You (informal singular) He It She ich du er es sie mich dich ihn es sie Plural We (us) You (informal plural) They wir ihr sie uns euch sie Sie uns euch ihnen Ihnen unser euer ihrer Ihrer unsereuer- (shortened to eur- for "eure") ihrIhrmir dir ihm ihm ihr meiner deiner seiner seiner ihrer meindeinseinseinihrPossessive Pronoun

You (formal - singular or plural) Sie

Note: The possessive is not a case of the personal pronoun, rather it's a pronoun itself. This table shows the possessive pronoun's stem, which is declined as an ein-word (like the indefinite article). The genitive case indicates possession or association, and is equivalent to, and replaces, the English word "of". "Des" and "der" (do not confuse with masculine singular nominative) mean "of the"; "eines" and "einer" mean "of a/an"; and, "der Sohn guten Weins" means "the son of good wine" (no article, M, Gen strong adj). Strict replacement of the genitive case with the word "of" maintains the word-order of the German nominal phrase: possessed - possessor (in genitive). The genitive case also replaces "'s" in English, though reversing the word-order (in English: possessor's possessed). German itself also uses an "s" (though without the apostrophe) to indicate possession, in the same word order as English. It is used mainly with proper nouns, such as "Goethes Heimat", as well as for compounding words. Standard genitive constructions are used with nouns and modifiers of nouns such as articles and adjectives, and the inflection they receive implies possession. The first noun may be in any case and may occur in any part of the sentence; the second noun, which possesses the first noun, immediately follows the first noun, and is in the genitive case. The noun in the genitive case need not have any modifiers - e.g., Heimat Goethes, Heimat Katerina, which mean the homeland of Goethe and Katerina, respectively - though such constructions can be cumbersome and ambiguous. Proper treatment of the genitive case, including all of the declensions, is found in another part of this book. German pronouns have genitive forms, but they are used only rarely nowadays, mostly in archaic or formal German. In many cases, a preposition can be added to allow a different case to be used. Ich erinnere mich ihrer. (I remember her) Also possible: Ich erinnere mich an sie.

German/Grammar/Pronouns Wir gedachten seiner. (We thought of him) Also possible: Wir dachten an ihn. Herr, erbarme dich unser! (Lord, have mercy upon us) Also possible: Herr, erbarme dich ber uns. The possessive pronouns (mein-, dein-, unser-, etc.) are almost identical in form to the genitive pronouns and but they directly modify their attribute and could be conceived of as adjectives, though they decline differently. Alternatively, one could think of possessive pronouns, e.g., "mein-", as replacing the phrase, "of me". Directly translated, "mein-" means "my" in English. Examples:
I want the teacher's book. Let's rewrite this as: I want the book of the teacher. -Ich will das Buch des Lehrers (der Lehrerin).


--The genitive case here is masculine (feminine) singular, inflecting the definite article (des/der) as well as the noun (Lehrer (+s), but not Lehrerin, which doesn't change because it is feminine). Without his friend's car, we cannot go home. -Ohne den Wagen seines Freundes knnen wir nicht nach Hause fahren. --Here, two possessive relationships are mentioned. The car belongs to the friend, and the friend belongs to "him". For illustrative purposes, one could conceivably re-write the prepositional phrase as "without the car (accusitive case) of the friend of him". German's rendering is far less awkward. The wall of the building is old and brown. -Die Wand des Gebudes ist alt und braun. --As in the first example, the genitive case here is in the masculine singular, and inflects the definite article and the noun (M,N add +s/+es in the genitive case).

Comparison of Pronouns to other Parts of Speech

Despite the difficulty many people have in learning German declensions, case-endings in German correspond to each other to a considerable degree. Specifically, the pronouns bear an obvious resemblance to their parent direct articles. Learning the corresponding 3rd-person declensions side-by-side allows some people to comprehend the declension pattern more easily. As discussed above, possessive pronouns replace the genitive case for pronouns. In this table, they will be placed where the genitive case is, so that their similiarities to other parts of speech that actually are in the genitive case can become clear. German is very rigorous in its use of gender, and will use the pronoun corresponding to the gender of the referential noun, regardless of whether the noun being referenced is a person (unlike English, which uses "it" for everything not a person or other entities (animals, ships) in certain contexts). Der Liberalismus will be referred to as "er", or "he", whereas "das Mdchen" would be "es", or "it". Many English speakers have trouble with this, especially in spoken language. Mastery is nonetheless possible with a proper understanding of German declension and a considerable amount of practice.



Side-by-side Declension of Definite Articles, der-word Endings, 3rd-Person Pronouns (and possessives), Strong Adjective Endings, and Interrogative Pronouns, to illustrate their similarities
Gender and Case Definite Article der-word Endings Pronoun (possessive) Strong Adjective Endings Interrogative Pronouns, sometimes also used as relative pronouns

Masculine Nominative Accusative Dative Genitive der den dem des + s -er -en -em -es er ihn ihm -er -en -em wer (who?) wen (whom?) wem (to/for whom?) (wessen) (whose? - form similar to masculine, genitive relative pronoun). N.B.(1)

(sein-) -en (M,N strong adjective endings (corresponding "s") in genitive case do not fit pattern)

Neuter Nominative Accusative Dative Genitive das das dem des + s -es -es -em -es es es ihm -es -es -em was (what?) was (what?)

(sein-) -en (M,N strong adjective endings (corresponding "s") in genitive case do not fit pattern) Feminine

Nominative Accusative Dative Genitive

die die der der

-e -e -er -er

sie sie ihr (ihr-)

-e -e -er -er Plural

Nominative Accusative Dative Genitive

die die den + n der

-e -e -en -er

sie sie ihnen N.B.(2) (ihr-)

-e -e -en -er

N.B.(1) The use of "wessen" is considered old-fashioned, though most Germans would find it endearing to hear a non-native speaker use the word. One is encouraged to use the "gehren + dativ (wem?)" construction, which means "to belong to s.o. (whom?)". N.B.(2) The dative plural. Except for words whose plural form adds an "-s" (mainly loan-words), and words whose plural form already ends in "-n"/"-en", all nouns add an "-n/-en" in the dative plural. Like the s's added to masculine and neuter nouns in the genitive, this is a remnant from when German inflected all of its nouns, which other languages based on declension, such as Russian and Latin, retain. Sometimes one will notice an "-e" after masculine and neuter nouns in the dative case, such as the dedication on the Reichstag building - "Dem deutschen Volke", "for the German People". This nominal declension is reflected in the dative plural pronoun (to/for them), "ihnen", instead of "ihn" (masculine, accusitive). For example, Helga: Knnen Sie bitte meinen Brdern helfen? Olga: Natrlich, aber ich kann ihnen leider nur nach zwei Tagen helfen. Helga: Unsere Leben gehen trotzdem weiter.

German/Grammar/Pronouns Make a point of studying and getting used to the dative plural.
() (discussion) Grammar Adjectives and Adverbs Alphabet Cases Nouns Prepositions and Postpositions Pronouns Sentences Verbs


() German Lessons:

Level I

Level II

Level III

Level IV

Level V (discussion)

Grammar Appendices About (including print versions) Q&A Planning


Sentence Structure in Main clauses
Here is the ultimate syntax guide for a main clause. German allows a considerable amount of syntactical freedom as parts of speech are indicated through case, rather than syntax. Nonetheless, there are conventions to follow, especially ones that reduce the ambiguity of pronouns.

Word-Order in the Main Clause

First Position Anything Used for emphasis. Sometimes people will even put a past participle or some other verb in the first position. You shouldn't do that until you know what you are doing. The first position is often used for the subject (Nominative), however. "habe", "muss", "arbeitete"

Second Position Mittelfeld

Conjugated Verb

Nominative Pronoun Reflexive Pronoun Accusative Pronoun Dative Pronoun (Temporal Expressions) Nominative Noun Dative Noun Accusative Noun Prepositional Phrases Adverbs, Predicate Adjectives Verbal negation using "nicht"

"ich" "mich", "uns" A "dich" D "dir", "mir" Expressions of time, especially short temporal adverbs, are often placed here. "die Katze" D "meiner Mutter" A = ADDA "meinen Vater" Time, Manner, Place Time, Manner Place see section on negation for proper treatment of this topic "Ich fange damit an!"

Final Position All Remaining Verbs

Separable Prefixes

Past Participles (conjugated verb should be either "haben" od. "sein) Infinitives

"Ich habe heute nicht gearbeitet."

Used with modal verb as conjugated verb. "Du sollst das nicht tun." Used with modal-like verbs (sehen, hren, helfen, lassen) "Ich hre dich atmen."

Extended verb phrases: three verbs in sentence

Build Inwards Translating a hypothetical English sentence with three verbs into German, the first English verb - the conjugated verb - would be in the second position in the German sentence. The second verb will be on the outside of the verb-phrase, at the end of the German sentence. The third verb will be immediately before that. Subj . 1 . [Mittelfeld] . 3 . 2. "Ich habe (1) seit dem Unfall nicht arbeiten (3) knnen (2)." "I have (1) not been able (2) to work (3) since the accident."




The stuff you forgot to say, or that you just This position is also used for comparisons. See below. thought of after saying your verb. This happens to both native-speakers and those learning the language. However, try to avoid it.

This is the officially-sanctioned syntax of a main clause. However, German syntax is not written in stone. One has considerable latitude in the way one constructs one's sentence. Before fleshing out the topic, here are some rules, conventions, and words of advice: 1) In terms of being placed in proper syntax, the pronouns are the most important, for they are the ones most liable to ambiguity ("sie" = which person, what part of speech, which case? Put it in its correct position). 2) It is not possible for a sentence to include all of the listed items, but it is still good to be able to reproduce that schema from memory. 3) You must be able to recognize an element of a sentence. For example, you must not split something like, "mit einem Buch", for that is a prepositional phrase, i.e., one and only one sentence element. Many other sentence elements are, however, only one word. You get a lot better at this as time goes on. 4) Two good mnemonics. Number one: pronouns before nouns. always. even if it feels weird to put both your accusative and dative objects before your subject (a noun), you must get used to it. It doesn't happen very often, though. 5) The second one is "ADDA" (i.e., NOT DAAD, the Deutsche Akademische Austausch Dienst). ADDA describes, first, the pronouns (Accusative, then Dative), and then the nouns (Dative, then Accusative). ADDA. think ABBA, but with D's instead of B's. 6) The first position is usually your subject, but can also draw attention to something you want to discuss. 7) As will be explained below, prepositional phrases and adverbs follow the "Time, Manner, Place" format. 8) Beyond reducing/eliminating ambiguity, you actually do have a fair amount of freedom. "Time, Manner, Place" is more a suggestion than a commandment, and most German textbooks tell you to learn the schema laid out above, but then to speak and write your sentences with items in ascending order of importance. Put the important stuff at the end. Then you get to your verb, which gives all of the words in the sentence meaning, resulting in a crescendo of emotion and understanding. Or not. But you see how that might work. 9) If you speak enough, your verbs start going to the right places. It will seem perfectly natural that the verb is in the second position, and that the other verbs are at the end. Getting used to subordinate clauses takes more time, but eventually your words go to the right place. Don't worry about making mistakes, but also try not to forget which verb you have waiting in your head until the sentence ends. 10) Banish the terms, "subject", "direct object", and "indirect object" from your head. Get used to explaining things in terms of "nominative", "accusative", "dative", and "genitive". Same goes for "linking-" and "helping-verbs". Start talking about modal verbs, and modal-like verbs. In general, you have to learn how to talk about grammar to be able to study German successfully. 11) If you can do the declensions in your head, you can do the syntax in your head. Syntax is easier.



Position of the Verb

Clauses with one verb part - Stze mit nur einem Verbteil
In a main clause (Hauptsatz), the conjugated verb is in second position.

Clauses with one verb part

First Position (I) 1. Er 2. Heute Abend 3. Im Park (II) geht fahre Mittelfeld nach Hause Punctuation .

ich mit dem Auto nach Kln .

machte er einen langen Spaziergang .

Second position does not equal second word, as you can see above. However, there is only one group of words allowed before the conjugated verb. Such groups of words are called "phrases". While you can put very long phrases in front of the conjugated verb you mustn't use two. Therefore the sentence "Heute Abend ich fahre mit dem Auto nach Kln" is wrong. This is a big difference between English and German syntax.

Clauses with two verb parts - Stze mit zwei Verbteilen Clauses with two verb parts
First Position (I) 4. Der Junge 5. Der Junge 6. Schler 7. Gestern (II) zieht hat den Mantel den Mantel Mittelfeld Second Verb Punctuation an angezogen machen . . . . .

mssen Hausaufgaben hat

sein Vater ein fantastisches Essen gekocht sein Vater gestern gekocht

8. Ein fantastisches Essen hat

Sometimes you have to use more than one verb part in a clause. This is true for Perfekt forms, separable verbs, modals etc. Only one of these verbs is conjugated. The conjugated verb stays in second position, the other part goes to the end.

Clauses with three verb parts - Stze mit drei Verbteilen Clauses with one verb part
First Position 9. Ich II Mittelfeld Third Verb nicht machen Second Verb Punctuation knnen . . .

werde das morgen hast kann mich

10. Du 11. Ich

nicht besuchen drfen helfen

dir deinen Wagen bermorgen umsetzen

Sometimes there are even three verbs in a sentence. These usually involve modals and perfect tenses. The conjugated verb is in the second position. The remaining two verbs are at the end of the clause, building inwards that is to mean, what would be the second verb in English is placed at the end, and what would be the third verb is placed before the second verb.



Order of phrases - Reihenfolge der Satzglieder

In English, you need the position of phrases to determine whether a noun phrase is a subject or an object. In German the cases tell you which role is assigned to a certain noun phrase. Therefore, the word order is less strict.

First Position - erste Position

In neutral sentences the subject is most likely in the first position (Examples 1, 4, 5, 6). However, you can put everything there you want to stress. This is very common with phrases about time or place (Examples 2, 3, 7). English speakers need to remember that the first position is restricted to exactly one phrase. You can even put objects in first position (Example 8). You do it mostly, if you want to emphasize the object or if you have to repeat the sentence because your partner has not understood this particular part of it. If the subject is not in first position, it goes directly after the conjugated verb (Examples 2, 3, 7, 8), unless preceded by a reflexive pronoun or an accusative or dative pronoun.

Order of Phrases in the Middle of the clause - Reihenfolge der Satzglieder im Mittelfeld
Introduction In the middle of the sentence - the part between the two parts of the verb - verb order is quite flexible. Often the word order for a neutral sentence can be described like this: 1. 2. 3. 4. Time Objects Manner Place

The mnemonic is "STOMP" where S is for subject. However, when looking at wild German sentences you will find structures that do not follow this principles but are nonetheless correct. This is very frequent in spoken language. Mostly the deviation from the neutral structure is caused by a special focus. While they are not wrong, it would be inappropriate to use them all the time. Therefore it is best to learn the principles described here. If you have mastered them and can use them without thinking about it, you can try some of the deviations. Time Time seems to be a very important concept for German speaking people. It is mostly mentioned very early in the sentence, either at the very beginning in the first position which means that the subject goes directly after the conjugated verb (i.e.: Gestern war ich im Kino) or early in the middle field (i.e.: Ich war gestern im Kino). The sentence "Ich war im Kino gestern" is not exactly wrong, but it would sound weird in most situations. It could be used though in a casual conversation when putting special emphasis on "im Kino", but it's not the regular sentence pattern.

German/Grammar/Sentences Order of Objects The order of objects is different for nouns and pronouns. Pronouns always come before nouns, and reflexive pronouns come before everything except nominative pronouns. ADDA, mentioned above, is a good way to remember the prescribed order of cases for pronouns and then nouns. As can contain only two objects, here are the three possible combinations deriving from ADDA: Two pronouns: accusative before dative (AD) I II Ich habe Ich gab Acc. Dat. sie ihm gegeben. sie ihm .


One noun, one pronoun: The pronoun goes first, regardless of the case I II Ich habe Ich gab Pronoun ihm sie Noun die Kleider gegeben. dem Jungen .

Two nouns: dative before accusative (DA) I II Ich habe Ich gab Manner This includes adverbs and prepositional phrases describing how, why, and by what methods the event of the sentence has taken place. Place This includes adverbs and prepositional phrases describing location and direction Dat. dem Jungen dem Jungen Acc. die Kleider gegeben. die Kleider .

Satzglieder im Nachfeld
In German grammar the term Nachfeld is used to describe parts of the sentence that come after the second part of the verb. The Nachfeld is neglected in most learner's grammars. It is mostly used in spoken language, when people add something to a sentence as an afterthought or with special emphasis. In written language it is important for comparisons. You put them almost exclusively in the nachfeld. Consider the example Peter verdient mehr Geld als Paul (Peter earns more money than Paul). Now try to convert the sentence to the perfect. If you follow the normal sentence structure rules you would have to write: Peter hat mehr Geld als Paul verdient, but this is almost never done. The sentence best accepted by a majority of German speakers is: Peter hat mehr Geld verdient als Paul. The comparison is put after' the past participle. Note that the two items being compared must be in the same case. Du verdienst mehr Geld als ich. This is also correct grammar in English, though it is now almost obsolete among native English speakers.



Syntax of Interrogatives and Imperatives

I am putting this up here for the sake of completion.

Interrogatives (questions) change word order in the first two fields or so. There are two kinds. In a question based on a verb, the conjugated verb comes first. Following that is the same string of pronouns first and nouns thereafter (and other sentence elements and finally the remaining verbs) that was detailed above. The main difference between questions and statements is that the freedom of the first position is eliminated; the item you wanted to emphasize must now find a different position in the sentence. The ascending-order-of-importance convention still holds. Example: Q: Hast du schon "Fargo" gesehen? A: "Fargo" habe ich noch nicht gesehen. The second kind of question involves a question word or wo-compound, which always comes at the beginning, and is immediately followed by the conjugated verb. They are then followed by the remaining parts of the sentence in the order outlined above. Be mindful of the case of the question word, and make sure never to use a wo-compound when referring to a person. Q: Warum hast du "Fargo" nie gesehen? (Why have you never seen "Fargo"?) A: Ich hatte keine Lust. (I had no interest.)
Q: Wem hast du geholfen? (Wem = "whom?" in the dative case.) (Whom have you helped?) A: Ich habe meiner Mutter geholfen. (I have helped my mother.)
Q: Bei wem hast du dich beworben? (From whom have you applied [for a job]?)

A: Beim Geschft meines Onkels habe ich mich beworben. (I applied at my uncle's business.)

Q: Worum hast du dich beworben? (For what did you apply?) A: Um eine Stelle habe ich mich beworben! Are you insane?) Bist du verrckt? (I applied for a job!

And so on.

Imperatives (commands) also slightly alter the aforementioned main-clause sentence structure. Imperatives are formed in several ways: Geh', bitte! (Please go, informal) Gehen Sie, bitte! (Please go, formal) Gehen wir, bitte! (Let's go! Within a group) This sequence - verb in imperative form, perhaps followed by the person to whom it is directed in the nominative case (depending on the kind of imperative used, however) - is then followed by all of the other elements of the sentence, in the aforementioned order. German-speakers, like English-speakers and the speakers of many other languages, consider the use of the imperative mood to be rude, and, as in English, use a conditional or subjunctive construction to convey requests. This will be dealt with in a different section of this book. Both of these syntaxes are very easy to master once you understand main-clause syntax.



Coordinating Conjunctions
Before moving on to subordinate and relative clauses, we must address coordinating conjunctions and parallel clauses. A coordinating conjunction is a conjunction that connects two clauses that are able to stand alone, i.e., two main clauses. Here are some examples in English: I am here and I am glad to see you. You are grateful for this job, or you are a spoiled brat. Commas are generally optional in English, whereas they used more often in German. Here are the common coordinating conjunctions one would find in German: German
aber denn oder sondern und

but, nevertheless, however for, because (rarely used in spoken German; not to be confused with weil) or but rather and

As coordinating conjunctions connect two independent clauses, they do not affect word-order in the two clauses. The first clause is often separated from the second with a comma - especially if it is a long or complicated clause - after which follows the coordinating conjunction and the second clause. Here are some examples in German: Ich hasse und ich liebe, und ich wei nicht warum. Ich bin nicht jung, aber ich bin froh. (Odi et amo - Catullus)

There are two more constructions to be aware of: entweder/oder and weder/noch, which correspond to "either/or" and "neither/nor", respectively. Entweder bist du mit uns gemeinsam, oder du bist unser Feind. Entweder/oder and weder/noch can also be employed to contrast two items as well as clauses. Note how "entweder" functions as an adverb. English speakers should take note of the difference between aber and sondern, both of which can be translated directly as "but". Aber means "however". Sondern means "rather". Many other languages make this distinction. Coordinating conjunctions are rather straightforward, and the number of coordinating conjunctions is few.

Dependent Clauses: Subordinate and Relative Clauses

Subordinate and relative clauses introduce information regarding the main clause that needs to be expressed as a separate clause. They are collectively called "dependent clauses" because they are unable to stand by themselves as independent clauses. Usually, subordinate and relative clauses occupy a part of the main clause that was not fully explained; subordinate clauses tend to fulfill more abstract missing sentence elements than relative clauses do. Here are a few examples in English: Subordinate Clauses:

German/Grammar/Sentences I know that you are unhappy. We came because it was your birthday. We came because we knew that you were having a rough time. This last example has two subordinate clauses: because we knew and that you were having a rough time. Subordinate clauses are usually set off by a subordinating conjunction, such as that, because, when, if, and so on. In English, it is sometimes possible to omit the subordinating conjunction, specifically that, resulting in sentences such as, "I know you are unhappy," which is perfectly acceptable in English. Such an option does not exist in German. Relative Clauses: I know the person to whom you were talking (who you were talking to). God helps those who help themselves. You are the person that got hit by the fly-ball at the game on Saturday. Relative clauses relate one element of a clause to another clause by way of a relative pronoun. The system of relative pronouns in German is considerably more extensive than that of English. In German, both subordinate clauses and relative clauses affect syntax, in most cases by moving the conjugated verb to the end of the clause. Both subordinate clauses and relative clauses are set off by a comma in German, which can frequently be omitted in English. We should now examine the two types of clauses in greater detail, and then return to their syntax.


Subordinate Clauses
Subordinate clauses are always set off by a comma, and begin with a subordinating conjunction. Here is a list of all subordinating conjunctions in German. Note how all of them answer a question presumably introduced in the main clause:

Subordinating Conjunctions
German als bevor bis da damit dass ehe falls indem nachdem ob obgleich obschon obwohl seit/seitdem sobald as, when before until as, since (because) so that, with it that before in case while; "by [do]ing..." See below. after whether although although although since (time) as soon as English


sodass / so dass so that solang(e) trotzdem whrend weil wenn as long as despite the fact that while, whereas because if, when, whenever

Furthermore, all interrogative (question) words, such as wie, wann, wer, and wo, and wo-compounds, may be used as subordinating conjunctions. For example:
Ich wei nicht, wohin er gegangen ist. (I don't know where he went.) (I don't know how the party turned out)

Ich wei nicht, wie das Fest sich entwickelt hat. Ich wei nicht, warum er dir so bse ist.

(I don't know why he is so mad at you.)

Subordinate clauses provide information missing in the main clause. Consider the previous two examples. In both cases, the subordinate clause answered the question, "what?", or what would have been the accusitive object. Other subordinate clauses provide information that would otherwise have been provided by one of the several parts of speech.
Er hat mich geschlagen, als meine Frau im Klo war. (He hit me when my wife was in the bathroom.)

In this example, the subordinate clause, set off by the conjunction, "als", answers the question, "when?", which would otherwise be answered adverbially. The syntax regarding subordinate clauses will be discussed later. At this point, a property of subordinate clauses that is not altogether shared with relative clauses should be pointed out. Subordinate clauses are themselves parts of speech for the main clause, and to a limited extent can be treated as such. Consider the following two sentences, which are equivalent: Ich darf in Kanada bleiben, solange wir noch verheiratet sind. Solange wir noch verheiratet sind, darf ich in Kanada bleiben. Note how, in the second sentence, the subordinate clause occupied the first position, immediately followed by the conjugated verb. In reality, the use of subordinate clauses as parts of speech integrated into the main clause is limited; they are, for aesthetic reasons, restricted to the first position and to following the main clause. At both times they are set off from the main clause by a comma. Indem..., ist x passiert. This subordinating conjunction accomplishes the same functions as the English construction, "by [do]ing something..., x happened."
Indem er die Tr offen gelassen hat, hat er auch die Ruber ins Haus eingelassen. By leaving the door open, he let the robbers into the house.

By requiring a subject in the clause, the German construction is less susceptible to ambiguity than English is; consider the sentence, "by leaving the door open, the robbers were able to enter the house," which is lacking an agent for the door being left open, even though such a construction is common in spoken English. This section must make note of the differences between the words, als, wenn, and wann, all of which can mean "when" in English. Als refers to a single event or condition in the past, usually expressed using the preterite tense.
Als du mich anriefst, war ich noch nicht zu Hause. (When you called me, I was not yet home.)

German/Grammar/Sentences Wann is the interrogative word for "when". It's use as a subordinating conjunction is limited to indirect questions and immediate temporal events. Ich wei nicht, wann er nach Hause kommen wird. Wenn is the most versatile of the three, and has several other meanings beyond its temporal meaning. In the temporal space wenn describes, events are less recognized, or focuses on a condition, rather than an event. Finally, "wenn" has one other principal function. It also means, "if", and is used in conditional and subjunctive statements. Wenn ich einmal reich wr', ... (If i were ever rich...) We will return to syntax later.


Relative Clauses
In many ways, a relative clause is a lengthy description of an item in the main clause. Minimally, a relative clause takes a part of speech from the main clause, known as the antecedent and uses it in the dependent clause. What connects the two is a relative pronoun. As should already be published in this book, the following declension table is provided:

Relative Pronoun - Declension Summary

Case Masculine Neuter Feminine Plural das das dem deren die die der dessen die die denen deren

Nominative der Accusative Dative Genitive den dem dessen

Relative pronouns are similar to the definite article, with the exceptions of the dative plural and the genitive case being marked in bold. Note that the distinctions between "that" and "which"; and "that" and "who" in English do not exist in German, where everything is described with a standard set of relative pronouns with no regard to how integral the qualities described in the relative clause are to the antecedent. As relative clauses take one item from the main clause and use it in some way in a dependent clause, it is important to consider how relative pronouns work to avoid confusion. All words in German possess gender, number (singular or plural), and case. The main clause, as it relates to the antecedent, determines the gender and number of the relative pronoun; the relative clause determines its case. In order to use relative clauses successfully, it is critical that this point be understood. Gender and number are "inherent" to the antecedent; no grammatical agent could conceivably change those properties. The relative pronoun's case is determined by its role in the relative clause, i.e., how it relates to the other parts of speech in the clause. Consider the following examples, all based on "the man", who is masculine and singular, and apparently not well-liked.



Case of Relative Pronoun Nominative

Example Der Mann, der nach Hause allein ging, ... The man, who went home alone, ...


Der Mann, den mein Freund whrend der Hochzeit schlug, ... The man, whom my friend punched at the wedding, ...


Der Mann, dem meine Mutter kein Weihnachtsgeschenk gegeben hat, ... The man, to whom my mother didn't give a Christmas present, ...


Der Mann, dessen Tochter arbeitslos ist, ... The man, whose daughter is unemployed, ...

In each of these examples, the gender and number of the relative pronoun were determined by the antecedent, while the case of the relative pronoun was determined by its role in the relative clause. Note particularly the genitive example, wherein the relative pronoun, meaning whose, modified a feminine noun, without his gender being affected. Whenever you construct a relative clause, be mindful of this rule. Don't confuse yourself with its complexity, especially regarding the genitive case. As discussed in the chapter on personal pronouns, the word "whose", as well as other possessive pronouns such as "my", "your", and so forth, is a pronoun and not an adjective. The pronoun always expresses the characteristics of its antecedent, viz., gender and number. Relative pronouns offered within prepositional phrases are perfectly acceptable: Der Mann, mit dem meine Mutter wieder gestritten hat, ... The man, with whom my mother argued again, ... However, if the antecedent is not a person, and the relative pronoun falls within a prepositional phrase, a wo-compound is frequently substituted: Das Flugzeug, worin ich nach Seattle geflogen bin, war fast kaputt. The airplane, in which I flew to Seattle, was almost broken. Relative clauses almost invariably follow the item that they are modifying or the main clause as a whole (with the gender and number of the relative pronoun indicating - to some extent - which potential antecedent it is referring to). Very rarely do they precede the main clause. Exceptions to this come in the form of aphorisms and proverbs: Der (oder Wer) heute abend ruhig einschlft, bekommt morgen Eiskrem und Keks. (He who goes to bed quietly tonight will get ice-cream and cookies tomorrow - something a mother might say to her children.) This usage is relatively unimportant. One final property of relative clauses should be discussed. Relative clauses in some way describe their antecedent. The rules governing attributes in German are considerably more flexible than in English, because the German case system reduces ambiguity. This allows the German speaker to turn a relative clause into an extended attribute, which is essentially a long adjective. Compare the following two sentences, which are equivalent: Der Mann, der jede Woche auf Dienstreise nach Seattle fhrt, ist krank. The man, who drives to Seattle every week on business, is sick. Der jede Woche nach Seattle auf Dienstreise fahrende Mann ist krank. The to-Seattle-every-week-on-business driving man is sick.

German/Grammar/Sentences Such a construction is ludicrious in English, but not-uncommon in German. The experienced reader of German will, with practice, be able to read through such an item without difficulty. It would be best to review what we have learned about subordinate and relative pronouns before discussing their syntax. Dependent clauses - both subordinating and relative clauses - modify or in some other way describe the antecedent clause upon which they are based. Subordinating clauses provide a variety of ways in which new information can relate to the main clause, many of which are adverbial in nature (e.g., "weil/because", but not "dass/that", which, in the examples above, replaced the accusitive object). Relative clauses modify and describe entities already mentioned in the main clause. Generally speaking, only subordinate clauses have the ability to occupy the first position in a main clause. Format: Main clause, subordinating conjunction + subordinate clause. Subordinating conjunction + subordinate clause, conjugated verb + main clause.


Main clause including antecedent, relative pronoun based on antecedent + relative clause.

Syntax of Dependent Clauses

Subordinate and relative clauses have similar syntax. Indeed, neglecting the verbs, they have a syntax similar to main clauses. Recall the syntax described at the beginning of this chapter. That syntax will form the basis of the Mittelfeld in dependent clauses.

Syntax of Dependent Clauses

Field Comma Items All dependent clauses are set off with a comma unless occupying the first position of a , main clause "dass", "weil", "obwohl", "denen" Examples

Conjunction For subordinate clauses, this is the subordinating conjunction. For relative clauses, this is the relative pronoun. Mittelfeld The Mittelfeld of a dependent clause follows the same syntax as the Mittelfeld of the main clause. Nominative Pronoun Reflexive Pronoun Accusative Pronoun Dative Pronoun Nominative Noun Dative Noun Accusitive Noun Prepositional Phrases Adverbs, Predicate Adjectives Verbs Verbs will be dealt with in greater detail below. Number of Verbs

"ich", "wir" "mich", "uns" A "dich" D "dir", "mir" "die Katze" D "meiner Mutter" A = ADDA "meinen Vater" Time, Manner, Place Time, Manner, Place They are very complicated. Placement of Verbs (always at end of clause} At end of Clause Build inwards. Infinitive, then conjugated verb

One (conjugated) Two (conjugated - modal/-like or auxiliary; infinitive)



3.2.1. Build inwards. Conjugated verb (1); infinitive verb (3); modal verb (2)

Modal/-like is conjugated Modal/-like is not conjugated (likely the second verb)

Once again, no dependent clause will contain each of these elements. But understanding the position of pronouns is critical. The same conventions listed under the main clause schema apply. Verbs in Dependent Clauses The way the verbs are arranged depends on the number of verbs in the verb-phrase, and the presence of a modal verb. Dependent Clauses with One Verb This is the simplest case. Such a clause has one verb, conjugated based on the person and number of the subject of the sentence. This conjugated verb is placed at the end of the clause.
Subordinate Clause Du weit, dass ich dich liebe. (You know that I love you.) Relative Clause Er ist ein Mann, der oft Berlin besucht. (He is a man who often visits Berlin.)

Dependent Clauses with Two Verbs A clause with two verbs has one conjugated verb and one verb in the infinitive. Such examples are clauses in a perfect tense (wherein the conjugated verb is the auxiliary verb, either "haben" or "sein"), the future tense ("werden"), ones with modal verbs, and ones with modal-like verbs (sehen, hren, helfen, lassen). In a main clause, the conjugated verb will be in the second position, and the infinitive verb will be at the end of the clause. In a dependent clause, both verbs will be at the end of the clause, with the conjugated verb last. This supports the principle of "building inwards".
Subordinate Clause Relative Clause Du weit, dass ich dich nicht lieben kann. (You know that I cannot love you.)

Er ist ein Mann, der nach seiner absolvierten Prfung Berlin besuchen wird. (He is a man who will visit Berlin after his graduation exam.)

Dependent Clauses with Three Verbs Sentences with three verbs typically involve a modal verb, whose presence complicates matters terribly. Let us think of some examples in English. 1) I am not able to help you move your car. - knnen - helfen - bewegen 2) I will be able to go to the store with you. - werden - knnen - gehen 3) I have not been able to afford that. (haben + "sich (dat) etw. leisten knnen" = to be able to afford sth.) 4) I have not been able to reach you over the phone. - haben - knnen - erreichen And so on. The problem is, after you've learned how to put your verb at the end of the sentence in a main clause, and after you've learned how to "build inwards" in dependent clauses, and after you've pulled your hair out, night after night, sitting in a cafe in Seattle declining relative pronouns, German grammar throws yet another rule at you, this one so pointless and downright counter-productive, and it seems like German grammar is simply making fun of you at this point, that you leap out of your seat, scream "woo hoo!", and then get back to work. The modal verb (or the modal-like verb) has to be at the end of the verb phrase, regardless of whether it has been conjugated. In cases where it has not, the conjugated verb moves to the beginning of the verb phrase. Let's look at our examples above.

German/Grammar/Sentences Du weit, dass... 1) ...ich dir dein Auto nicht bewegen helfen kann. This one is straightforward, because the modal verb is the conjugated verb, allowing the clause to follow the "build inwards" principle. 2) ...ich zum Markt mit dir nicht werde gehen knnen. The modal verb must come last. No semantic or logical reason for this. 3) ...ich mir das nicht habe leisten knnen. The modal verb must come last. Note here that the modal verb does not form a past participle when it has main verb to modify. 4) ...ich dich am Telefon nicht habe erreichen knnen. Note the somewhat sensible placement of "nicht". And so...


Verb-order in Dependent Clauses

Number of Verbs One (conjugated) Placement of Verbs (always at end of clause} At end of Clause

Two (conjugated - modal/-like or auxiliary; infinitive) Build inwards. Infinitive, then conjugated verb Three Modal/-like is conjugated 3.2.1. Build inwards.

Modal/-like is not conjugated (likely the second verb) Conjugated verb (1); infinitive verb (3); modal verb (2)

Infinitive Clauses
The reader is already familiar with several types of German verbs that require other verbs; these verbs are modal verbs (knnen, drfen, wollen, etc.); modal-like verbs (sehen, hren, helfen, lassen); auxilliary verbs (sein, haben), used for the perfect tenses; and werden, used for future and passive constructions. Another verb that can take another verb without forming an infinitive clause is bleiben (e.g., stehenbleiben, to remain standing). These verbs never form infinitive clauses, and the verbs that are used with them go at the end of the sentence. Infinitive clauses are another kind of clause found in German, and are equivalent to infinitive clauses in English. Consider the following examples in English: I am here (in order) to help you clean your house. The car is ready to be driven. I work to be able to afford my car. Infinitive clauses are formed after verbs that do not regularly take other verbs. They indicate purpose, intent, and meaning of the action in the main clause. As such, infinitive clauses have no subject, or no nouns in the nominative case. Here are the above examples in German: Ich bin hier, um dir dein Haus putzen zu helfen. Das Auto ist bereit, gefahren zu werden. Ich arbeite, um mir ein Auto leisten zu knnen. Infinitive clauses are usually found after a main clause, though it is possible for them to occupy the first position of a main clause. They are always set off by a comma. Of particular interest is the construction, "um...zu..."", which corresponds to the English construction, "in order to...". Um is placed at the beginning of the clause, after which follows a standard infinitive clause. Whereas "in order" is frequently omitted from English infinitive clauses of this sort, "um" is always included such clauses in German.

German/Grammar/Sentences The Mittelfeld follows the standard syntax of main clauses, though without nominative nouns and pronouns. At any rate, infinitive tend to be rather short. Verbs (in the infinitive form) always come at the end, immediately preceded by the word zu. In the case of separable-prefix verbs, such a verb is written as one word, with the word zu between the prefix and the main verb; e.g. anzuschlagen, auszugehen, abzunehmen, and so forth. The syntax of infinitive clauses can thus be summarized as follows:


Syntax of Infinitive Clauses

Position Introduction Mittelfeld Contents Comma or Capital Letter (beginning of sentence) Reflexive Pronoun Accusative Pronoun Dative Pronoun (Temporal Expressions) "," "Um" "mich", "uns" A "dich" D "dir", "mir" Expressions of time, especially short temporal adverbs, are often placed here. D "meiner Mutter" A = ADDA "meinen Vater" Time, Manner, Place Time, Manner Place zu + Infinitive; e.g., "zu gehen" Examples

Dative Noun Accusitive Noun Prepositional Phrases Adverbs, Predicate Adjectives Infinitive Verb Phrase Verbs with no separable prefix

Verbs with separable prefix End

prefix-zu-infinitive, written as one word; e.g., "anzufangen"

Either a period to end the sentence, or a comma to introduce ","; "." the main clause

() (discussion) Grammar Adjectives and Adverbs Alphabet Cases Nouns Prepositions and Postpositions Pronouns Sentences Verbs

() German Lessons:

Level I

Level II

Level III

Level IV

Level V (discussion)

Grammar Appendices About (including print versions) Q&A Planning


German verbs can be classified as weak or as strong. Weak verbs are very regular in their forms, whereas strong verbs change the stem vowel. Weak: kaufen, kaufte, gekauft Strong: singen, sang, gesungen With its Anglo-Saxon origin, this notion is also present in English. flip, flipped, flipped sing, sang, sung Some German verbs have weak and strong forms. This may depend on meaning: Der Botschafter wurde nach Berlin gesandt. Der Sddeutsche Rundfunk sendete ein Konzert aus dem Gasteig. Or on transitive vs. intransitive use: Das Hemd hing auf der Wscheleine. Sie hngte das Hemd auf die Wscheleine.

Separable Verbs
Sometimes you will run into verbs such as anrufen, aufrumen, mitkommen. These verbs are examples of Separable Prefix Verbs. When you see these kinds of verbs, it will have a preposition prefix followed by a verb. These verbs separate when they are the main verb of a sentence. EXAMPLES: I am calling the butcher. Ich rufe den Metzger an. I am trying on the boots. Ich probiere die Stiefel an.



Reflexive Verbs
Reflexive Verbs are verbs involving the reflexive pronoun "sich" and its conjugations that reflect, or refer back, to the performer of the action. There are only accusative and dative reflexive pronouns. Accusative reflexive pronouns are used when there is no direct object. Dative reflexive pronouns are used when a direct object is present. However, when using a direct object, the possessive is not used. Examples: Accusative: Ich verletze mich. I injure myself. Dative: Ich verletze mir die Hand. I injure my hand. Accusative: Er hat sich verbrannt. He burned himself. Dative: Er hat sich den Daumen verbrannt. He burned his thumb.

Reflexiv Pronommen
Akkusativ (Wenfall) Dativ (Wemfall) 1st sg. 2nd sg. (informal) 1st pl. 2nd pl. (informal) mich dich uns euch mir dir " " "

2nd sg. or pl. formal; 3rd. sich

Notice that all reflexives are the same as the Akkusativ and Dativ Pronoun Declensions except for 3rd Person and 2nd sg./pl. Person formal (man/sie/Sie), in which case all reflexives are sich.

Drfen means to be allowed/permitted, may.
Present ich du darf (I am allowed to) darfst (You are allowed to) Past durfte Conjunctive II drfte

durftest drftest durfte drfte

er/sie/es darf (He/She/It is allowed to) wir ihr sie/Sie drfen (We are allowed to) drft (You (plural) are allowed to)

durften drften durftet drftet

drfen (They are allowed to/You (formal) are allowed to) durften drften

Examples: Darf ich einen Freund zum Fest bringen? May I bring a friend to the party. Man darf hier nicht rauchen. One is not allowed to smoke here. Niemand durfte die Stadt verlassen. No one was allowed to leave the city.



knnen means 'to be able, capable'. It is cognate with the English word 'can'/'could'.
Present ich du kann (I can) kannst (You can) Past konnte Conjunctive II knnte

konntest knntest knnte

er/sie/es kann (He/She/It can) konnte wir ihr sie/Sie knnen (We can) knnt (You can) knnen (They can)

konnten knnten konntet knntet

konnten knnten

Examples: Ich kann das nicht tun. I can't do it. Wir konnten sie nicht erreichen. We could not reach them.

mgen expresses a pleasure, or desire. In the present tense, it is used transitively with people or food. e.g. 'Ich mag dich' 'I like you' or 'Ich mag Erdbeeren' 'I like strawberries'. The subjunctive (of the past) expresses preference to perform the action of a subordinate clause 'Ich mchte nach Frankreich reisen' I would like to travel to France'. 'mgen' is cognate with the English verb 'may'/'might'.
Present ich du mag (I would like to) magst (You like to) Past mochte Conjunctive II mchte (I would like to)

mochtest mchtest (You would like to) mchte (He/She/It would like to)

er/sie/es mag (He/She/It likes to) mochte wir ihr sie/Sie mgen (We like to) mgt (You like to) mgen (They like to)

mochten mchten (We would like to) mochtet mchtet (You would like to)

mochten mchten (They would like to)

Example: Ich mchte nach Deutschland reisen. I would like to travel to Germany. (There is also a present subjunctive mge, which is very formal: Der Knig sagte: "Er mge eintreten." - The king said: "He may enter.")

mssen expresses something forced on you. It is etymologically related to 'must'.



Present ich du


Conjunctive II

muss gehen (I must/have to go) musste (I had to) msste musst musstest musste mussten musstet mussten msstest msste mssten msstet mssten

er/sie/es muss wir ihr sie/Sie mssen msst mssen

Examples: Ich muss nicht arbeiten. ~ Ich brauche nicht zu arbeiten. Ich darf nicht arbeiten. I must not work. I don't have to work.

Note that the negative nicht mssen is not the English must not, but rather need not or don't have/need to. must not translates to nicht drfen. There are however some northern German uses like: Du musst das nicht tun meaning Du solltest das nicht tun.

sollen expresses an obligation or duty. It is etymologically related to 'shall'.
Present ich du Past

soll schwimmen (I am to swim) sollte (I was to) sollst solltest sollte sollten solltet sollten

er/sie/es soll wir ihr sie/Sie sollen sollt sollen

wollen means to want.
Present ich du Past

will rennen (I want to run) wollte willst wolltest wollte wollten wolltet wollten

er/sie/es will wir ihr sie/Sie wollen wollt wollen



Use in Perfect (and Pluperfect) Tense

Although all these modals have a normal perfect: gedurft gekonnt gemocht gemusst gesollt in connection with other verbs, the infinitive form is used: Ich habe das tun drfen - knnen - mgen - mssen - sollen. Wrong: Ich habe das tun gedurft - gekonnt - gemocht - gemusst - gesollt. It holds also for the verbs sehen and hren: Ich habe ihn kommen sehen - hren.

Use of modal verbs as full verbs

Modal verbs can be used as full verbs indicating motion. Er muss nach Berlin He must go to Berlin.

Present Tense
The Present Tense is used for.. The Present Tense (="das Prsens") is used to describe situations that are happening and aren't the past. For Ongoing Action, like I'm swimming in the pool now Everyday Truths, like The moon and stars will come at night. Future meaning, if explicitly stated, like I will run tomorrow morning Actions started in the past and still going on in the present I've been cleaning the house all day

Progressive Forms
There is a present progressive tense in colloquial spoken German. Its use is optional. Here is one example: Ich bin am Fahren. (I am at the driving) I'm driving. The person to say this would be driving during the time they say this and they would continue to drive after stating this for some time. You nominalize the verb ("fahren" (driving) becomes "das Fahren") and add a "am". You can also do this with forms of the past. Als er kam war ich gerade am Abwaschen. (When he arrived i was at "the dishwashing") I was washing the dishes when he arrived. So the verb "sein" (to be) includes the information what tense he was doing what he did in. Here the progressive meaning is also emphasized with the word "gerade" meaning something like: I was JUST ABOUT to wash the dishes(not the same though because it means he is already doing it and not about to start).



Perfect Tense
The Perfect Tense or das Perfekt of verbs is used to talk about things in the past which have already happened. It is sometimes referred to as "Present Perfect Tense". This can cause confusion. While the formation is similar, the meaning and usage differs.

As in English, the perfect tense consists of two parts. An auxiliary (Hilfsverb) and a past participle (Partizip Perfekt). Compare the examples given below with their English translations.
Er hat gelacht. He has laughed.

Sie ist


She has come.

Die Kinder

haben gegessen. eaten.

The children have

Past participle for regular verbs

The general rule is simple:
verb prefix + 3rd-person sing. participle(er/sie/es) + (er/sie/es) lacht + (er/sie/es) kauft + (er/sie/es) mht gelacht gekauft gemht

lachen (laugh) ge kaufen (buy) ge

mhen (mow) ge

There are some groups of regular verbs that slightly differ from that pattern. Some verbs drop the prefix ge-. Like the other regular verbs they end in -t. These are: 1. Verbs with unseparable prefixes (be-, ent-, er-, empf-, ge-, ver-, miss-, zer-) Examples:
verb besuchen (visit) entfernen (remove) erreichen (achieve) gehren (belong) verstecken (hide) past participle besucht entfernt erreicht gehrt versteckt

missverstehen (misunderstand) missverstanden

2. Verbs ending in -ieren Examples:



verb kopieren (copy)

past participle kopiert

polieren (polish) poliert

3. Another group is formed by verbs with separable prefixes With separable verbs, the prefix ge is placed between the prefix and the rest of the verb. Examples:
verb aufmachen (open) sep. pref.+ ge + 3rd-person sg. = past participle auf + ge + macht = aufgemacht = abgestellt

abstellen (put down) ab + ge + stellt

Separable and inseparable verbs are distinguished by the stressed syllable:

verb ber'setzen (to translate) past participle ber'setzt

'bersetzen (to ferry across) 'bergesetzt

Er hat das Buch ins Chinesische bersetzt. Der Fhrmann hat den Passagier bergesetzt (ber den Fluss gesetzt).

Past Participle for Irregular Verbs

Irregular verbs always end in -en. The vowel can be different from the one in present tense. Look at some examples:
infinitive gehen (go) essen (eat) 3rd-person sg. past participle geht isst gegangen gegessen geschrieben getrunken geschlafen genommen

schreiben (write) schreibt trinken (drink) schlafen (sleep) nehmen (take) trinkt schlft nimmt

You have to learn these forms by heart. How you can obtain the necessary information and how you should learn them is described in section tips for learning below. Note that irregular verbs can be combined with the same prefixes as described above. The same rules regarding the prefix ge- apply. Therefore the forms for schreiben, verschreiben and aufschreiben are geschrieben, verschrieben and aufgeschrieben respectively.

German/Grammar/Verbs Which verbs are irregular A lot of verbs that are irregular in English are irregular in German, too. Unfortunately, this is not always true. It is most likely when the German and the English verb are related (i.e. look similar). Examples: see: buy: get: irregular irregular irregular sehen: irregular kaufen: regular bekommen: irregular ;-)


Regular verbs are much more frequent than irregular ones, but a lot of the irregular verbs are used very frequently, for instance haben, sein, gehen, kommen etc. When in doubt whether a verb is irregular or not, it is best to look it up in a dictionary (See below).

Haben or sein as auxiliaries

Whether a verb is irregular or not does not influence the choice of auxiliary. Most verbs take haben as auxiliary. A) Verbs which take an accusative object (transitive verbs) B) Reflexive verbs always take haben as auxiliary. Examples A: trinken: Er hat ein Bier getrunken. lesen: Sie hat ein Buch gelesen kochen Sie haben gestern Spaghetti gekocht. Examples B: sich freuen sich kmmen sich rgern Ich habe mich gefreut Er hat sich gekmmt Wir haben uns schon lange nicht mehr so gergert.

The auxiliary sein is taken by verbs that describe C) the relocation from one place to another or D) the change of a state and with E) sein (be) and bleiben (stay) Note: none of the verbs from groups C-E is combined with an accusative object. Examples C: relocation verbs
verb kommen (come) reisen (travel) fahren (drive) begegnen (meet) gehen (go) aux. sein sein sein sein sein irregular yes no yes no yes yes sentence with perfect tense Ich bin gekommen. Wir sind schon dreimal nach China gereist. Ich bin mit dem Auto nach Kalifornien gefahren. Er ist ihm gestern begegnet. Du bist gegangen. Das Flugzeug ist gestartet.

starten (take off) sein

In southern German (mostly Bavarian) use, also stehen, sitzen und schwimmen are treated like a (non-)movement:

Ich bin gestanden - gesessen - geschwommen. High German is: Ich habe gestanden - gesessen - geschwommen. Aber: Ich habe den See durchschwommen.


Examples D: change of state verbs

verb aufstehen (get up) einschlafen (fall asleep) verblhen (whither) aux. sein sein sein irr. yes yes no sentence with perfect tense Ich bin heute frh aufgestanden. Die Kinder sind endlich eingeschlafen. Die Blumen sind schon verblht

Examples E: sein and bleiben Er ist nicht lange geblieben. Er ist immer nett gewesen. He didn't stay long. He has always been nice.

Exceptions to the rules Some of the verbs from group A can be used with an object in accusative case. In this case, they take haben as auxiliary. Compare:
Ich bin nach Kalifornien gefahren. Ich bin mit dem Auto nach Kalifornien gefahren. I drove to California. I drove to California by car (literally: with the car)

Ich habe das Auto (Akk.) nach Kalifornien gefahren. I drove the car to California.

The same applies to fliegen (fly), starten and reiten (ride a horse).

Unlike in English the difference in meaning between Perfekt and Prteritum is rather small. The main difference between those two forms lies in usage. Perfekt is mostly used in spoken language, while Prteritum is mostly reserved for written texts. However, the modals, the verbs haben and sein and the expression es gibt are almost exclusively used in Prteritum - even when speaking. One reason might be the frequency of those verbs, the other reason is most likely the very complex perfect forms for modals. (This is in southern German use; in northern German, you'll hear the preterite also in spoken language.) On the other hand, the perfect tense is used in writing too. The more oral the text is, the more perfect tense you will find (for example in personal letters etc.). If an action has happened very recently, it tends to be in perfect tense too. Look at the following conversation and concentrate on the distribution of Prteritum and Perfekt. (1) Anna: Hallo Peter. Wo warst du denn? Ich habe dich schon lange nicht mehr gesehen. (2) Peter: Hallo Anna. Ich war die letzen zwei Wochen im Urlaub. (3) Anna: So? Wo warst du denn genau? (4) Peter: Auf der Insel Elba, in einem fantastischen Hotel. Es gab jeden Abend ein Bffet und man konnte essen, so viel man wollte! (5) Anna (lacht): Ich glaube dir sofort, dass dir das gefallen hat. Du hast aber nicht nur gegessen, oder? Was hast du denn den ganzen Tag gemacht? (6) Peter (lacht auch): Nein, natrlich nicht. Ich bin viel geschwommen, ich habe mir die Insel angeguckt und am Abend bin ich immer zum Tanzen in eine Disco gegangen. (7) Anna: Aha... Und? Hast du jemanden kennen gelernt? (8) Peter (grinst): Kein Kommentar. Vocablary to help you understand the text: der Urlaub, -e genau vacation exactly, precisely

German/Grammar/Verbs die Insel, -n das Bffet, -s gefallen angucken kennen lernen grinsen island buffet like to look at (colloquial) get to know grin


Used forms to talk about past events Prteritum du warst (1/3) ich war (2) es gab (4) konnte (4) wollte (4) Perfekt habe gesehen (1) es hat gefallen (5) du hast gegessen (5) du hast gemacht (5) ich bin geschwommen (6) ich habe angeguckt (6) ich bin gegangen (6) du hast kennen gelernt

How to find the forms in a dictionary

Unless you have a special dictionary for learners, not all the forms will be spelled out. Regular forms are often omitted. The same goes for the auxiliary haben. If no forms are indicated, you may assume that the verb is regular and has the verb haben as an auxiliary. However, if you find the abbreviation itr or i. (for intransitive) behind the verb, the auxiliary is often sein. Intransitve verbs don't have an accusative object and these are often used with sein, while transitive verbs (tr. or t.) are always conjugated with haben. Sometimes not even the forms of irregular verbs are given in the lexicon entry. Irregular verbs are often indicated by irr. for irregular or a similar abbreviation. In that case, look for a list of irregular verb forms in the index of your dictionary. To find the past participle of separable verbs you often have to cut the prefix and look for the base form of the verb. If you look for aufstehen (get up), you probably find your answer in the entry of stehen. Remember: The prefix ge goes in between the prefix of the separable verb and the verb itself: auf + ge + standen. When working online, you might consider using Canoo [1]. Enter an arbitrary form of the word you are interested in into the mask. Hit enter. On the results page, choose the link Flexion behind the appropriate entry (or inflection in the English version). You will get a table of all possible verb forms.

Tips for learning

Irregular forms are just that - irregular. Therefore you have to learn them by heart. By learning four forms, you can construct every verb form for a given verb. The forms you should know are: Infinitiv infinitiv gehen nehmen fahren lesen essen kommen Prsens 3rd person geht nimmt fhrt liest isst kommt Prteritum preterite ging nahm fuhr las a kam Hilfsverb auxiliary ist hat ist hat hat ist + + + + + + + + Partizip Perfekt past participle gegangen genommen gefahren gelesen gegessen gekommen

German/Grammar/Verbs bleiben sein anfangen ... bleibt ist fngt ... an blieb war fing ... an ist ist hat + geblieben + gewesen + angefangen


All forms - besides the infinitive of course - should be in 3rd-person singular. A good way to learn those forms is to put them on small cards. On one side you write the infinitive and probably a sentence to illustrate the usage of the verb. On the backside you put the rest of the forms and - if needed - a translation of the verb. When learning, you look at the infinitve and try to remember the forms and the meaning. You can easily verify your hypothesis by flipping the card. If you encounter a verb you want to learn, look it up in a dictionary. If it is irregular, learn the verb together with its defining forms. Like that, you spare yourself a lot of trouble later on.

Sentence Structure
The perfect tense consists of two verb forms: an auxiliary and a past participle. Together they form the so called predicate. The predicate consists of all verb parts in one clause. The sentence structure in perfect behaves as with every two parts predicate (modals plus infinitive, separable verbs etc.)

Main Clauses
In a main clause (Hauptsatz), the conjugated verb (the auxiliary in this case) is in the second position and the past participle stands at the end of the clause. First Position (I) (II) 1) Sein Vater hat gestern ein fantastisches Essen gekocht. 2) Gestern hat sein Vater ein fantastisches Essen gekocht. Both: Yesterday, his father cooked a fantastic meal. 3) Ein fantastisches Essen hat sein Vater gestern gekocht.* It was a fantastic meal that his father cooked yesterday.
* The third example is correct, although not very frequent. You might use it if you want to stress what exactly his father has prepared or if you have to repeat the sentence because your partner has not understood this particular part of it.

Second position does not equal second word, as you can see above. However, there is only one group of words allowed before the conjugated verb (the auxiliary in this case). Such groups of words are called "phrases". While you can put very long phrases in front of the conjugated verb, you must not use two. Therefore the sentence "Gestern sein Vater hat ein fantastisches Essen gekocht" is wrong.

Subordinated Clauses
Subordinated clauses begin with a subordinating conjunction. Well known conjunctions of this kind are weil dass wenn.

*In spoken language weil is often used like und or aber, which means that it is followed by a main clause. However, after weil, speakers often pause for a little while. There is no pause after either und or aber. Weil + main clause is not allowed in written language. Therefore you may say: Ich gehe, weil - (little pause) - ich bin mde. But you wouldn't use it in a letter. At least not yet. The correct conjunction for a main clause is denn, which is rarely used in spoken language.

German/Grammar/Verbs In subordinated clauses the conjugated verb, i.e. the auxiliary, stands at the very end of the sentence. The past participle stands directly in front of it. For example: conj. dass weil denn wenn participle du das gemacht du bisher noch nie gelogen du hast bisher noch nie gelogen. du gegangen aux. aux. hast. hast. bist.


Ich Ich Ich Ich

wei, glaube dir, glaube dir, gehe,

Past tense
Regular verbs
Regular (or better, weak) verbs take the ending -te. The person endings are added afterwards. Note that the forms for 1st- and 3rd-person singular are the same.
lernen ich du lernte lerntest

er/sie/es lernte wir ihr sie/Sie lernten lerntet lernten

If the stem of a verb (infinitive minus -en) ends in -t (arbeit-en), -d (end-en) or consonant plus m or n (ffn-en, rechn-en) you add an -e before the preterite endings.
arbeiten ich du arbeitete arbeitetest

er/sie/es arbeitete wir ihr sie/Sie arbeiteten arbeitetet arbeiteten

Irregular verbs
Without -te The strong verbs belong to this group. The endings are easy to memorize. It is harder to know which vowel to use. The rule mentioned above for t/d, double-consonant + n/m applies also for irregular verbs.



fahren ich du fuhr fuhrst

stehen stand stand(e)st stand

er/sie/es fuhr wir ihr sie/Sie

fuhren standen fuhrt standet

fuhren standen

gehen, ging, gegangen stehen, stand, gestanden With -te Few irregular verbs take the -te ending. Examples are: nennen, rennen, kennen, bringen, denken and the irregular modals (knnen, drfen and mssen).
nennen ich du nannte nanntest

er/sie/es nannte wir ihr sie/Sie nannten nanntet nannten

Future Tense
Talking about future with the present tense
German uses the Present Tense to talk about the future whenever it is clear to both speaker and listener that the future is meant. In the dialogue example: Wenn du zu Hause bleibst, kommen wir dich besuchen. If you stay at home, we shall come and visit you. The whole conversation is about the future, so there is no need to indicate it again in the tense of the verb. Some more examples: Ich schreibe den Brief heute Abend. I will write the letter this evening. Wir gehen nchstes Jahr nach Spanien. We will go to Spain next year.



Futur I
Where the meaning would not otherwise be clear, and in more formal language, e.g. to express an intention, German talks about the future tense by using werden plus the infinitive at the end of the clause. The forms of werden are: ich werde du wirst er/sie/es/man wird wir werden ihr werdet sie/Sie werden Examples: Ich werde ein Haus bauen. I shall build a house. (an intention) Wir werden sehen. We will see. The future can also express some inescapable fate: Sie werden alle umkommen. They will all perish.

Future II
If the sentence is speculative, "sein" or "haben" is added to the verb and Futur II is formed:
Sie werden angekommen sein. literally "they will have arrived" - meaning "(I gather) they have arrived (by now)"

Sie werden es gemacht haben. "they will have done it" Normally, you use Futur II when speaking about something that should have happened already, but you are not sure or you can't prove it.
() (discussion) Grammar Adjectives and Adverbs Alphabet Cases Nouns Prepositions and Postpositions Pronouns Sentences Verbs

() German Lessons:

Level I

Level II

Level III

Level IV

Level V (discussion)

Grammar Appendices About (including print versions) Q&A Planning



[1] http:/ / www. canoo. net




A.01 - Das Alphabet

Appendices Alphabet Vocabulary Phrasebook Resources Names German History Nations of the World False Friends Numbers Keyboard Layout




Lessons: Level I Level II Level III Grammar Appendices About (including print versions) Q&A Planning

The Alphabet
The German alphabet, like English, consists of 26 basic letters. However, there are also combined letters and three umlauted forms (an umlaut is the pair of dots placed over certain vowels; in German, Umlaut describes the dotted letter, not just the dots.). The following table includes a listing of all these letters and a guide to their pronunciation. As in English, letter sounds can differ depending upon where within a word the letter occurs. The first pronunciation given below (second column) is that in English of the letter (or combination) itself. Reading down this column and pronouncing the "English" words will recite the alphabet auf Deutsch ("in German"). Note that letter order is exactly the same as in English, but pronunciation is not for many of the letters. In the list of pronunciation notes, no entry means essentially "pronounced as in English".



Pronunciation: A (a) // B C (be) /be/ (ce) /tse/ Long 'a' as 'a' in 'father' (ah). Pronounced like 'p' when at the end of a word

The alphabet

Das Alphabet

See combination letter forms; without a following 'h': before 'e', 'i', 'y', '', '' like the German letter 'z' else like 'k' Pronounced like 't' when at the end of a word; slightly more "dental" Long 'e' as 'a' in 'late' (ay) without(!) the (y). Short 'e' as 'e' in 'pet'. In unstressed syllables like 'a' in 'about' or 'e' in 'garden'

D (de) /de/ E F (e) /e/ (ef) /f/

G (ge) /ge/

Pronounced like 'g' in 'get'; pronounced like 'k' when at the end of a word; pronounced like 'ich'-sound (see below) in the suffix '-ig' at the end of words like 'h' in 'house' only at the beginning of words or a syllable before 'a', 'i', 'o', 'u', 'y', '', '', '' (only if these vowels don't belong to a suffix), else silent Long 'i' as 'e' in 'seen' (ee); short 'i' as 'i' in 'pit' Pronounced like 'y' in 'yard'

H (ha) /h/


(i) /i/ (jot) /jot/

K (ka) /k/ L (el) /l/ Slightly more "dental"

M (em) /m/ N (en) /n/ O (o) /o/ P (pe) /pe/ Pronounced like 'k'; only occurs in the combination 'qu', which is pronounced like 'kv' not like 'kw' trilled with the front or back of the tongue, depending on area (see below) In Germany, pronounced like 'z'; pronounced like 's' in 'sound' when at the end of a word, after consonants (except 'l', 'm', 'n', ng') and before consonants; in Austria, pronounced like 'z' only when it appears between two vowels, pronounced like 's' otherwise. Pronounced like 'sh' in the beginning of a word before 'p' or 't' Slightly more "dental" Long 'u' as 'oo' in 'moon' (oo); short 'u' as 'u' in 'put' Pronounced like 'f' when at the end of a word and in a few but often used words (in most cases of Germanic origin), in general at the beginning of German geographical and family names. In all other cases like 'v' Pronounced like 'v' Pronounced like 'ks' Pronounced like '' (see below), except in words of English origin, where it is pronounced like in English Slightly more "dental"; before 'a', 'i', 'o', 'u', 'y', '', '', '' (only if these vowels don't belong to a suffix) Long 'o' as 'o' in 'open' (oh), there is no movement in the sound as in the English equivalent. Short 'o' as 'o' in 'pot'

Q (ku) /ku/ R S (er) // (es) /s/

(te) /te/

U (u) /u/ V (vau) /f/

W (ve) /ve/ X (iks) /ks/ Y (psilon) /pslon/ Z (zet) /tst/

Pronounced like 'ts'



Unique German Letters

Umlaut Letters Umlauts were originally written as 'ae', 'oe', and 'ue'.
Pronunciation: () // () // () // Long pronounced similar to 'ai' in 'air' Umlauts Umlaute

No English equivalent sound (see below); somewhat similar to vowel in 'jerk', 'turn', or 'third', but it is critical to note that there is no "r" sound that is pronounced in conjunction with the . No English equivalent sound (see below)

The ss-Ligature,
Pronunciation: -ligature Eszet

(missing file: , how to upload audio) (es-zet or scharfes es) // Pronounced like 's' in 'set' or 'c' in 'nice'; see below for uses.

Combined Letters
Pronunciation: Combined letters Buchstabenkombinationen

(missing file: , how to upload audio) ch ck tz ie ei eu u au dt st sp sch (ce-ha) // (ce-ka) // (te-zet) // (i-e) // (e-i) // (e-u) // (-u) // (a-u) // (de-te) // (es-te) // (es-pe) // (es-ce-ha) // Pronounced like English 'sh' followed by 't' Pronounced like English 'sh' followed by 'p' Pronounced like English 'sh' Pronounced like the 'ie' in 'tie' or simply the personal 'I' Pronounced like the 'oi' in the English word 'oil' Pronounced like the 'oi' in the English word 'oil' Pronounced as a short 'ow' such as when experiencing pain Pronounced various ways (see Konsonanten sounds below)

tsch, zsch, tzsch ph (pe-ha) //

Pronounced like English 'ch'

Pronounced like 'f'. Often used in the old orthography, now nearly always replaced: old: Photographie new: Fotografie Difficult pronunciation for non-speakers. Both letters are pronounced.

pf qu ...

(pe-ef) // (ku-u) //



Audio: Audio:

OGG (305KB) ~ Das Alphabet oder Das ABC OGG (114KB) ~ Die Umlaute

Deutsche Aussprache ~ German Pronunciation Guide

Vokale ~ Vowels
German vowels are either long or short, but never drawled as in some English dialects. A simple method of recognizing whether a vowel is likely to be long or short in a German word is called the Rule of double consonants. If a vowel is followed by a single consonant as in haben (have), dir (you, dat.), Peter (Peter), and schon (already) the vowel sound is usually long. If there are two or more consonants following the vowel as in falsch (false), elf (eleven), immer (always), and noch (still) the vowel sound is usually short. There are some German words that are exceptions to the double consonant rule: bin, bis, das, es, hat, and was all have short vowel sounds. It is also the case that the silent 'h' does not count as a consonant and the preceding vowel is always long. Ihnen is an example. This "rule" is applied to the use of 'ss' vs. '' (see below), in that '' is treated as 'hs'. Thus, the vowel before '' in der Fu (foot) is long, while that before 'ss' in das Fass (cask) is short. au 'Ah-oo' is pronounced like 'ow' in English 'cow'. German examples are blau (blue) and auch (also see below under ach ~ unique German sounds). u 'Ah-umlaut-oo' is pronounced like the German eu (ay-oo; see next). In written and printed German, 'ae' can be an acceptable substitute for '' if the latter is unavailable. eu 'Ay-oo' is pronounced like 'oi' in English word 'oil'. German examples are neun (nine) and heute (today). ie and ei 'Ee-ay' has exactly the same sound as a German long 'i'; that is, like the 'ee' in 'seen'. 'Ay-ee' is pronounced like the 'ei' in 'height'. Note that this appears to be the opposite for these two vowel combinations in English, where the rule is that the first vowel is long and the second is silent. Consider this word: 'die' in German it is pronounced 'dee', in English like 'dye'. The word mein in German is the English 'mine'. In effect, 'ie' follows the same rule as in English, with the first vowel long (ee in German) and the second vowel silent; 'ei' is the equivalent sound in German to the English long 'i' as in 'mine'.

Konsonanten ~ Consonants
Most German consonants are pronounced similar to the way they are in English, with exceptions noted in column 3 above. Details of certain consonant sounds and uses are discussed further here: ch Pronounced like 'k' in many words of Greek origin like Christ or Charakter, but like 'sh' in words of French origin, and 'tch' in words of English origin. The German sechs (six) is pronounced very much similar to the English 'sex', but with a voiced 's' (so it's more like 'zex'). See also the discussion of "ich-sound" below. The pronunciation of words with an initial 'ch' followed by a vowel, as in China or Chemie varies: in High German the "ich-sound" is the standard pronunciation, but in South German dialect and Austrian German 'k' is preferred. d, t, l, and n These letters are pronounced similarly in English and German. However, in pronouncing these letters, the German extends his tongue up to the back of the base of the teeth, creating a more dental sound. As noted above, 'd' is a 'dental d' except at the end of a word, where it becomes a 'dental t'. sch in German 'Ess-tsay-hah' is pronounced like 'sh', not 'sk' as in English. German word example: Schler (student). sp and st Where the combinations 'ess-pay' or 'ess-tay' appear at the beginning of a word, the 'ess' sound becomes an 'sh' sound. German examples are spielen (play) and spt (late). An interesting "exception" is a word like Bleistift (pencil), where the inside 'sti' is pronounced 'shti' however, this is a compound word from Blei (lead) and Stift (pen). Some local dialects however pronounce all occurrences "sharp" (with an 'ess' sound --

German/Appendices/Alphabet typical for North German dialects, especially near Hamburg) or "soft" (with an 'sh' sound -- typical for the Swabian dialect). The former ligature (of 'ss' or 'sz'), 'ess-tset' is widely used in German, but its use is somewhat more restricted in very modern German (always pronounced like 's' in 'sound'). '' is used for the sound 's' in cases where 'ss' or 's' can't be used: this is especially after long vowels and diphthongs (cf. the English usage of 'c' like in 'vice' or 'grocery'). Thus, the vowel before '' in der Fu (foot) is long, while that before 'ss' in das Fass (cask) is short. '' appears after diphthongs ('au', 'ei', 'eu') because they are long. In written and printed German, 'ss' can be an acceptable substitute for '' if the letter is unavailable. The Greek letter, , is not to be used as a substitute for ''. Note that in Switzerland, '' is always written as 'ss'.


German Sounds not found in English

There are sounds in the German language that have no real equivalent in the English language. These are discussed here. r German language has two pronunciations for r: The more common is similiar to the French r, a guttural sound resembling a fractionated g, as found in Arabic or some pronunciations of modern Greek , as well as modern Hebrew ( the modern sound was affected by German). The second pronounciation is a "rolled" r as in Spanish or Scots. Its use is limited to Switzerland and parts of Southern Germany. (oh-umlaut) The word "umlaut" means "change in sound" and an umlauted 'o' changes to a sound with no equivalent in English. An easy way to get this sound is to think of it as the 'u' in the British word 'murder'. Commonly, the 'long ' is made by first sounding 'oo' as in moon, then pursing the lips as if to whistle, and changing the sound to 'a' as in 'late'. An example word is schn (beautiful). The 'short ' sound is made by first sounding 'oo', pursing the lips, and changing the sound to 'e' as in 'pet. A 'short ' sounds actually very similar to the 'i' in 'sir'. An example word is zwlf (twelve). If you have problems pronouncing , do not replace it by "o" but by "e" (as in elf) like in many German dialects. In written and printed German, 'oe' can be an acceptable substitute for '' if the latter is unavailable. (oo-umlaut) As with '', 'oo-umlaut' is a rounded vowel sound with no real English equivalent. The 'long ' is made by first sounding 'oo' as in moon, then pursing the lips as if to whistle, and changing the sound to 'ee' as in 'seen'. A simpler approach is to simply shape your lips as if you were to whistle, and then put some voice. An example word is frh. The 'short ' sound is made by first sounding 'oo', pursing the lips, and changing the sound to 'i' as in 'pit. An example word is fnf (five). If you have problems pronouncing , do not replace it by "u" but by "i" (as in fish) like in many German dialects. In written and printed German, 'ue' can be an acceptable substitute for '' if the latter is unavailable. ach The letter combination 'ch' as in auch (also) is called the "ach-sound" and resembles a throat-clearing (guttural) sound. It is used after 'a', 'o', 'u', and 'au'. It is pronounced somewhat like "och" in Loch Ness (lock, not loke) in its original form. The Hebrew letter and the Arabic letter as well as continental Spanish j are pronounced the same as the "ach-sound". ich The "ich-sound" in German is also somewhat guttural, like a more forceful 'h' in English "hue", "huge". Another approach is to say "sh" while (almost) touching the palpatine not with the tip but with the middle of your tongue. In the word richtig ("correct") both the 'ich' and the final 'ig' have this sound. It is used after 'e', 'i', 'y', '', '', '', 'ei', 'eu', 'u', after consonant-letters and sometimes at the beginning of words (especially before 'e', 'i', 'y', '', ''). If you have problems pronouncing ich, replace with the sound of 'hue' or by 'sh' but never by a hard 'k' (never "ick")! In some parts of Germany "ich", as well as the final 'ig', is pronounced "ish". In Austria and some local dialects of Germany the final 'ig' (as in "richtig") is simply pronounced as in English "dig". Audio: OGG (37KB) ~ ach, auch, ich, richtig



Syllable Stress
The general rule in German is that words are stressed on the first syllable. However, there are exceptions. Almost all exceptions are of Latin, French, or Greek origin. Mostly these are words stressed on the last syllable, as shown by the following: Vo=`kal Kon=so=`nant Lek=ti=`on

These words (not stressed on the first syllable) appear in the (Level II and III) lesson vocabularies as Vokal, Lektion (in some regions: Lektion), etc. Words starting in common prefixes (ge-, be-, ver-, etc.) stress the syllable following said prefix. Examples are Gemse, Beamte, and Vereinigung.

For very advanced Readers: w:de:Vokal#Vokale_im_Deutschen w:de:
() Appendices (discussion)

Alphabet Vocabulary Phrasebook Resources Names German History Nations of the World False Friends Numbers Keyboard Layout

() German Lessons:

Level I

Level II

Level III

Level IV

Level V (discussion)

Grammar Appendices About (including print versions) Q&A Planning


A.02 - Phrase Book

Appendices Alphabet Vocabulary Phrasebook Resources Names German History Nations of the World False Friends Numbers Keyboard Layout




Lessons: Level I Level II Level III Grammar Appendices About (including print versions) Q&A Planning

German Phrases
Hallo! Guten Tag! Tag! Guten Morgen! Guten Abend! Gute Nacht! Wie geht es Ihnen? Wie geht's Es geht mir gut Prima!, Groartig! Spitze! Gut! Sehr gut! Toll! Ganz gut So lala Es geht so Hello! Good day! Good day! Good morning! Good evening! Good night! How are you (formal)? How are you doing? How are you (informal) I'm doing fine, I'm well Great! Super! Good! Very good! Terrific! Pretty good OK Going ok

German/Appendices/Phrasebook Nicht gut Schlecht Sehr schlecht Miserabel Und Ihnen? Auf Wiedersehen! Wiedersehen! Tschss! Tschau! Bis spter! Bis dann! Wiederhren Not well Bad Very bad Miserable And you (formal)? Good bye! Bye! See you! Ciao! (Italian for 'see you') Later! (until later) Later! (until whenever) (hear) again (used over the phone)


Note: How are you? is not a typical query in German greeting etiquette as it is in English, where the standard answer is I'm Fine. A German speaker will consider this to be an earnest question, and you may receive an honest answer that is longer than you expected. Note: Wiedersehen directly translates as "to see again".

Gesprche (conversations)
Danke (sehr)! Danke schn! Bitte? Bitte (sehr)! Entschuldigung! Vielen Dank Gern geschehen Thanks, thank you Thanks a lot! Please? You're welcome! (comes after danke) Excuse me! Much thanks You are welcome

Verstehen (understanding)
Sprechen Sie bitte etwas langsamer. Bitte sprechen Sie langsamer. Knnen Sie mich verstehen? Ich verstehe Sie nicht. Ich wei nicht. Was haben Sie gesagt? Knnen Sie das bitte wiederholen? Ich spreche kein deutsch. Ich spreche nur ein bisschen deutsch. Ich spreche nur wenig deutsch. Please, speak somewhat slower. Please speak more slowly. Can you understand me? I don't understand you. I don't know What was that? What have you said? Can you say that again, please! I don't speak German (literally: I speak no German) I speak only a little German I speak a little German

Ich spreche nur ein paar Wrter auf deutsch. I only speak a few words of German. Sprechen Sie deutsch? Sprechen Sie englisch? Do you speak German? Do you speak English?



Positionen (Locations)
Wo ist die Apotheke? Wo ist das Geschft? Wissen Sie, wo der Flughafen ist? Wie gelangt man zur Bowlingbahn? More commonly used is: (few people say "gelangt")
Wie kommt man zur Wie kommt man zur Apotheke? Wie kommt man zum Wie kommt man zum Flughafen? How does one get to? (for feminine words) How does one get to the chemist / pharmacy? How does one get to? (for neuter or masculine words) How does one get to the airport?

Where is the drug store? Where is the shop? Do you know where the airport is? How do you get to the bowling alley?

Gehen Sie nach links. Gehen Sie nach rechts.

Go left Go right

Common phrases
Translation German hello good-bye please youre welcome thank you that one how much? English yes no I need help excuse me pardon me I am sick wheres the bathroom? generic toast Phrase Deutsch Hallo auf Wiedersehen bitte bitte schn danke das da wie viel? Englisch ja nein Ich brauche Hilfe Entschuldigen Sie verzeihen Sie ich bin krank Wo ist die Toilette? IPA /d/ /halo/ /af vidzen/ /bt/ /bt n/ /dak/ /das da/ /vi fil/ /l/ /ja/ /nan/ /i ba hlf/ /ntldgn zi/ /fan zi/ / bn kak/ /vo st di tolt/ Pronunciation (doytsh) (HAH-loh) (owf VEE-der-zayn) (BIT-tuh) (BIT-tuh shurn) (DAHNG-kuh) (duss dah) (vee feel) (ANG-lish) (yah) (nine) (ish BROW-khuh HEEL-fuh) (ent-SHOOL-dee-gen zee) (fair-TSEYE-en zee) (ish bin krunk) (vo ist dee toe-LET-tuh) (listen) (listen) (listen) (listen) (listen) (listen) (listen) Sound (listen) (listen) (listen) (listen)

prosit prost Sprechen Sie Englisch?

/pozit/ /post/ /pn zi l/

(PRO-zeet) (proast) (SHPRE-shen zee ANG-lish)

(listen) (listen) (listen)

Do you speak English? I dont speak German I dont understand Sorry

Ich spreche kein Deutsch

/ pr kan d/

(ish SHPRE-shuh kine doytsh)

Ich verstehe nicht. Entschuldigung

/ fte nt/ /ntldg/

(ish fair-SHTAY-uh nisht) (ent-SHOOL-dee-gung)

(listen) (listen)


/ vas nt/ /hln glkvn m gbtak/ (ish vice nisht) (HAIRTS-lee-shen GLUKE-voonsh tsoom ge-BOORTS-tahk) (listen)

I dont know Happy birthday

Ich wei nicht Herzlichen Glckwunsch zum Geburtstag




Alphabet Vocabulary Phrasebook Resources Names German History Nations of the World False Friends Numbers Keyboard Layout

() German Lessons:

Level I

Level II

Level III

Level IV

Level V (discussion)

Grammar Appendices About (including print versions) Q&A Planning


A.03 - Grammar Reference Table I

German/Appendices/Grammar I
Beginning German | Basic German | Intermediate German

Der-word Case for German Nouns

Case Gender Nominativ Genitiv Dativ Akkusativ des der des der dem der dem den den die das die

masculine der feminine neuter plural* die das die

* The same regardless of singular noun gender

Personal Pronoun Tables: nominative, genitive, dative & accusative cases

Nominative case personal pronouns
The nominative case is used as the subject of a verb.
Singular 1st person ich I wir Plural we

2nd person du (Sie*) you

ihr (Sie*) you they

3rd person er, sie, es he, she, it sie

*Polite form.

Genitive case personal pronouns

The genitive case corresponds to the possessive case in English or to the English objective case preceded by 'of' and denoting possession. The use of genitive personal pronouns is very rare in German and many Germans are unable to use them correctly.

German/Appendices/Grammar I


Singular 1st person meiner my your unser

Plural our

2nd person deiner (Ihrer*)

eurer (Ihrer*) your their

3rd person seiner, ihrer, seiner his, her, its ihrer

*Polite form. Examples: Ich erbarme mich eurer. ~ I take pity on you(rs). meiner unbedeutenden Meinung nach. ~ in my humble opinion (IMHO)

Dative case personal pronouns

The personal pronouns in the dative case are used as indirect objects of verbs and after the prepositions aus, auer, bei, mit, nach, seit, von, zu.
Singular 1st person mir me you uns Plural us

2nd person dir (Ihnen*)

euch (Ihnen*) you them

3rd person ihm, ihr, ihm him, her, it ihnen

*Polite form.

Accusative case personal pronouns

The personal pronouns in the accusative case are used as direct objects of transitve verbs and after the prepositions durch, fr, gegen, ohne, um.
Singular 1st person mich me you uns Plural us

2nd person dich (Sie*)

euch (Sie*) you them

3rd person ihn, sie, es him, her, it sie

* Polite form.


A.04 - Grammar Reference Table II

German/Appendices/Grammar II
<< Beginning German | Basic German | Intermediate German

Conjugating 'to be'

Ich bin gro. Du bist sehr gro. Sie ist klein. Sie sind gro. I am tall. You are very tall. She is short. They are tall.

In these cases, we use the correct form of sein for each situation. Please notice the final two sentences both use 'Sie', and we must look at the verb to determine the difference between 'she' and 'they'. In German, the English infinitive 'to be' is translated as sein. This is the table of the forms of 'sein', with rough English translations. Note that in English, there are only three forms (am, is, are) while German has five (bin, bist, ist, sind, seid). Also, the verb conjugation of the two you-formals are always the exact same.

German sein
Person Singular Pronoun Verb Form Plural Pronoun Verb Form 1st 2nd 3rd Fml. ich du er / sie / es Sie bin bist ist sind wir ihr sie Sie sind seid sind sind

English to be
1st 2nd 3rd I you he / she / it am we are y'all is they are are are

Fml. you (formal) are y'all (formal) are

German/Appendices/Grammar II


Conjugating Normal Verbs

Er spielt Volleyball. Ich mache Hausaufgaben. Wir kommen aus Mnchen. Was machst du? He plays volleyball. I do my homework. We come from Munich. What are you doing?

In these sentences, different verbs and endings are used. Note that the verb is always in second position. When conjugating normal verbs, use the endings shown below (a memory hook is the "best ten" endings). Note that in normal verbs, such as spielen and machen, ihr-form and er/sie/es-form are the same and the wir-form, sie (pl)-form and the formal are all the same as the infinitive.

1st 2nd 3rd ich du -e -st wir -en ihr -t sie -en

er / sie / es -t

Fml. Sie

-en Sie -en

spielen - to play
1st 2nd 3rd ich du spiele spielst wir spielen ihr spielt sie spielen

er / sie / es spielt

Fml. Sie

spielen Sie spielen

machen - to make/do
1st 2nd 3rd ich du mache machst wir machen ihr macht sie machen

er / sie / es macht

Fml. Sie

machen Sie machen

Conjugating Irregular Verbs

Ich habe keine Zeit. Gib mir das Buch! Sie wandert gern. Er liest einen Roman. I have no time. Give me the book. She likes to hike. He is reading a novel.

In each of these sentences, we use an irregular verb. Irregularity occurs in the ich-form or the du-form and er/sie/es-forms. There are three types of irregularity.

German/Appendices/Grammar II


E in the first syllable

One form of irregularity occurs sometimes when the verb contains an 'e' in the first syllable. The change is simple: the du-form and er/sie/es forms both change the 'e' to an 'i.e.' or an 'i'. Two common examples are shown. Note that the er/sie/es-form and ihr-form are no longer the same.

sehen - to see
1st 2nd 3rd ich du sehe wir sehen

siehst ihr seht sie sehen

er / sie / es sieht

Fml. Sie

sehen Sie sehen

geben - to give
1st 2nd 3rd ich du gebe gibst wir geben ihr gebt sie geben

er / sie / es gibt

Fml. Sie

geben Sie geben

A similar, yet different, change occurs in the verb "haben". As in the irregularity above, the du-form and er/sie/es-form change.

haben - to have
1st 2nd 3rd ich du habe hast wir haben ihr habt sie haben

er / sie / es hat

Fml. Sie

haben Sie haben

Verbs ending in Consonant-N

Some verbs change the ich-form for obvious reasons. "Wandern" and "basteln" are two examples. Both drop the first e in the ich-form. wandern - to hike
1st 2nd 3rd ich du wandre wanderst wir wandern ihr wandert sie wandern

er / sie / es wandert

Fml. Sie

wanderen Sie wanderen

basteln - to build

German/Appendices/Grammar II


1st 2nd 3rd

ich du


wir basteln

bastelst ihr bastelt sie basteln

er / sie / es bastelt

Fml. Sie

basteln Sie basteln

Conjugating Modals
Ich will ins Kino gehen. Drfen wir hier essen? Was kann ich fr dich tun? Er mag Romane lesen. I want to go to the movies. May we eat here? What can I do for you? He likes to read books.

Modals are a new kind of verb. They are the equivalent to helping verbs in English. There are seven basic modals: knnen (can), mgen (like), drfen (may), wollen (want), sollen (should), mssen (must), and mchten (would like). Mchten isn't technically a modal, but it acts like one in most aspects. Modals are conjugated very differently. The ich-form and er/sie/es-form are always alike and singular has a different verb in the first syllable (except in sollen and mchten). Below are the conjugations of the six basic modals and mchten.

knnen - can
1st 2nd 3rd ich du kann kannst wir knnen ihr knnt sie knnen

er / sie / es kann

Fml. Sie

knnen Sie knnen

mgen - like
1st 2nd 3rd ich du mag magst wir mgen ihr mgt sie mgen

er / sie / es mag

Fml. Sie

mgen Sie mgen

drfen - may
1st 2nd 3rd ich du darf darfst wir drfen ihr drft sie drfen

er / sie / es darf

Fml. Sie

drfen Sie drfen

wollen - want

German/Appendices/Grammar II


1st 2nd 3rd

ich du

will willst

wir wollen ihr wollt sie wollen

er / sie / es will

Fml. Sie

wollen Sie wollen

sollen - should
1st 2nd 3rd ich du soll sollst wir sollen ihr sollt sie sollen

er / sie / es soll

Fml. Sie

sollen Sie sollen

mssen - must
1st 2nd 3rd ich du muss musst wir mssen ihr msst sie mssen

er / sie / es muss

Fml. Sie

mssen Sie mssen

mchten - would like

1st 2nd 3rd ich du mchte wir mchten

mchtest ihr mchtet sie mchten

er / sie / es mchte

Fml. Sie

mchten Sie mchten

Separable Verbs
Du siehst schn aus! You look good! Ich muss mein Zimmer aufrumen. I have to clean my room. Komm mit! Come with! Probier diese Jeans an! Try these jeans on. Some verbs in German are separable: they have a prefix that can be separated from the base. When the verb is used with a modal, it regains the prefix at the end of the sentence. When it is the main verb of the sentence, the prefix is moved to the end of the sentence. An "example" in English would be the word "intake". When it is used as a verb, it becomes "take ... in". When it is used as an adjective or a noun, it becomes "intake" again. Two easy examples of separable verbs are aussehen and mitkommen. Note that aussehen is also irregular.

aussehen - to appear

German/Appendices/Grammar II


1st 2nd 3rd

ich du

sehe aus

wir sehen aus

siehst aus ihr seht aus sie sehen aus

er / sie / es sieht aus

Fml. Sie

sehen aus Sie sehen aus

mitkommen - to come along/with

1st 2nd 3rd ich du komme mit kommst mit wir kommen mit ihr kommt mit sie kommen mit

er / sie / es kommt mit

Fml. Sie

kommen mit Sie kommen mit


A.05 - Webseiten and other resources

Appendices Alphabet Vocabulary Phrasebook Resources Names German History Nations of the World False Friends Numbers Keyboard Layout




Lessons: Level I Level II Level III Grammar Appendices About (including print versions) Q&A Planning

Appendix 3 ~ Online Resources for German Language Students

Lists and directories to online resources

bab.la [1] - Language Portal | Online Quizzes | Learn Languages German Flashcards [2] - Flashcards with audiofiles and dictionary www.deutschlern.net [3] - E-learning platform for beginning, intermediate and advanced students and teachers of German. Exercises based on authentic texts train reading comprehension, vocabulary, and grammar. Monitor function for teachers. Free of charge, requires free login. Learn German Online [4] - Free German lessons online. Learn German for free [5] - Free German language lessons. Deutsch als Fremdsprache [6] - Useful links for German language learners. Site in German. German Language and Culture Resources [7] - Materials and resources for learning the German language and about German-speaking culture. Free Online German Tutorial [8] - at ielanguages.com Free resources for language students [9] - Practice speaking German with audio forums. Learn-German [10] - Learn German quickly with our German tips, advice, and links. Mango [11] - Mango Languages has free German Lessons for English speakers. lernsoware.de [12] Wiki German lessons online



ber die deutsche Sprache - about German

Ethnologue report for German [13] Verein Deutsche Sprache [14]

Online Wrterbcher - Dictionary

Free Online Dictionary [15] - Languages of the world

Deutsch-Englisch (German-English)
Wiktionary - English [16] Wiktionary - German [17] bab.la German-English [18] - Translations, synonyms, grammar, voice output, regional and colloquial expressions. dicologos [19] really this is a multilanguage dictionary with ofer 7.000.000 lemmas in several languages. Babylon [20] Babylon Online Dictionary LEO [21] - with audiofiles of most of the words and vocabulary trainer. Dict.cc [22] Pons [23] - Dictionary with vocabulary trainer.

Ding [24] - Ding is a Dictionary lookup program for the X window system (Linux, Unix - not for Mac or MS Windows). It comes with a German-English Dictionary with approximately 180,000 entries.r.

Nur Deutsch - German only

DWDS- Das digitale Wrterbuch der deutschen Sprache [25] - German only dictionary for advanced learners. Deutsche Wrterbcher von Wahrig [26] - Orthography and foreign words Redensartenindex [27] - German idioms and proverbs with explanations

Slideshows with pictures and pronuciations

Language courses German every week-end.

at the time of insertion there is only one file about fruit - I will try to add new ones

Deutsche Grammatik und Rechtschreibung- German Grammar and Spelling

Canoo [1] - extensive database about inflection and word formation German Grammar Resource [8] - Free German grammar lessons Free online German course [29] - new orthography, grammar, exercises, tests, example sentences, jokes, learning tips

Aussprache - Pronunciation
A Guide to German Pronunciation [30] - Pronunciation course for beginners.

Deutschlernblog [31] Tips for learning German. Site entirely in German. DaF-Blog [32] On German language and how to learn it. Parts of the Site are in English, but most of it in German. Deutsch-Happen [33] small, bite-sized snaps of German language for the advancing learner



from learners
Speaken Sie Deutsch? [34]: Podcast from Canadian Hugh Gordon (Rss-Feed [35]).

for learners
Guter Umgang [36]: German language learning blog about colloquial German (RSS-Feed [37]). Let's speak German [38]: Jokes, poems, tonguetwisters and more in German (RSS-Feed [39]). Podcasts of Deutsche Welle [40]: Nachrichten, Top-Thema, Stichwort, Sprachbar and Alltagsdeutsch are specifically made for language learners. Most of the texts can be found on the pages Deutsch im Fokus [41] (Sprachbar, Stichwort and Alltagsdeutsch) and Didaktuelles [42] (Nachrichten and Top-Thema).

Tandem by E-Mail [43] The Mixxer [44] Tandem via Skype [45]
() Appendices (discussion)

Alphabet Vocabulary Phrasebook Resources Names German History Nations of the World False Friends Numbers Keyboard Layout

() German Lessons:

Level I

Level II

Level III

Level IV

Level V (discussion)

Grammar Appendices About (including print versions) Q&A Planning

[1] http:/ / en. bab. la [2] http:/ / www. german-flashcards. com/ [3] http:/ / www. deutschlern. net [4] http:/ / learngerman. elanguageschool. net [5] http:/ / www. populearn. com/ german/ [6] http:/ / www. cornelia. siteware. ch/ daf. html [7] http:/ / www. vistawide. com/ german [8] http:/ / www. ielanguages. com/ German. html [9] http:/ / loquela-education. net [10] http:/ / learn-german. bravehost. com [11] http:/ / www. trymango. com [12] http:/ / lernsoware. de [13] http:/ / www. ethnologue. com/ show_language. asp?code=GER [14] http:/ / www. vds-ev. de [15] http:/ / www. free-dictionary-translation. com [16] http:/ / en. wiktionary. org [17] http:/ / de. wiktionary. org [18] http:/ / en. bab. la/ dictionary/ german-english [19] http:/ / www. dicologos. org [20] http:/ / online. babylon. com/ combo/ index. html [21] http:/ / dict. leo. org/ [22] http:/ / dict. cc/ [23] http:/ / www. pons. de/ [24] http:/ / www-user. tu-chemnitz. de/ ~fri/ ding/ [25] http:/ / www. dwds. de/ cgi-bin/ dwds/ test/ query. cgi?wdg=1 [26] http:/ / www20. wissen. de/ xt/ default. do?MENUNAME=PS_W_S_Deutsche_Woerterbuecher [27] http:/ / www. redensarten-index. de/ suche. php

[28] [29] [30] [31] [32] [33] [34] [35] [36] [37] [38] [39] [40] [41] [42] [43] [44] [45] http:/ / commons. wikimedia. org/ wiki/ Category:Language_courses-German http:/ / www. deutsch-lernen. com http:/ / userweb. port. ac. uk/ ~joyce1/ abinitio/ pronounce/ http:/ / www. deutschlern. net/ blog/ http:/ / www. cornelia. siteware. ch/ blog/ wordpress/ http:/ / deutschhappen. blogspot. com/ http:/ / speakensiedeutsch. blogspot. com/ http:/ / feeds. feedburner. com/ SpeakenSieDeutsch http:/ / www. deutschlern. net/ http:/ / www. deutschlern. net/ podcast-deutsch-lernen-mit-umgangssprache http:/ / learninggerman. mschubertberlin. de/ podblog/ index. php http:/ / learninggerman. mschubertberlin. de/ podblog/ rss. php http:/ / www. dw-world. de/ dw/ 0,2142,9540,00. html http:/ / www. dw-world. de/ dw/ 0,2142,9213,00. html http:/ / www. dw-world. de/ dw/ 0,2142,2146,00. html http:/ / www. slf. ruhr-uni-bochum. de/ http:/ / www. language-exchanges. org http:/ / www. skype. com



A.07 - Namen
Appendices Alphabet Vocabulary Phrasebook Resources Names German History Nations of the World False Friends Numbers Keyboard Layout




Lessons: Level I Level II Level III Grammar Appendices About (including print versions) Q&A Planning

This is a list of common, modern German names. Please add to it.

First Names
German names have undergone a drastic change in the last 60 years. Older, "typical" German names like Hans, Fritz, Heinrich, Karl or Wilhelm are now uncommon in contemporary Germany. Today many parents give their children names like (ten most popular names 2005):
Boys 1. Alexander 2. Maximilian 3. Leon 4. Lukas/Lucas 5. Luca 6. Paul 7. Jonas 8. Felix 9. Tim 10. David Girls 1. Marie 2. Sophie/Sofie 3. Maria 4. Anna, Anne 5. Leonie 6. Lena 7. Emily 8. Lea/Leah 9. Julia 10. Laura

(Source: Gesellschaft fr deutsche Sprache [1])



Typical for young people

Boy's names Alexander Andr, Andreas Axel Christian, Christoph David Dennis, Denis Edvin Fabian Felix Finn, Fynn Florian Jan Jonas Julian, Julius Kevin Lars Leo, Leon Luka, Luca, Lucas, Lukas Manuel Matthias Max, Maximilian Michael Moritz Niko, Nick, Nikolas, Niklas, Nicolas Noah Patrick Paul Philipp Robin Sebastian Simon Stefan, Stephan, Steffen Sven Tim Tobias Tom Yannick, Yannik Sebi, Seb, Sebbe, Basti Simi Steff Svenni Timmi Tobi Tommi Phil Pat Luki Manu, Mani Matt, Matti Maxi Micha, Michi Juli, Jule Flo, Flori Eddy pet names Alex Andi Chris



older names: Alfi, Alfred Adolf Albert, Bert, Kunibert Anton Achim, Joachim Adam Aaron Armin Bjrn Bernard Bennedikt Bruno Bodo Boris Berthold Benjamin Clemens Carlo, Karlo, Karl Carsten Dieter, Dietrich Daniel Domian, Damian Detlev Dirk Erik Erwin Emil Eberhard Eckart Edmund Ernst Ewald Franz, Frank Fritz Fridolin Fred, Frederik Friedrich, Friedhelm Falko Gustav Gerhardt Gert Gnther Gregor Gunnar Hans, Hans-Jrgen, Hannes

German/Appendices/Names Harald Heinz Heinrich, Heiner Hugo Hektor Helge Heiko Hartmut Herbert Holger Ingo, Ingolf Jrgen, Jrg Jens Janosch Jakob Johann Karl Klaus Knut Kurt Konrad Kaspar Ludwig Leif Manfred Malte Norbert Nils Olaf Oliver Otto, Ottfried Paul Peter Rudi, Rdiger, Rudolph Roman Robert Rex Reinhard, Rainer, Reiner Sren Siegfried Snke Thomas Till Torsten Ulf


Ulli Uwe

German/Appendices/Names Udo Viktor Werner Wolfgang, Wolf, Welf Wilhelm, Willi


Girls' Names young ones: Anna, Anne, Annika Amelie Angelina Bianca Christina, Christine Daniela Elea Eva Elisa Emma Emely, Emily Franziska Finja Hannah, Hanna Isabell, Isabelle Julia, Jule, Juliane Jana Janine, Janina Johanna Jasmin Klara Katharina Kim Kira Lena Lara Luise, Luisa Lea Lina Larissa Lisa Lina Leonie Liv Maike, Meike, Mareike Melissa Merle

Mercedes Marie

German/Appendices/Names Maja Marlene, Marleen Martina Nina Nicole Nora Petra Paula Pia Ronja Svenja Sarah Sofie, Sophie, Sophia Samantha Stella Susie Tabea


Tamara Vivien Vanessa older ones: Angela Anita Andschana Antonia Birgit Brigitte Berta Christa, Christel Doris Diana Fanny Frieda Gerta Gisela Gutrun Hannelore Helga Heidi, Heide Inga, Inge Iris Ilse Ingrid Josephine

Karin, Karen Linda Lydia

German/Appendices/Names Marta Monika Nadja Olivia Roswitha Renate Susanne Sabine Sissi Simone Silke Tina, Tine Ursula Ulla Vera Veronika Winnifried


Wanda Wilhelma

Last Names
The 51. most popular last names in Germany: 1. Mller 2. Schmidt 3. Schneider 4. Fischer 5. Meyer 6. Weber 7. Wagner 8. Becker 9. Schulz 10. Hoffmann 11. Schfer 12. Koch 13. Bauer 14. Richter 15. Klein 16. Wolf 17. Schrder 18. Neumann 19. Schwarz 20. Zimmermann 21. Braun 22. Krger 23. Hofmann 24. Hartmann 25. Lange

German/Appendices/Names 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51.


Schmitt Werner Schmitz Krause Meier Lehmann Schmid Schulze Maier Khler Herrmann Knig Walter Mayer Huber Kaiser Fuchs Peters Lang Scholz Mller Wei Jung Hahn Schubert Zcher
Appendices (discussion)

Alphabet Vocabulary Phrasebook Resources Names German History Nations of the World False Friends Numbers Keyboard Layout

() German Lessons:

Level I

Level II

Level III

Level IV

Level V (discussion)

Grammar Appendices About (including print versions) Q&A Planning

[1] http:/ / gfds. de/ index. php?id=63


A.08 - False Friends

German/Appendices/False friends
Appendices Alphabet Vocabulary Phrasebook Resources Names German History Nations of the World False Friends Numbers Keyboard Layout




Lessons: Level I Level II Level III Grammar Appendices About (including print versions) Q&A Planning

There are some words which are spelled the same in English and in German, but have completely different meanings. Even though the words are spelled the same, they are usually pronounced completely differently. It can sometimes be dangerous to use these words (for both native English speakers and native German speakers.) Think of that, next time someone wants to give you a " Gift" or opens a door and says " After you!" Note: This list contains some items of etymological [1] interest. For example, the transformation of the consonant 't' in German to 'd' in English in word pairs like Bart->Beard, Bett->Bed, Gut->Good, Hart->Hard, Rot->Red, and Not->Need.
Word German meaning (in English) Englische Bedeutung (auf Deutsch)

After Anus Spter, Nachher

also thus auch

German/Appendices/False friends


Angel Fishing Rod Engel

Apart Striking Abgesondert, Abseits

Arm Poor Arm

Art Kind, sort, species Kunst, Knstlichkeit

Ass Ace Esel, Dumpfbacke, Knallkopf, Arsch (vulg.)

Bad Bath Schlecht, Schlimm

Bagger Excavator Angesteller im Supermarkt der die Einkufe in Tten packt

bald Soon Unbehaart, Kahlkpfig

bang Afraid Knall, Krach, Schall

bar in Cash, Pure Stab (see also: Stab), Kneipe

Bart Beard Name eines Mannes

bat asked politely, requested (past tense) Fledermaus

German/Appendices/False friends


Beet Flower bed Zuckerruebe, rote Ruebe

bitten to ask politely, request gebissen

blank Shiny, Shining Unbeschriftet, Unausgefllt

Blech Sheet metal Ausdruck des Ekels

bog to Twist, Form, Bend (past tense) Sumpf, Torfmoor

Brand Fire Markenprodukt

Brilliant, brillant Diamond, prchtig, herrlich Blendend, Geistvoll

Bug Front of a boat or plane Laus, Insekt, Strung

Danke Thanks Feucht

dick Thick Schnffler, Schwanz, der steife Penis

Elf Eleven, (coll. soccer team) Elfe, Kobold

falls If, in case Wasserflle

German/Appendices/False friends


Fang, fang Catch, to catch, to capture (imperative) Reizahn

fatal Unfortunate Verhngnisvoll, Unheilvoll, Tdlich

fast Almost, Nearly Schnell

fasten Fast Befestigen

Fee Fairy Preise, Gebhr

Fell Coat (animal) fllen

fern Far away, Distant Farnkraut

First Ridge Zuerst

flog Flew Peitschen, Auspeitschen

fort Away, Off, Gone Festung, Kastell

Funk Radio Drckeberger, Musik von 1970's

Gang Walk, Gait, Way Gruppe, Bande, Trupp

German/Appendices/False friends


Gift Poison Gabe, Geschenk

Grab Grave Aufgreifen, Ergreifen

Grad Degree (temperature) einen akademischen Grad erlangen

grub dug (past tense) Futter

gut Good Darm (Schnecke und Kette)

Hack ground meal, hash Heib, Kerbe, Zerhacken

half Helped (past tense) Halb

Handy Cell Phone Praktisch, Passend, Handlich

Hang Slope, Inclination Hngen, Henken

Happen Bit, Morsel Zufllig Geschehen, Vorkommen, Passieren

hart Hard Hirsch

Heck Back of a car, boat or plane Was zum Teufel? (What the Heck?)

German/Appendices/False friends


Held Hero Gehalten

hell Bright Hlle

Herd Cooker, Oven, Range Herde

Hose Pants Schlauch

Hub, hub Throw, Lob, Swing (see also: Lob), (past tense of) to lift Wickelkern, Nabe

Hummer Lobster Jemand der summt

Hut Hat Htte

Kind child Art, Sorte

Labor Laboratory Arbeit

Lack Varnish Knappheit, Mangel

lag Lay zurueckbleiben, zoegern

Last Load, Burden, Weight Zuletzt

German/Appendices/False friends


Lied Song Gelogen

links Left Verknpfung, Verbindungen

List Cunning Schlagseite

Lob Praise Werf, Hub (see also: Hub)

log Lied Block, Klotz

Lot Plumb (line) Pazille, die Menge, die Masse

Lust To feel like doing something, desire (this can has the English meaning, depending on the situation) Sinnliche Begierde

Made Maggot Hergestellt, Gemacht

Maul Mouth (animal) der Schlegel, Beschdigen, Durchprgeln

Mist Manure, Trash leichter Nebel

Not distress, need Nicht

Note Grade (in school), musical note bemerken, aufschreiben, kleiner Brief

German/Appendices/False friends


nun Now die Schwester (im Kloster), Nonne

Pest Plague Nervensge

Rang Rank Geklingelt, Geklungen

Rad Wheel Ausdruck der Bewunderung (wie Geil)

Rat Advice die Ratte

Regal Shelves Majesttisch, Kniglich, Hoheitsvoll

Rind Beef, Cattle Schwarte, Schale

Rock Skirt Stein, Fels

Roman Novel der Rmer

Rot Red Verrotten, Verwesung

Sage History, Myth Weise, Klug, Gescheit

See Lake Siehe

German/Appendices/False friends


Sense Scythe Wahrnehmung, Bedeutung, Verstand, Sinn

Silvester New Year's Eve Name eines Mannes

Speck Bacon Fleck

Spur Trace, Tracks, Lane Schiffsschnabel, Sporn, Ansporn (see also: Spore)

Stab Rod, Pole, Baton, Bar (see also: Bar) Erstechen

Stare Starlings anstarren

stark Strong Vllig, Gnzlich

Stern Star Ernst, das Heck

Tag Day Markierstelle, Kennzeichnung

Tang Seaweed Amerikanisches Orangengetrnk

Taste Key (as in keyboard) Kostprobe, Geschmackssinn

toll Great! Super! Zollabgabe, Straenbenutzungsgebhr

German/Appendices/False friends


Tod Death, Dead Name eines Mannes

Ton Clay, a Sound die Tonne

Tot Dead kleines Kind, kleiner Knirps

Wade calf (of the leg) waten

Wand Wall der Zauberstab

war Was (see also: Was) Krieg

was What? wurde/war (see also: War)

Welt World Quaddel, Beule

Wetter Weather Nasser

wider Against, Contrary to Weiter, Breiter

will Wants Wille

Although not spelled identically in both languages, beginners are often confused by the similarity of the German "bekommen" and English "to become". bekommen => to receive, to get werden => to become

German/Appendices/False friends

Appendices (discussion)


Alphabet Vocabulary Phrasebook Resources Names German History Nations of the World False Friends Numbers Keyboard Layout

() German Lessons:

Level I

Level II

Level III

Level IV

Level V (discussion)

Grammar Appendices About (including print versions) Q&A Planning

[1] http:/ / en. wiktionary. org/ wiki/ etymology


A.09 - Level I Vocabulary

German/Level I/Vocabulary
<< Beginning German | Basic German | Intermediate German

Appendix 9 ~ Vocabulary for Level One

Wie heit du?

Subject Pronouns in Nominative Case
I We You You All He She It They Ich Wir Du Sie Ihr Sie Er Sie Es Sie



To Have Have Habe (1st Person, Singular) Hast (2nd Person, Singular) Haben (1st & 3rd Person, Plural) Habt (2nd Person, Plural) Hat

Has To Be Am Are


Bin Bist Sind Seid Ist

(1st Person, Singular) (1st & 3rd Person, Plural) (2nd Person, Plural)

German/Level I/Vocabulary


Greeting & Goodbyes

Hello! Hallo! Servus! (used in Bavaria and Austria) Moin! or Moin Moin! (used in northern Germany) Grezi! (used in Switzerland) Good morning! Guten Morgen! or Morgen! Good day! Guten Tag! or Tag! Good evening! Guten Abend! or N'Abend! Gr Gott! (used in southern Germany, Austria and Goodbye! Auf Wiedersehen! or Wiedersehen Bye! Tschss! or Tschau! Servus! (used in Bavaria, Austria) Later! Bis spter! or Bis dann! Good night! Gute Nacht!

South Tyrol)

How You Are

Good Super! Great! Very good! Bad Miserable Gut Spitze! Prima! Sehr gut! Schlecht Miserabel

Interrogative Adverbs
Who What Where When Why How Wer Was Wo Wann Warum Wie

Boy Girl Man Woman Boys Girls Men Women Der Das Der Die Die Die Die Die Junge Mdchen Herr Frau Jungen Mdchen Mnner Frauen

German/Level I/Vocabulary


Sports & Activities
Sport(s) Interests Soccer USA Football Volleyball Basketball Tennis Baseball 9-pin Bowling Chess Board Game Game Homework Television Movie Sport Hobbys/Interessant Fuball Amerikan Football Volleyball Basketball Tennis Baseball Kegeln Schach Das Brettspiel Das Spiel Hausaufgaben Fernsehen Der Film, Filme

And But Or Und Aber Oder

To To To To To To To To To To To Have Be Be Called Play Do/Make Read Watch See Work Write Swim haben sein heien spielen machen lesen schauen sehen arbeiten schreiben schwimmen

One Two Three Four Five Six Eins Zwei Drei Vier Fnf Sechs

German/Level I/Vocabulary Seven Eight Nine Ten Eleven Twelve Thirteen Fourteen Fifteen Sixteen Seventeen Eighteen Nineteen Twenty Thirty Forty Fifty Sixty Seventy Eighty Ninety Hundred Thousand Sieben Acht Neun Zehn Elf Zwlf Dreizehn Vierzehn Fnfzehn Sechzehn Siebzehn Achtzehn Neunzehn Zwanzig Dreiig Vierzig Fnfzig Sechzig Siebzig Achtzig Neunzig Hundert Tausend


How to Read Time

After Till Quarter Half Before Nach Vor Viertel Halb

Times in the Day

Day Today Tomorrow Yesterday Early Morning Morning Afternoon Evening Night Noon Midnight Tag Heute Morgen Gestern Morgen (use morgen frh for tomorrow morning) Vormittag Nachmittag Abend Nacht Mittag Mitternacht

German/Level I/Vocabulary


Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday Montag Dienstag Mittwoch Donnerstag Freitag Samstag or Sonnabend Sonntag

January February March April May June July August September October November December Januar Jnner (used in Austria) Februar Mrz April Mai Juni Juno (in spoken word only) Juli Julei (in spoken word only) August September Oktober November Dezember

Spring Summer Autumn Winter Frhling Sommer Herbst Winter

Time Free Time Always Often Sometimes Seldom Never Only Die Zeit Die Freizeit Immer Oft Manchmal Selten Nie Nur

German/Level I/Vocabulary


Subject Pronouns in the Accusative Case
Me Us You You All Him Her It Them Mich Uns Dich Euch Ihn Sie Es Sie

Appetizers Salad Bread Breadstick Main Dishes Sausage Sausages Bratwurst Hot Dog Pizza Pizzas Hamburger Hamburgers With Without Tomatoes Lettuce Cheese Pickles Onions Ketchup Mustard Chicken Chickens Seafood Fish Sides Soup Soups Noodle Soup French Fries Fries Pasta Vorspeisen Der Salat Das Brot Die Scheibe Brot Hauptgerichte Die Wurst Die Wrste Die Bratwurst Das Hot Dog Die Pizza Die Pizzen Der Hamburger Die Hamburger Mit (ignore article) Ohne (ignore article) Tomaten Der Salat Der Kse Die Gewrzgurken Die Zwiebeln Der Ketchup Der Senf Das Hhnchen Die Hhnchen Die Meeresfrchte (plural) Der Fisch Die Beilage (singular), die Beilagen Die Suppe Die Suppen Die Nudelsuppe Die Pommes frites (plural) Die Fritten (Informal and plural) Die Pasta or Die Nudeln


German/Level I/Vocabulary Potato Potatoes Corn Bean Beans Desserts Gteau Strudel Apple strudel Cake Piece of Cake Pie Piece of Pie Apple Pie Ice Cream Pudding Cookie Cookies Fruit The Meal Lunch Dinner Hunger Thirst Die Kartoffel Die Kartoffeln Mais Die Bohne Die Bohnen Nachspeisen Die (Sahne-)Torte Der Strudel Apfelstrudel Der Kuchen Das Stck Kuchen Die Pastete Das Stck Pastete Die Apfelpastete Das Eis Der Pudding Der Keks Die Kekse Das Obst Das Essen Mittagessen Abendessen Der Hunger Der Durst


To Eat To Drink To Receive To Want Would Like Essen Trinken Bekommen Wollen Mchten

Polite Conversation
Danke Bitte Dankeschn Danke sehr Kein Problem! Thank you Please & You're Welcome Thank you very much Thanks a lot No problem

Regional Foods
Chinese Food Japanese Food American Food Mexican Food Arabic Food Chinesisch Essen Japanisch Essen Amerikanisch Essen Mexikanisch Essen Arabisch Essen

German/Level I/Vocabulary Italian Food Indian Food French Food Greek Food Italienisch Essen Indisch Essen Franzsich Essen Griechisch Essen


Prepositions in the Accusative Case

Durch Fr Gegen Ohne Um Through For Against Without At, Around

Delicious Tasty Juicy Crunchy Crispy Spicy Stale Salty Sweet Bitter Sour Creamy Hot Burnt Cold Disgusting Lecker Schmackhaft Saftig Knackig Knusprig Wrzig Fade Fad (used in Austria) Salzig S Bitter Sauer Cremig Hei Angebrannt Kalt Schrecklich

Paying at a Restaurant
To Pay The Bill Waiter Zahlen Die Rechnung Der Ober

Babywear Children's Wear Clearance Sale Closed Clothing Die Babyartikel (plural) Die Kinderbekleidung Der Rumungsverkauf Geschlossen Die Kleidung

German/Level I/Vocabulary Computer Section Cosmetics Customer Customer Service Electrical Appliance Escalator Fashion Furniture Gift Good Value (Adj.) Groceries Jewellery Leather Goods Open Opening Hours Present Reduced Sales Receipt Souvenir Special Offer Sports Goods Stationery Summer Sale Video Store Winter Sale Der Computershop Die Kosmetik Der Kunde Der Kundendienst Das Elektrogert Die Rolltreppe Die Mode Das Mbel (no plural) Der Geschenkartikel Preiswert Die Lebensmittel (plural) Damenschuhe (plural) Die Lederwaren (plural) Geffnet Die ffnungszeiten (plural) Das Geschenk Reduziert Der Kassenbon Das Andenken Das Sonderangebot Sportartikel (plural) Schreibwaren (plural) Der Sommerschlussverkauf (abbr. Die Videothek Der Winterschlussverkauf (abbr.




Shopping 2
Department Store Retail Store The Mall Boutique Store Manager Employee Sales Clerk Cashier Dressing Room Men's Section Women's Section First Floor Menswear Second Floor Womenswear Third Floor Kids Section Fourth Floor Electronics Warenhaus Einzelhandelsgeschft Einkaufszentrum Boutique Geschft Manager Angestellter Verkufer Kassierer Umkleidekabine Mnnerabteilung Frauenabteilung Erstes Stockwerk Mnnerkleidung Zweiter Stock Frauenkleidung Dritte Stock Kinderabteilung Vierter Stock Elektronik

German/Level I/Vocabulary Kitchenware Fifth Floor Lighting Bedding Toys Six Floor Food Kchenbedarf Fnfter Stock Beleuchtung Bettwsche Spielwaren Sechster Stock Lebensmittel


Items to Buy
Electronics Television Digital Camera Telephone Cell phone Computer Speakers DVDs CDs DVD Player CD Player Bedding Blankets Pillow Pillow Case Sheets Bed Skirt Elektronik Fernsehen Digitalkamera Telefon Mobiltelefon, Handy Computer, Rechner Lautsprecher DVD CD DVD-Player CD-Player Bettwsche Decken Kopfkissen Kopfkissenbezug Bltter Bett-Rock

Price Note Coin 1 Euro Coin 2 Euro Coin 5 Euro Note 10 Euro Note 100 Euro Note 1 Cent Coin 2 Cent Coin 5 Cent Coin 10 Cent Coin 20 Cent Coin 50 Cent Coin Preis Der Schein Die Mnze Das Eurostck Das Zweieurostck Der Fnfeuroschein Der Zehneuroschein Der Hunderteuroschein Das Centstck Das Zweicentstck Das Fnfcentstck Das Zehncentstck Das Zwanzigcentstck Das Fnfcentstck

German/Level I/Vocabulary


Skirt Pullover Scarf Coat Shirt Sweater Necktie Jacket Pants Hat Shoe Sock Glove Blouse Der Der Das Der Das Der Der Die Die Der Der Die Der Die Rock Pullover Tuch Mantel Hemd Pullover Schlips Jacke Hose Hut Schuh Socke Handschuh Bluse

Size Color Cotton Leather Rayon Small Medium Large Extra-Large Die Gre Die Farbe Die Baumwolle Das Leder Die Kuntseide Klein Mittel Gro Extragro

Words That Describe

Cheap Expensive Pretty Ugly Soft New Broad Wide Tight Comfortable Billig Teuer Schn Hsslich Weich Neu Breit Weit Eng Bequem

Red Blue Green Orange Rot Blau Grn Orange

German/Level I/Vocabulary Violet Yellow Brown Indigo Gray Black White Veilchen Gelb Braun Indigo Grau Schwarz Wei


To To To To To To Look Try On Put On Take Buy Have On/Wear Aussehen Anprobieren Anziehen Nehmen Kaufen Anhaben or Tragen

Volk und Familie

Sohn Tochter Vater Mutter Grovater Gromutter Opa Oma Schwester Bruder Geschwister Enkel Enkelin Frau Mann Schwiegervater Schwiegertochter Schwager Schwgerin Schwiegermutter Schwiegersohn Onkel Tante Geschenk Son Daughter Father Mother Grandfather Grandmother Grandpa Grandma Sister Brother Brothers & Sisters Grandson Granddaughter Wife Husband Father-in-Law Daughter-in-Law Brother-in-Law Sister-in-Law Mother-in-Law Son-in-Law Uncle Aunt Present

German/Level I/Vocabulary


Nimmt Lesen Schreiben Studieren Lernen Zeichnen To To To To To To Take Away Read Write Study Learn Paint

Deutsch Englisch Russisch Franzsisch Latein Mathematik Sport Kunst or Zeichnen Musik Geschichte Biologie Geografie Religion Chemie Physik Informatik German English Russian French Latin Mathematics PE or Gym Arts Music History Biology Geography RE or Religion Chemistry Physics Computer Science

School Supplies and Ect.

der der der das die der die die der der die die die Radiergummi Bleistift Kuli/Kugelschreiber Fach Klasse Lehrer Lehrerin Schule Schler Student Stunde/Schulstunde Pause Schultasche Eraser/Rubber Pencil Pen Subject Class Teacher (male) Teacher (female) School Student (High/Secondary School Student (College/University) Lesson Break Backpack

and Lower)

German/Level I/Vocabulary


Die Fete
das Spiel das Videospiel Game Video Game

der Spa die Feier die Party die Musik die Torte das Fass das Bier der Schnaps der Wein der Weiwein der Rotwein Feiern Trinken Saufen sich Erbrechen Kotzen Tanzen der Geburtstag Weihnachten Ostern das Jubilum Fun PartyFormal Party Music Cake Keg Beer Hard Liquor Wine White Wine Red Wine To Party Drinking To Get Drunk To Throw Up To Puke (slang) To Dance Birthday Christmas Easter Anniversary

Privileg und Verantwortung

Work Doctor Buniness Man Buniness Woman Teacher Police Officer Fireman Actor Artist Author Bank Clerk Car Mechanic Chemist Arbeit Arzt Geschftsmann Geschftsfrau Lehrer Polizeibeamte Feuerwehrmann Schauspieler Knstler Schriftsteller Bankangestellter Automechaniker Chemiker

German/Level I/Vocabulary Civil Servant Engineer Farmer Hairdresser Journalist Lawyer Lecturer Nurse Pensioner Photographer Politician Postman Professor Salesperson Secretary Student Taxi Driver Waiter Beamter Ingenieur Landwirt Friseur Journalist Rechtsanwalt Dozent Krankenpfleger Rentner Fotograf Politiker Brieftrger Professor Verkufer Sekretr Student Taxifahrer Kellner


Cleaning Cooking Homework Tasks Reinigung Kochen Hausaufgaben Aufgaben

Locations Germany
Hamburg Berlin Frankfurt Colonge Munich

Hamburg Berlin Frankfurt Kln Mnchen

Weather Rain Snow Snow Showers Showers Thunder Storm Thunderstorm Cloudy Overcast Wetter Regen Schnee Schneesch Schauer Donner Sturm Gewitter Bewlkt Bedeckt

German/Level I/Vocabulary Hail Drizzle Thaw Frost Hagel Nieseln Tauen Frost


Car Train Trainstation Airplane Boat Highway Road Auto Zug Bahnhof Flugzeug Boot Landstrae Strae

Article Sources and Contributors


Article Sources and Contributors

German/Introduction Source: http://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?oldid=2258977 Contributors: Adrignola, Avicennasis, Berni, Derbeth, DouglasGreen, German Men92, Hagindaz, Herbythyme, Jfingers88, Jguk, MaTrIx, Marshman, MichaelFrey, Michi cc, Mike.lifeguard, Panic2k4, SamE, Stuckinkiel, Sultanzahir, Thomas G. Graf, ThomasStrohmann, Tubobuz, 61 anonymous edits German/Level I/Introduction Source: http://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?oldid=2255634 Contributors: Addihockey10, Addihockey10 (automated), Adrignola, Derbeth, German Men92, Hagindaz, Herbythyme, Ivlarx, JHunterJ, Junesun, Langec, Marshman, Martin Kraus, QuiteUnusual, SamE, Thamane, 12 anonymous edits German/Level I/Wie heit du? Source: http://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?oldid=1949836 Contributors: 879(CoDe), Adrignola, Aleron235, Alton, Az1568, Berni, Celestianpower, Cheonhajangsa, Cost, Denisoliver, Derbeth, Derpascalsch, Eddy264, Emortal, Endymi0n, Epsilon, Eramz3, German Men92, Hagindaz, Janno, Jassi virk, Jomegat, Kaylor, Malafaya, Marshman, Martin Beesk, Martin Kraus, MichaelFrey, Nkocharh, Offenbacher, RaveDog, Rca, SSilent, SabineCretella, SamE, Shdwninja8, Silvorte, Storeye, Sultanzahir, Sundance Raphael, Swift, TheSun, ThomasStrohmann, WeiNix, WolfgangThaller, 190 anonymous edits German/Level I/Freizeit Source: http://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?oldid=2304569 Contributors: Adrignola, Baryonic Being, Bielenberg, Bpogi92, CQuinton, Christoph, DavidCary, Eddy264, Endymi0n, Epsilon, German Men92, Heuler06, Langec, Martin Kraus, MasterSheep, Mgloede, MichaelFrey, Nkocharh, SamE, Silvius Graecus, Sultanzahir, SvonHalenbach, Tanidebo, TheSun, Thomas G. Graf, Wereon, 125 anonymous edits German/Level I/Essen Source: http://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?oldid=2267308 Contributors: Adrignola, Avicennasis, BiT, CommonsDelinker, Eddy264, Endymi0n, German Men92, Guido, Guido.Bockamp, Herbythyme, Janno, Joghurt, Martin Kraus, MasterSheep, Mastercpp, Neet, RaveDog, SamE, Schneelocke, Shdwninja8, Sma, Thamane, TheSun, Thomas G. Graf, Webaware, Xania, Xeon, 99 anonymous edits German/Level I/Review 1 Source: http://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?oldid=1945432 Contributors: Adrignola, Eddy264, German Men92, HolgiDE, Jomegat, Martin Kraus, 12 anonymous edits German/Level I/Kleidung Source: http://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?oldid=2155597 Contributors: Adrignola, Andrewcool, Avicennasis, Barboh47, CHG, Eddy264, Fitchguy20, German Men92, Guido.Bockamp, Heuler06, Jarik, Martin Kraus, Mastercpp, Melon.Curtains, Messi, Offenbacher, RaveDog, Shdwninja8, 87 anonymous edits German/Level I/Volk und Familie Source: http://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?oldid=2248431 Contributors: Acerperi, Adrignola, Avicennasis, Az1568, Cheonhajangsa, Fitchguy20, German Men92, Heuler06, HolgiDE, Martin Kraus, Mastercpp, Mgloede, Rappo, Shdwninja8, Sma, SvonHalenbach, Thamane, TheSun, 64 anonymous edits German/Level I/Schule Source: http://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?oldid=2066153 Contributors: Adrignola, Aleron235, Alsocal, Avicennasis, Boit, German Men92, Martin Kraus, MasterSheep, MichaelFrey, Omnipaedista, Rappo, Recent Runes, Shdwninja8, Thamane, 30 anonymous edits German/Level I/Review 2 Source: http://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?oldid=2350968 Contributors: Avicennasis, German Men92, Gronau, Martin Kraus, 3 anonymous edits German/Level I/Das Fest Source: http://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?oldid=2254898 Contributors: Adrignola, Carolinet, Collingwood, Derbeth, EricNau, German Men92, Martin Kraus, Panic2k4, RaveDog, Thamane, Windu, 21 anonymous edits German/Level I/Privileg und Verantwortung Source: http://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?oldid=1883577 Contributors: EricNau, German Men92, J36miles, Martin Kraus, Rappo, 6 anonymous edits German/Level I/Wetter Source: http://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?oldid=2157891 Contributors: Avicennasis, EricNau, German Men92, Julie22193, Martin Kraus, MasterSheep, RaveDog, Sloyment, SvonHalenbach, Tlustulimu, 27 anonymous edits German/Level I/Review 3 Source: http://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?oldid=2066154 Contributors: Avicennasis, German Men92, Martin Kraus, Sotakeit, 1 anonymous edits German/Level I/Zu Hause Essen Source: http://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?oldid=2151381 Contributors: German Men92, Hagindaz, J36miles, Martin Kraus, Sloyment German/Level I/Filme Source: http://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?oldid=2074179 Contributors: German Men92, J36miles, Martin Kraus, 1 anonymous edits German/Level I/Das Haus Source: http://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?oldid=1981418 Contributors: German Men92, J36miles, Jomegat, Julie22193, Martin Kraus, 2 anonymous edits German/Level I/Review 4 Source: http://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?oldid=1873900 Contributors: Martin Kraus German/Lesson 1 Source: http://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?oldid=2017993 Contributors: Adrignola, Derbeth, Dragontamer, Dysprosia, Etothex, Fitchguy20, German Men92, Hansm, Jguk, Marshman, Nerd, Patrick, Sundance Raphael, Swift, Thomas Arnhold, ThomasStrohmann, Vulture, 38 anonymous edits German/Lesson 2 Source: http://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?oldid=2066164 Contributors: Adrignola, Avicennasis, Dysprosia, El, Fitchguy20, Floflei6, German Men92, Guanaco, Iamunknown, Janno, Jguk, Marshman, Mgloede, Nick.anderegg, Shdwninja8, Thomas Arnhold, ThomasStrohmann, Van der Hoorn, Vulture, 23 anonymous edits German/Lesson 3 Source: http://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?oldid=2066163 Contributors: Adrignola, Avicennasis, Dysprosia, El, Etothex, Fitchguy20, German Men92, Jguk, Marshman, Messi, Sblive, ThomasStrohmann, Vulture, Xeon, 15 anonymous edits German/Lesson 4 Source: http://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?oldid=1709647 Contributors: Adrignola, Ananth126, Berni, Dysprosia, Etothex, Fitchguy20, German Men92, Jguk, Lord Emsworth, Marshman, MartinR, Messi, SamE, Sundance Raphael, Swift, ThomasStrohmann, Vulture, 30 anonymous edits German/Lesson 5 Source: http://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?oldid=1709649 Contributors: Adrignola, German Men92, Jguk, Marshman, MartinR, 1 anonymous edits German/Lesson 6 Source: http://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?oldid=2066162 Contributors: Adrignola, Avicennasis, Dorfl, Fitchguy20, German Men92, Grigri72, Jguk, Marshman, 21 anonymous edits German/Lesson 7 Source: http://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?oldid=2239964 Contributors: Adrignola, Fitchguy20, Jguk, Marshman, MartinR, SamE, Thomas Arnhold, 6 anonymous edits German/Lesson 8 Source: http://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?oldid=1709653 Contributors: Adrignola, Jguk, Marshman, 3 anonymous edits German/Lesson 9 Source: http://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?oldid=2238235 Contributors: Adrignola, Fitchguy20, Fluffythemonkey, Geocachernemesis, Jguk, Marshman, Messi, SamE, Steeler fan, 21 anonymous edits German/Lesson 10 Source: http://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?oldid=1709655 Contributors: Adrignola, Jguk, Marshman, 3 anonymous edits German/Lesson 11 Source: http://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?oldid=2066166 Contributors: Adrignola, Avicennasis, Fitchguy20, Jguk, Marshman, Spizzer2, 17 anonymous edits German/Lesson 12 Source: http://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?oldid=2066165 Contributors: Adrignola, Avicennasis, Fitchguy20, Jguk, 2 anonymous edits German/Level III/Gesprche Unter Geschftsmnnern Source: http://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?oldid=2116253 Contributors: Adrignola, German Men92, Janno, Jguk, Marshman, TobyDZ, 16 anonymous edits German/Level III/Mach Dir Keine Sorgen! Source: http://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?oldid=1967861 Contributors: Adrignola, Delfman, Floflei6, German Men92, Guido, Jguk, Marshman, Mastercpp, ThomasStrohmann, Vulture, 8 anonymous edits German/Level III/Die Geschftsleute Source: http://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?oldid=2247215 Contributors: Adrignola, DickHuuhn, German Men92, Jguk, Marshman, MrPalpatine, ThomasStrohmann, 10 anonymous edits

Article Sources and Contributors

German/Level III/Der Englnder in sterreich Source: http://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?oldid=1709709 Contributors: Adrignola, German Men92, Iamunknown, Jguk, Marshman, Mike.lifeguard, Sma, Vulture, 8 anonymous edits German/Level III/Tour de France Source: http://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?oldid=1709721 Contributors: Adrignola, German Men92, Jguk, Marshman, QuiteUnusual, Sma, Vulture, 4 anonymous edits German/Grammar/Adjectives and Adverbs Source: http://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?oldid=1809571 Contributors: Adrignola, Bepp, Cost, Delfman, German Men92, Hagindaz, Jameshfisher, Jguk, Neet, WhirlWind, Zweifel, 14 anonymous edits German/Grammar/Nouns Source: http://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?oldid=2362129 Contributors: Adrignola, Ananth126, Avicennasis, Boit, Cost, Demoeconomist, German Men92, Hagindaz, Jguk, Mabdul, Mjchael, Teethpath, Zweifel, 7 anonymous edits German/Grammar/Pronouns Source: http://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?oldid=2066172 Contributors: Adrignola, Avicennasis, German Men92, Jguk, Katharos24, Michael A. White, Neet, Pedrovitorh2, Swift, Zweifel, 7 anonymous edits German/Grammar/Sentences Source: http://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?oldid=2320697 Contributors: Adrignola, Avicennasis, German Men92, Hommedeterre1, Jguk, Jomegat, Pedrovitorh2, Recent Runes, Savh, Timdownie, Van der Hoorn, Zweifel, 28 anonymous edits German/Grammar/Verbs Source: http://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?oldid=2224430 Contributors: Adrignola, Apesteilen, Avicennasis, Drusus 0, German Men92, Jguk, Neet, Rcmc2020, Recent Runes, Red4tribe, Xania, Zweifel, 24 anonymous edits German/Appendices/Alphabet Source: http://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?oldid=2205158 Contributors: Avicennasis, Derbeth, Endymi0n, Feeela, German Men92, Guido, Hagindaz, Herr Beethoven, Jade Knight, Joghurt, Jomegat, Karthick, Marshman, Martin Beesk, Martin Kraus, Messi, SamE, SkyBon, Sumo, TheSun, ThomasStrohmann, Vulture, WolfgangThaller, Yacht, 60 anonymous edits German/Appendices/Phrasebook Source: http://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?oldid=2204763 Contributors: Arsenalfan, CommonsDelinker, Cost, Erkan Yilmaz, Everlong, Feeela, German Men92, Hagindaz, Ivlarx, Marshman, Mike.lifeguard, SamE, Spizzer2, Stuckinkiel, Xania, 24 anonymous edits German/Appendices/Grammar I Source: http://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?oldid=1709771 Contributors: Adrignola, German Men92, Hansm, Jguk, Marshman, Spizzer2, Vulture, 3 anonymous edits German/Appendices/Grammar II Source: http://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?oldid=2066180 Contributors: Adrignola, Avicennasis, Dysprosia, Esenco, Etothex, German Men92, Jguk, Lanceant, Marshman, SamE, ThomasStrohmann, 4 anonymous edits German/Appendices/Resources Source: http://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?oldid=1910830 Contributors: Cost, German Men92, Gn wendy, Hagindaz, Marshman, SabineCretella, ThomasStrohmann, 30 anonymous edits German/Appendices/Names Source: http://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?oldid=2305207 Contributors: Adrignola, Cspurrier, German Men92, Guido, Hagindaz, Katharos24, Marshman, SamE, 40 anonymous edits German/Appendices/False friends Source: http://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?oldid=2204834 Contributors: Adrignola, Avicennasis, Buncic, Dragontamer, Feeela, German Men92, Hagindaz, John Gunther, Orangehatbrune, Stuckinkiel, Webaware, 13 anonymous edits German/Level I/Vocabulary Source: http://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?oldid=2066152 Contributors: Adrignola, Avicennasis, German Men92, Jguk, 4 anonymous edits


Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors


Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors

Image:50%.svg Source: http://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?title=File:50%.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Siebrand Image:25%.svg Source: http://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?title=File:25%.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Karl Wick File:00%.svg Source: http://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?title=File:00%.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Siebrand Image:75%.svg Source: http://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?title=File:75%.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Siebrand File:100%.svg Source: http://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?title=File:100%.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Siebrand Image:Handshake (Workshop Cologne '06).jpeg Source: http://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?title=File:Handshake_(Workshop_Cologne_'06).jpeg License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported Contributors: Amada44, Dbenbenn, Tobias Wolter, 2 anonymous edits File:Flags of the United States and the United Kingdom.svg Source: http://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flags_of_the_United_States_and_the_United_Kingdom.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Editor at Large File:German-Austrian Flag Hybrid.svg Source: http://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?title=File:German-Austrian_Flag_Hybrid.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Richie, User:ThrashedParanoid Image:Gedaechtniskirche-berlin.jpg Source: http://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?title=File:Gedaechtniskirche-berlin.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: BLueFiSH.as, Dabbelju, Jcornelius, MB-one, Ralf Roletschek, Takabeg Image:Brandenburger Tor Blaue Stunde.jpg Source: http://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?title=File:Brandenburger_Tor_Blaue_Stunde.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: BLueFiSH.as, Carschten, Morio, Wst File:Heidelberg Seitenstrae.jpg Source: http://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?title=File:Heidelberg_Seitenstrae.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Christian Bienia File:Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Source: http://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Original flag by James I of England/James VI of ScotlandSVG recreation by User:Zscout370 Image:Flag of Germany.svg Source: http://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Germany.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Madden, User:SKopp Image:20030805121140!IMG 3161 2 web.jpg Source: http://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?title=File:20030805121140!IMG_3161_2_web.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Iamunknown, Marshman image:Zurich.jpeg Source: http://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?title=File:Zurich.jpeg License: Public domain Contributors: Denniss, Kajk, Pamri, Roland zh, Shizhao, Yrithinnd, 2 anonymous edits Image:St.poelten rathaus.jpg Source: http://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?title=File:St.poelten_rathaus.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Original uploader was Fab at de.wikipedia Later version(s) were uploaded by AleXXw at de.wikipedia. Image:Flag of Austria.svg Source: http://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Austria.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:SKopp Image:Map at sankt plten.png Source: http://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?title=File:Map_at_sankt_plten.png License: unknown Contributors: AleXXw, Poulpy, Schaengel89, Werckmeister Image:Stpoelten luftbild.jpg Source: http://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?title=File:Stpoelten_luftbild.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: webmaster of the site File:Map of USA OK.svg Source: http://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?title=File:Map_of_USA_OK.svg License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Contributors: Abnormaal, Hogweard, Huebi, Lokal Profil, Lupo, Mattbuck, Petr Dlouh, 2 anonymous edits File:Gnome-speakernotes.png Source: http://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?title=File:Gnome-speakernotes.png License: GNU General Public License Contributors: Gnome?



Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported //creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/