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Smart Mater. Struct.

18 (2009) 115012

Y Chen et al

Table 1. Parameters for simulation. Parameters Cantilever length Piezo length Piezo and cantilever width Piezo thickness Piezo Youngs modulus Piezo density Cantilever thickness Cantilever Youngs modulus Cantilever density Piezo location Electric charge constant Tip length Damping coefcient Symbol Values 500 m 100 m 250 m 3.5 m 120 GPa 5.2 g cm3 4 m 169 GPa 2.33 g cm3 100 m 3.7 pm V1 0. 1 L 0.007

L lp w hp Ep p hc Ec c x1 d31 h 2

Figure 4. An elliptical trajectory of the end of the tip with the semiminor axis a , the semimajor axis b and the rotation angle .

b = V0

1 a 2

e cos(2 ) . sin ( ) 12 cos2 ( ) b


2

(21)

elliptical tip trajectory is obtained by combining equations (15) and (16) in such a way as to eliminate the terms which include the time parameter t . The complete derivation is shown in appendix B.

4. Simulation results and discussion


Based on the ellipse equation (17) and the related parameters dened by equations (19)(21), the predicted tip trajectories of the smart micro-cantilever beam are examined. The parameter values used for the simulations are given in table 1. Most of these parameter values are taken from the work of Zhang et al [11] where a AFM probe was modeled. Additional parameters are added for the purpose of this work. In an effort to maintain realistic behavior, the input signals are within suitable ranges of commercial AFM systems. The rotation angle is represented as a function of the input ratio, as seen in equation (19) and illustrated in gure 5. The rotation angle is observed to remain constant over most of the plotted range with the exception of a localized minimum for a input ratio value of 1.8. The rotation angle varies from 8 to L 23 when the tip length is equal to 10 . Through the coefcients cs and ds , the length of the tip is also inuences the rotation angle. By decreasing the tip length, the range of the rotation angle decreases and the values become smaller. For example, the range of the rotation angle is from 4 to 12 for a tip length L of h = 20 . By increasing the tip length, the range of the rotation angle becomes larger and the values of the rotation angle also increase. The rotation angle has a range from 16 to 41 for a tip length of h = L . These trends are shown in 5 gure 5. Although the rotation angle is not inuenced by the magnitudes of the two inputs as long as the input ratio remains the same, the semimajor and semiminor axes are determined to be functions of both the input ratio and the magnitude of the input voltage. The qualitative behavior of the tip trajectory is presented in gure 6 for various input combinations. The position of each trajectory curve in the gure corresponds to the input combination and the each trajectory curve is plotted in the same fashion as in gure 4. The trend lines labeled clockwise from A to I are used to characterize specic trends in the trajectory. The special diagonal trend line E is discussed rst. The trend line E corresponds to the case when the input ratio is maintained while the magnitude of the two inputs 5

(x tip L )2 ( ytip + h )2 + +2c(x tip L )( ytip +h ) = V02 e, (17) 2 a 2 b


where

Y0 , V0

a 2 = V02 h 2 [( f1 + f2 )2 + ( f3 )2 ], 2 = V02 [( f 1 + f 2 )2 + ( f3 )2 ], b

c= e=

2 f 1 f 1 + ( f 1 f 2 + f 2 f 1 ) + f 3 f 3 + f 2 f 2 2 2 h [( f1 + f2 )2 + f3 ][( f 1 + f 2 )2 + f 3 ],

(18)

[( f 1 f3 f 3 f1 ) + ( f 2 f3 f 3 f2 )]2 . 2 2 2 2 [( f1 + f 2 ) + f 3 ][( f 1 + f 2 ) + f 3 ]

The input ratio is represented by . The characteristic , c and e. Generalized , b parameters of the rotated ellipse are a for s = 1, 2, 3. forces are represented by f s , f s Given a pair of suitable inputs from a commercial AFM system, Y0 = 2 nm and V0 = 1 V, an elliptical trajectory with the rotation angle , the semiminor axis a and semimajor axis b is obtained and presented in gure 4. The elliptical trajectory predicted by equation (17) is plotted with a local coordinate frame with the center located at ( L , h ) in the absolute coordinates. The rotation angle between the vertical axis and the semimajor axis, as shown in gure 4, is calculated by using in equation (19).

c1 2 + c2 + c3 1 . arctan 2 d1 2 + d2 + d3

(19)

The parameters cs and ds for s = 1, 2, 3 are coefcients independent of the inputs. The semiminor axis a and semimajor axis b are presented in equations (20) and (21).

a = V0

1 a 2

cos2 ( )

e cos(2 ) , 1 2 b 2 sin ( )

(20)