Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 39





ACADEMIC YEAR 2012 - 2013


DECLARATION I, MR. PANCHAL HIREN SURESH student of MITHIBAI COLLEGE, studying in M.COM (PART I) Roll No. 47, hereby declare that i have completed my project, titled EMPLOYEE HEALTH & SAFETY for the subject - HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT in the academic year 2012 - 2013. The information submitted here is true and original as per my research and observation.



CERTIFICATE This is to certify that the undersigned have assessed and evaluated the project on Topic - EMPLOYEE HEALTH & SAFETY submitted by HIREN PANCHAL, student of M.Com. Part - I (Semester II) for the academic year 2012-13. This project is original to the best of our knowledge and has been accepted for Internal Assessment.

Name & Signature of Internal Examiner

Name & Signature of External Examiner



At this juncture, I would extend my gratitude to a number of people without whom this informative project would have been impossible. Every work that is appreciated is supported by various hands. This project would just not be complete without the valuable contribution from various people whom i have interacted with in the course of its completion. I would like to sincerely acknowledge my guide PROF. HARIKRISHNAN KURUP for providing me with an excellent and splendid opportunity to present this project on EMPLOYEE HEALTH & SAFETY which definitely has given a further professional approach. I am extremely grateful to the University of Mumbai for having prescribed this project work to me as a part of the academic requirement in the MCOM -1 course. Lastly, I would like to appreciate the management and staff of MITHIBAI College, MCOM-1 for providing the entire state of the art infrastructure and resources to enable the completion and enrichment of my project.


Page No.

7 8 9 11



13 14 15



18 19



20 21 31







Over the past century the companies in our country had to make enormous changes in how they treat their staff. There are still many companies that try to find a way around the duties the administration outlines for them to follow.The Federal laws that are engineered to protect all staff may appear completely out of place in varied work settings, but the primary goal is to insure the health and safety at work for all the ones that are employedUnder safety and health law, the first responsibility for that is down to companies. As an employee, you have a duty to look after your own health and safety at work and that of others who might be influenced by your actions.

All employees must know their rights and responsibilities regarding their safety and health at work.

They should be aware of the general laws applicable to them. All employees have entitlement to rest breaks and paid vacations If youre off sick from work and anxious about your job, youll find out practical information on what can be done

In the case of corporations that produce large items the health and safety at work for their staff may involve the right foot gear, shades, ear protectors and other protecting apparel

Safety and health at work for those employed by a legal company or accounting company would involve confidentiality, and cover against pissed off clients.

Health and safety at work for those in the medical field involves proper disposal of dangerous waste, ensuring to sterilize areas after patients have used them and consistent private cleanliness to avoid spreading contagions.


Every business has official responsibilities, in order to guarantee the health and safety of its recruits and other people involved; protection of the work environment should be a priority. It is not appropriate to bring about only the minimal of changes which barely meet the legal requirements. Constructive changes will benefit and promote your business. Underprivileged health and safety acts as a safeguard against illnesses and accidents. It may increase your business costs considerably. However, keep in mind that disproportionate energy consumption not only harm yours employees health, but it also damages your profits as a direct result of his/her sick leave. Fine health, safety and environmental performances pay for themselves. They also develop a good repute of your business in the eyes of your clientele, the local area and community, and the hired staff. Approach towards health and safety plays a very important role in building up a strong reputation. Many companies have acquired phenomenal success due to their good will in the market. Others have suffered a loss of clients and in some cases; employees turned against them because they were not well served. It is always benecial for businesses to adhere to the environmental etiquettes. Not only does it help in making customers and improving employee motivation, but it also proves your commitment to being a good citizen. The best way to manage health and safety measures is by placing down all the steps that need to be monitored and then supervising the daily activity of all the prescribed procedures. It becomes a moral responsibility on your part to constantly assess the healthy and safe environment, which guards your reputation along with your employees - who work hard to maintain your repute in the business market. Once you have managed an assessment, you would be able to review all other probable environmental threats. You should always update your evaluation on every occasion and whenever something is modied - for example, if you purchase new equipment, hire new employees, change your running performances and professional procedures. You should look for potential health and safety or environmental problems. You should carry out mini health assessments from time to time, so that there is no threat of any danger around your workplace. Involve employees and encourage them to give you feedback for improvements - options include a safety committee or a suggestion scheme. '


Workplace sites can be a hazardous place to work unless proper health and safety precautions are taken. Physical hazards such as heavy equipment, trenches, and chemical hazards such as heavy metals and acidic water commonly exist on reclamation sites. Other hazards on-site may include: (i) exposure to other toxic chemicals, (ii) biological hazards, (iii) exposure to radiation, (iv) electrical, fire, and explosion hazards, (v) confined space hazards, (vi) exposure to extremely high or low temperatures, and (vii) exposure to high noise levels. The concern for worker safety was addressed by the Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) of 1970. It created the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (also referred to as OSHA) requiring employers, by law, to ensure that "no employee will suffer material impairment of health or functional capacity even if they are exposed for the period of his/her working life" Health and safety programs are established by the employer or a designated health and safety officer to ensure employee protection against hazards. If a company or agency does not have inhouse employers or employees familiar with health and safety program requirements, certified Industrial Hygienists and Safety Professionals are hired to develop their programs. OSHA developed an Occupational Safety and Health Guidance Manual to aid in the development of health and safety programs for working in areas affected by hazardous waste. All programs should include: (i) an organizational structure, (ii) development of site specific health and safety plans, (iii) 40 hours of Hazardous Waste Operations & Emergency Response (HAZWOPER) training for all workers on site, and (iv) periodic employee medical examinations to test for exposure. Development of a comprehensive health and safety program is of utmost importance to worker safety. Often these programs are scrutinized very closely by government agencies involved in the projects to assure effectiveness and completeness. The organizational structure specifies the chain of command and overall responsibilities of supervisors and employees. The organizational structure should include: (i) a General Supervisor, (ii) a Site Safety and Health Officer, and (iii) personnel responsible for on-site safety supervision. The general supervisor gives general over site, while the Site Safety and Health Officer is responsible for coordinating emergency response and developing site-specific health and safety plans. On-site personnel ensure that operations are run safely and that operations are in accordance with the site health and safety plan. If an emergency occurs, the on-site personnel will contact the

Site Safety and Health Officer who will organize a response effort. The on-site personnel will provide initial emergency response and first aid. Any worker must undergo 40 hours of health and safety training. The training provides vital information on the protection and safety of personnel engaged in field operations dealing with hazardous substances. Course topics include: fundamentals of hazard recognition; toxicology; use and limitations of direct-reading air monitoring instruments; selection, use and limitations of personal protective equipment such as air-purifying respirators, self-contained breathing apparatus, and protective clothing. Depending on the level of risk, different levels of protection are worn onsite. They range from Level D which requires minimal protection including steel toed work boots, a hard hat, and work clothes with long sleeve shirts and pants, to Levels A and B which require a self contained breathing apparatus (SCBA), where the worker breathes only bottled air that is carried on a back pack. Level A also requires the use of a fully encapsulated suit with attached rubber boots and gloves. Level B requires the use of a Tyvek suit with a hood and rubber boots worn over work boots. Special training for the use of SCBAs is included in the 40 hour HAZWOPER course. Levels C require the use of a less cumbersome air-purifying respirator and the same clothing protection as Level B. Employees should be given medical examinations prior to employment, annual medical examinations, and emergency and non-emergency treatment. These examinations will be used to determine if employees have been exposed and possibly affected by various chemical hazards. The annual physical should include a pulmonary function test to demonstrate that the employee can safely use an air-purifying respirator while performing assigned duties. It is a regulatory requirement to provide medical examinations and to ensure that workers are fit to wear respiratory protection during the course of their job responsibilities.



The Occupational Safety and Health Act is the primary federal law which governs occupational health and safety in the private sector and federal government in the United States. It was enacted by Congress in 1970 and was signed by President Richard Nixon on December 29, 1970. Its main goal is to ensure that employers provide employees with an environment free from recognized hazards, such as exposure to toxic chemicals, excessive noise levels, mechanical dangers, heat or cold stress, or unsanitary conditions. The OSH Act establishes the employees right to a safe and healthy work environment and outlines regulations for which employers must comply. The act requires employers to take preventative measures, such as employee training, research and inspections. In addition, the act reinforces the importance of the acts requirements by outlining the consequences that result from the employers failure to comply, including citations, fines, civil penalties and even prison time for serious and intentional violations. Who's Covered? The OSH Act applies to all businesses and employees that engage in activities that involve interstate commerce. Along with the 50 U.S and the District of Columbia., the act applies to businesses and employees in all U.S. territories and Puerto Rico. Although the act includes a large majority of the countrys businesses, it does not apply to farms, self-employed individuals and federal workers covered under other federal regulations. Industries Not only does the OSH Act include safety regulations for general industries, it includes more specific information for industries with increased exposure to daily hazards and injuries. These industries include construction, health care, mining and maritime. For these industries, the act addresses more specific hazards that include chemical and flammable liquids, heating and welding, respiratory protection, site clearing and falling object protection, to name a few. The mining industrys safety standards are outlined by the Miner Safety and Health Act of 2010. The maritime regulations are monitored by the Maritime Advisory Committee within OSHA.


Poster Requirements All employers that are subject to the OSH Act are required to display the OSHA Workplace Poster. The employers are required to display the poster in a location that is easily viewed by all employees, such as a break room or common area. The poster provides a brief review of employees rights, as pertaining to the OSHA guidelines. It also provides a brief description of the employers responsibilities. Furthermore, the poster explains that free assistance is available to employers to assist them in complying with OSHA standards. Whistleblowers The OSH Act provides employees with the right to inform OSHA officials about noncompliant activity. The act also states that employees are able to inform their leaders and OSHA officials of noncompliance without the fear of retaliation or losing their jobs. In this, OSHA and the U.S. Department of Labor introduced the Whistleblower Protection Program. This program is designed to ensure that employees remain free of retaliation after reporting an incident of noncompliance. Updated on March 23, 2010, the New Whistleblower Protections include industries, such as pipeline, mining, environmental industries, public transportation, railroads, securities laws, airlines, commercial motor carriers and consumer products.


How can anyone increase worker protection, cut business costs, enhance productivity, and improve employee morale? There are many ways you, as a business owner or manager, can approach this challenge. One way is by doing a better job of managing your company's safety and health program. No matter how sophisticated your safety and health efforts, they can always be improved. No matter how small your worksite, systematic methods for protecting workers can work for you. Effective management is the key to reducing the numbers and severity of workplace injuries and illnesses. This means using proven methods to find and understand existing and potential hazards, and then either preventing or controlling those hazards. A direct relationship exists between effective management and low numbers and severity of injuries. We also credit good management with lower levels of work-related illness: a well-managed safety and health program prevents or controls employee exposure to toxic substances or other unhealthful conditions that can cause sickness. For smooth functioning of an organization, the employer has to ensure safety and security of his employees. Health and safety form an integral part of work environment. A work environment should enhance the well being of employees and thus should be accident free. The terms health, safety and security are closely related to each other. Health is the general state of well being. It not only includes physical well being, but also emotional and mental well being. Safety refers to the act of protecting the physical well being of an employee. It will include the risk of accidents caused due to machinery, fire or diseases. Security refers to protecting facilities and equipments from unauthorized access and protecting employees while they are on work. In organizations the responsibility of employee health and safety falls on the supervisors or HR manager. An HR manager can help in coordinating safety programs, making employees aware about the health and safety policy of the company, conduct formal safety training, etc. The supervisors and departmental heads are responsible for maintaining safe working conditions. Responsibilities of managers: Monitor health and safety of employees Coach employees to be safety conscious Investigate accidents & Communicate about safety policy to employees


MORE INVOLVEMENT MEANS BETTER WORK, Employees involved in helping their bosses uncover and solve workplace problems tend to enjoy their work more than those who simply do what they are told. When workers enjoy work they take a greater interest in their job tasks and are likely to produce a better quality product. They also are less likely to look elsewhere for jobs. Thus, reduce turnover often is a benefit of increased employee involvement. The success of your business depends in large part on the men and women who work for you. Protecting their safety and health on the job makes good business sense. It also is the right thing to do. You need not face this considerable task alone. In this chapter we will show how employee involvement can strengthen your safety and health program. "provide and encourage employee involvement in the structure and operation of their [safety and health] program and in decisions that affect their safe ty and health." WHY SHOULD EMPLOYEES BE INVOLVED? Involving your employees in a program that directly affects their safety and health is the right thing to do. It is also the smart thing to do. Here is why: Rank and file workers are the persons most in contact with potential safety and health hazards. They have a vested interest in effective protection programs. Recent experience has shown that line workers and other rank and file employe es make highly valuable problem solvers. Group decisions have the advantage of the group's wider field of experience. Research shows that employees are more likely to support and use programs in which they have had input. Employees who are encouraged to offer their ideas and whose contributions are taken seriously are more satisfied and productive on the job. Knowledgeable and aware employees tend to be safe workers and also good sources of ideas for better hazard prevention and control.



Physical health and mental health are inextricably linked. Action is needed to improve the physical health of people with mental health problems, and to make mental health a key public health priority. Poor mental health is associated with an increased risk of diseases such as cardiovascular disease, cancer and diabetes, while good mental health is a known protective factor. Poor physical health also increases the risk of people developing mental health problems. an increased understanding of the links between physical health and mental health, and that improved mental health reduces the risk of cardiovascular and other diseases mental health to become an integral part of public health agenda, nationally and locally, and for proper investment in public mental health regular physical health checks and accessible physical health care for people with severe mental illness routine assessment of the psychological needs of patients suffering from chronic heart disease and other serious physical conditions a reduction in the inappropriate use of primary and acute hospital services by people with medically unexplained symptoms (MUS) by referrals to evidence-based psychological treatments. It is not good enough that many people with mental health problems are likely to have their physical health needs unrecognized or poorly managed: those who use mental health services are less likely than the general population to be offered blood pressure, cholesterol, urine or weight checks, or to receive opportunistic advice on smoking cessation, alcohol, exercise or diet. Mental health is the foundation for our health and wellbeing. It gives us the ability to cope with everyday pressures, manage changes in our lives such as the birth of a child, redundancy, retirement or bereavement and helps us to bounce back from difficulties. Anyone can suffer from poor mental health. Mental health problems are characterized by changes in thinking, mood or behavior, and include anxiety and depression. In general, employment has a positive effect on people's mental health. It can provide a sense of purpose and self-worth and opportunities to meet people and make friends. Being in work can also help in the recovery of those with mental health problems.

Various factors in the workplace can cause stress or increase the risk of developing or worsening existing mental health problems. These include unrealistic workloads, lack of support, long hours, poor management practices, bullying or harassment, lack of communication, unclear role and responsibilities, poor work/life balance, the physical environment (e.g. lighting, noise, ventilation) and lack of opportunities for career progression. Events outside the workplace such as bereavement, domestic violence, relationship breakdown, financial problems or physical illness/health problems can also impact on a person's mental health and their work. Productivity, performance, attendance, staff retention and morale are all affected when employees experience poor mental health. Why promote positive mental health at work? Between 10% and 25% of full-time workers may experience mental health problems. Mental health problems can affect people at any age, but they often begin when a person is young and can last for a long time, so the cost from lost or reduced productivity in the workplace is high. It makes good business sense to protect and promote the mental health of your employees. There are a number of benefits for employers: reduced staff turnover/better staff retention; improved productivity/performance/creativity; reduced staff absences and associated savings; compliance with the Disability Discrimination Act 1995; enhanced reputation as an employer; strengthened capacity of an organization; improved working relationships.


Benefits for staff include: improved mental and physical health; reduced risk of mental health problems; support in recovery from mental health problems; improved morale; increased self-esteem and confidence; better working conditions; better work/life balance. The workplace offers an opportunity to reach large numbers of people with information and support to improve their mental health and to reduce the stigma associated with mental health problems.


Employment injury means a personal injury to an employee caused by an occupational disease arising out of and in the course of employment, being an insurable employment, whether the occupational disease is contracted within or outside the territorial limits of India. An occupational disease is any chronic ailment that occurs as a result of work or occupational activity. It is an aspect of occupational safety and health. An occupational disease is typically identified when it is shown that it is more prevalent in a given body of workers than in the general population, or in other worker populations. The first such disease to be recognised, squamous-cell carcinoma of the scrotum was identified in chimney sweep boys by Sir Percival Pott in 1775. Occupational hazards that are of a traumatic nature (such as falls by roofers) are not considered to be occupational diseases. Under the law of workers' compensation in many jurisdictions, there is a presumption that specific disease are caused by the worker being in the work environment and the burden is on the employer or insurer to show that the disease came about from another cause. Diseases compensated by national workers compensation authorities are often termed occupational diseases. However many countries do not offer compensations for certain diseases like musculoskeletal disorders caused by work (e.g. in Norway).Therefore the term work-related diseases is utilized to describe diseases of occupational origin. This term however would then include both compensable and noncompensable diseases that have occupational origins. An occupational disease is a health problem caused by exposure to a workplace health hazard. workplace should be healthy for your body and mind. You can help to keep yourself and your workplace healthy by being aware of health hazards in your environment.


These workplace health hazards can cause an occupational disease: dust, gases, or fumes noise toxic substances (poisons) vibration radiation infectious germs or viruses extreme hot or cold temperatures extremely high or low air pressure

Workplace health hazards can cause three kinds of reactions in the body: Immediate or acute reactions, like shortness of breath or nausea, can be caused by a one-time event, (e.g., a chemical spill). These reactions are not usually permanent. Gradual reactions, like asthma or dermatitis (skin rashes), can get worse and persist when you are exposed over days, weeks or months. These reactions tend to last for a longer time. Delayed reactions or diseases that take a long time to develop, like lung cancer or loss of hearing, can be caused by long-term exposure to a substance or work activity. These reactions can be noticed long after the job is over.


Find out what materials and substances are being used in your workplace. Find out how to work safely around materials and equipment in your workplace. Your supervisor is required to provide you with this information and appropriate training. You can also contact your joint health and safety committee or representative. Use protective equipment provided by your employer. Make sure that you know how to use it properly. If you dont know, ask. Be alert to symptoms or changes in your health. Tell your doctor where you work, what you do, and what substances you work with.



Safety Signs Many health and safety hazards can be eliminated through the use of proper signage. The Health and Safety Executive website explains that safety signs must be used at work whenever a safety hazard has not been able to be completely eliminated by the employer. The many types of warning and caution signs each have different implications. Danger signs, for instance, are used for more severely hazardous work areas, while caution signs are used to warn employees of potential risks. OSHA explains that failure to use safety signs could lead to accidental injury, as well as property damage. Proper signage must be used with biological hazards, chemicals, heavy machinery and equipment, large vehicles and electrical devices. In office environments, caution signs should be put up whenever walking surfaces are wet or slippery, when parts of the building are under repair and on the bottles of cleaning agents, to illustrate what types of dangers the chemicals can cause. Personal Protective Equipment Personal protective equipment ranges from goggles to cover the eyes to respiratory devices, and must be used whenever there are hazardous environments, or when employees are working with flying particles or objects, chemical hazards or mechanical irritants. OSHA explains that employers must make sure that there is enough personal protective equipment for all employees, and that the equipment fits the employees properly. Goggles that are too loose, for instance, will not adequately shield and protect the eyes. Sanitation Requirements Employees have the right to a sanitary work environment. Waste must be disposed of regularly and in a way that does not cause unsanitary conditions, including spills or odors in public areas. Offices or enclosed workspaces must be constructed in a way that prevents the entrance of vermin, as rodents and insects pose a health hazard to people. Toilet facilities must be kept tidy and cleaned regularly with chemical agents that disinfect bacteria. Spills and leaks must be mopped up and addressed immediately to avoid any toxicity hazards, as well as to avoid slip-and-fall accidents.


This is also called as Injury and Illness Prevention Program, it must be a written plan that includes procedures and is put into practice. These elements are required: Management commitment/assignment of responsibilities; Safety communications system with employees; System for assuring employee compliance with safe work practices; Scheduled inspections/evaluation system; Accident investigation; Procedures for correcting unsafe/ unhealthy conditions; Safety and health training and instruction Safety & Health Record keeping

Management Commitment/Assignment of Responsibilities

commitment to safety and health shows in every decision you make and every action you take. Your employees will respond to that commitment. If you want maximum production and quality, you need to control potential work-place hazards and correct hazardous conditions or practices as they occur or are recognized. You must commit yourself and your company by building an effective Injury and Illness Prevention Program and integrating it into your entire operation. This commitment must be backed by strong organizational policies, procedures, incentives, and disciplinary actions as necessary to ensure employee compliance with safe and healthful work practices. They should include: 1. Establishment of workplace objectives for accident and illness prevention, like those you establish for other business functions such as sales or production for example: "Ten percent fewer injuries next year," "Reduce down-time due to poorly maintained equipment." 2. Emphasis on your staff's safety and health responsibilities and recognition by your supervisors and employees that they are accountable. Advise your management staff that

they will be held accountable for the safety record of the employees working under them, and then back it up with firm action. 3. A means for encouraging employees to report unsafe conditions with assurance that management will take action. 4. Allocation of company resources financial, material and personnel for: Identifying and controlling hazards in new and existing operations and processes, and potential hazards. 5. Installing engineering controls. Purchasing personal protective equipment. Promoting and training employees in safety and health.

Setting a good example! If, for instance, you require hard hats to be worn in a specific area, then you and other management wear a hard hat in that area. If you and your management team do not support and participate in the program, you are doomed to failure from the start. It is especially important for plant supervisors and field superintendents to set a good example.

Safety Communications
Communicating with employees - in a form readily understandable by all affected employees - on matters relating to occupational safety and health, including provisions designed to encourage employees to inform the employer of hazards at the worksite without fear of reprisal. If your employees are not represented by an agreement with an organized labor union, and part of your employee population is unionized, the establishment of labor-management committees is considerably more complicated. You should request clarification from the Cal/OSHA Consultation Service. Here are some helpful tips on complying with employees 1. Your communication system must be in a form "readily understandable by all affected employees." This means you should be prepared to communicate with employees in a language they can understand, and if an employee cannot read in any language, you must communicate with him/her orally in a language "readily understandable." Your communication system must be "designed to encourage employees to inform the employer

of hazards at the workplace without fear of reprisal" it must be a two-way system of communication. 2. Schedule general employee meetings at which safety is freely and openly discussed by those present. Such, meetings should be regular, scheduled, and announced to all employees so that maximum employee attendance can be achieved. Remember to do this for all shifts. Many employers find it cost effective to hold such meetings at shift change time, with a brief overlap of schedules to accomplish the meetings. If properly planned, effective safety meetings can be held in a 15 to 20 minute time frame. Concentrate on: Occupational accident and injury history at your own worksite, with possible comparisons to other locations in your company. Feedback from the employee group. Guest speakers from your worker's compensation insurance carrier or other agencies concerned with safety. Brief audio-visual materials that relate to your industry. Control of the meetings. Stress that the purpose of the meeting is safety. Members of management should attend this meeting. 3. 4. Training programs are excellent vehicles for communicating with employees. Posters and bulletins can be very effective ways of communicating with employees. Useful materials can be obtained from Cal/OSHA, your workers' compensation insurance carrier, the National Safety Council or other commercial and public service agencies. 5. Newsletters or similar publications devoted to safety are also very effective communication devices. If you cannot devote resources to an entire publication, make safety a featured item in every issue of your company newsletter. 6. A safety suggestion box can be used by employees, anonymously if desired, to communicate their concerns to management. 7. Publish a brief company safety policy or statement informing all employees that safety is a priority issue with management, and urge employees to actively participate in the program for the common good of all concerned. (Model policy, statements are found in Appendix A.) 8. 9. Communicate your concerns about safety to all levels of management. Document all communication efforts, as you will be required to demonstrate that a system of effective communication is in place.


Hazard Assessment & Control

Periodic inspections and procedures for correction and control provide a method of identifying existing or potential hazards in the workplace, and eliminating or controlling them. Hazard control is the heart of an effective Injury and Illness Prevention Program. If hazards occur or recur, this reflects a breakdown in the hazard control system. The hazard control system is also the basis for developing safe work procedures and injury/illness prevention training. The required hazard assessment survey of your establishment, when first developing your Injury and Illness Prevention Program, must be made by a qualified person. This survey can provide the basis and guide for establishing your hazard assessment and control system. The survey produces knowledge of hazards that exist in the workplace, and conditions, equipment and procedures that could be potentially hazardous. An effective hazard control system will identify: hazards that exist or develop in your workplace, how to correct those hazards, and steps you can take to prevent their recurrence. If you have an effective system for monitoring workplace conditions: 1. You will be able to prevent many hazards from occurring through scheduled and documented self-inspections. Make sure established safe work practices are being followed and those unsafe conditions or procedures are identified and corrected properly. Scheduled inspections are in addition to the everyday safety and health checks that are part of the routine duties of managers and supervisors.

The frequency of these inspections depends on the operations involved, the magnitude of the hazards, the proficiency of employees, changes in equipment or work processes, and the history of work-place injuries and illnesses. Inspections should be conducted by personnel who, through experience or training, are able to identify actual and potential hazards and understand safe work practices.

Written inspection reports must be reviewed by management and/or the safety committee. The review should assist in prioritizing actions and verify completion of previous corrective actions. Overall inspection program results should be reviewed for trends.



Know which Cal/OSHA safety orders contained in Title 8 of the California Code of Regulations apply to your workplace and use them to identify potential hazards. A Cal/ OSHA Consultation Service consultant or outside consultant can assist you in identifying safety orders applicable to your work.


Your employees should be encouraged to tell you or their supervisors of possibly hazardous situations, knowing their reports will be given prompt and serious attention without fear of reprisal. When you let them know that the situation was corrected (or why it was not hazardous), you create a system by which your employees continue to report hazards promptly and effectively.


Workplace equipment and personal, protective equipment should be maintained in safe and good working condition. In addition to what is required by Cal/ OSHA standards, your own program monitors the operation of workplace equipment, and can also verify that routine preventive maintenance is conducted and personal protective equipment is reliable. This makes good safety sense, and proper maintenance can prevent costly breakdowns and undue exposures.


Hazards should be corrected as soon as they are identified. For any that can't be immediately corrected, set a target data for correction based on such considerations as the probability and severity of an injury or illness resulting from the hazard; the availability of needed equipment, materials and/or personnel; time for delivery, installation, modification or construction; and training periods.

Provide interim protection to employees who need it while correction of hazards is proceeding. A written tracking system such as a log helps you monitor the progress of hazard correction.


You should review and prioritize your program based on the severity of the hazard.


Accident Investigation
A primary tool you should be using in an effort to identify and recognize the areas responsible for accidents is a thorough and properly completed accident investigation. It should be in writing and adequately identify the cause(s) of the accident or near-miss occurrence. Accident investigations should be conducted by trained individuals, and with the primary focus of understanding why the accident or near miss occurred and what actions can be taken to preclude recurrence. In large organizations this responsibility may be assigned to the safety director. In smaller organizations the responsibility may lie directly with the supervisor responsible for the affected area or employee. Questions to ask in an accident investigation include: 1. What happened? The investigation should describe what took place that prompted the investigation: an injury to an employee, an incident that caused a production delay, damaged material or any other conditions recognized as having a potential for losses or delays. 2. Why did the incident happen? The investigation must obtain all the facts surrounding the occurrence: what caused the situation to occur; who was involved; was/were the employee(s) qualified to perform the functions involved in the accident or near miss; were they properly trained; were proper operating procedures established for the task involved; were procedures followed, and if not, why not; where else this or a similar situation might exist, and how it can be corrected. 3. What should be done? The person conducting the investigation must determine which aspects of the operation or processes require additional attention. It is important to note that the purpose here is not to establish blame, but to determine what type of constructive action can eliminate the cause(s) of the accident or near miss. 4. What action has been taken? Action already taken to reduce or eliminate the exposures being investigated should be noted, along with those remaining to be addressed. Any interim or temporary precautions should also be noted. Any pending corrective action and reason for delaying its implementation should be identified.

Corrective action should be identified in terms of not only how it will prevent a recurrence of the accident or near miss, but also how it will improve the overall operation. This will assist the investigation in selling his/her solutions to management. The solution should be a means of achieving not only accident control, but also total operation control. If you have a safety and health committee, its members should review investigations of all accidents and near-miss incidents to assist in recommending appropriate corrective actions to prevent a similar recurrence. Thorough investigation of all accidents and near misses will help you identify causes and needed corrections, and can help you determine why accidents occur, where they happen, and any accident trends. Such information is critical to preventing and controlling hazards and potential accidents.

Safety Planning, Rules & Work Procedures

Planning for safety and health is an important part of every business decision, including purchasing, engineering, changes in work processes, and planning for emergencies. Your safety and health planning are effective when your workplace has: 1. Rules written to apply to everyone and addressing areas such as personal protective equipment, appropriate clothing, expected behavior, and emergency procedures. You and your employees should periodically review and update all rules and procedures to make sure they reflect present conditions. Rules and procedures should be written for new exposures when they are introduced into the workplace. 2. 3. Safe and healthful work practices developed for each specific job. Discipline or reward procedures to help assure that safety rules and work procedures are put into practice and enforced. Reward or positive reinforcement procedures such as bonus, incentive or employee recognition programs should provide positive motivation for compliance with safety rules and procedures. 4. If you have operations involving hazardous substances, procedures or processes, you must designate emergency response teams to be specifically trained and equipped to handle possible imminent hazards.


Safety & Health Training

Training is one of the most important elements of any Injury and Illness Prevention Program. It allows employees to learn their job properly, brings new ideas into the workplace, reinforces existing ideas and practices, and puts your program into action. Your employees benefit from safety and health training through fewer work-related injuries and illnesses, and reduced stress and worry caused by exposure to hazards. You benefit from reduced workplace injuries and illnesses, increased productivity, lower costs, higher profits, and a more cohesive and dependable work force. An effective Injury and Illness Prevention Program includes training for both supervisors and employees. Training for both is required by Cal/OSHA safety orders. You may need outside professionals to help you develop and conduct your required training program. Help is available from the Cal/ OSHA Consultation Service, your workers' compensation insurance carrier, private consultants and vendor representatives. Outside trainers should be considered temporary. Eventually you will need your own in-house training capabilities so you can provide training that is timely and specific to the needs of your workplace and your employees. To be effective and also meet Cal/OSHA requirements, your training program needs to: 1. Let your supervisors know: They are key figures responsible for establishment and success of your Injury and Illness Prevention Program. The importance of establishing and maintaining safe and healthful working conditions. Yhey are responsible for being familiar with safety and health hazards to which their employees are exposed, how to recognize them, the potential effects these hazards have on the employees, and rules, procedures and work practices for controlling exposure to those hazards. How to convey this information to employees by setting good examples, instructing them, making sure they fully understand and follow safe procedures.


How to investigate accidents and take corrective and preventive action.

Let your employees know: The success of the company's Injury and Illness Prevention Program depends on their actions as well as yours. The safe work procedures required for their jobs and how these procedures protect them against exposure. When personal protective equipment is required or needed, how to use it and maintain it in good condition. What to do if emergencies occur in the workplace.

An effective Injury and Illness Prevention Program requires proper job performance by everyone in the workplace. As the employer, you must ensure that all employees are knowledgeable about the materials and equipment they are working with, what known hazards are present and how they are controlled. Each employee needs to understand that: No employee is expected to undertake a job until he/she has received instructions on how to do it properly and safely, and is authorized to perform the job. No employees should undertake a job that appears to be unsafe. No employee should use chemicals without fully understanding their toxic properties and without the knowledge required to work with them safely. Mechanical safeguards must always be in place and kept in place. Employees are to report to a superior or designated individual all unsafe conditions encountered during work. Any work-related injury or illness suffered, however slight, must be reported to management at once. Personal protective equipment must be used when and where required, and properly maintained. Your supervisors must recognize that they are the primary safety trainers in your organization. Encourage and help them by providing supervisory training. Many community colleges offer management training courses at little or no cost.


You as the employer are required under Cal/ OSHA standards to establish and carry out a formal training program. A professional training person, an outside consultant or your supervisors may provide injury and illness prevention training to your employees. This program must, at a minimum, provide training and instruction: To all employees when your program is first established. To all new employees. To all employees given new job assignments for which training has not been previously received. Whenever new substances, processes, procedures or equipment are introduced to the workplace and present a new hazard. Whenever you or your supervisors are made aware of a new or previously unrecognized hazard. For all supervisors to assure they are familiar with the safety and health hazards to which employees under their immediate direction and control may be exposed.

Safety & Health Recordkeeping

No operation can be successful without adequate record keeping, which enables you to learn from past experience and make corrections for future operations. Records of accidents, work-related injuries, illnesses and property losses serve as a valuable purpose. During the year, regularly review these records to see where your injuries and illnesses are occurring. Look for any patterns or repeat situations. These records can help you identify hazardous areas in your work-place and pinpoint where immediate corrective action is needed. Exposure Records Injury and illness records may not be the only records you need to maintain. Standards concerning toxic substances and hazardous exposures require records of employee exposure to these substances and sources, physical examination reports, employment records, and other information. Employers using any regulated carcinogens have additional reporting and record keeping requirements. See Title 8 of the California Code of Regulations for details.


Taking risks is a part of running a business, particularly for small business owners. You take risks in product development, marketing, and advertising in order to stay competitive. Some risks are just not worth the gamble. One of these is risking the safety and health of those who work for you. Accidents Cost Money Safety organizations, states, small business owners and major corporations alike now realize that the actual cost of a lost workday injury is substantial. For every dollar you spend on the direct costs of a worker's injury or illness, you will spend much more to cover the indirect and hidden costs. Consider what one lost workday injury would cost you in terms of: Productive time lost by an injured employee; Productive time lost by employees and supervisors attending the accident victim; Clean up and start up of operations interrupted by the accident; Time to hire or to retrain other individuals to replace the injured worker until his/her return; Time and cost for repair or replacement of any damaged equipment or materials; Cost of continuing all or part of the employee's wages, in addition to compensation; Reduced morale among your employees, and perhaps lower efficiency; Increased workers' compensation insurance rates; and Cost of completing paperwork generated by the incident.

Controlling Losses If you would like to reduce the costs and risks associated with workplace injuries and illnesses, you need to address safety and health right along with production. Setting up an Injury and Illness Prevention Program helps you do this. In developing the program, you identify what has to be done to promote the safety and health of your employees and worksite, and you outline policies and procedures to achieve your safety and health goals.


STEPS IN SAFETY MEASURES Step 1 Post signs that draw attention to safety issues. The types of signs will depend on your business. For example, if employees work with heavy equipment, all machines should have a label warning about potential injuries. You may also want to place signs on doors, reminding employees to close doors behind them to avoid unwanted guests; signs on wet floors; or signs indicating areas of the building that require special safety clothing or items like hats or goggles. Step 2 Provide the proper safety equipment. Safety materials aren't just hard hats and plastic goggles, though those are certainly necessary in some industries. Safety equipment for office workers includes ergonomic desks, keyboards and chairs. Step 3 Train employees in safety. At least once a year, hold a safety training workshop to draw attention to potential safety concerns in your office and remind employees to be safe. Topics could include everything from awareness about not letting strangers into the building to stacking boxes safely. If your business is in an area that is prone to natural disasters, such as earthquakes or hurricanes, you should also educate employees on what to do in case of an emergency. Step 4 Encourage employees to report things that seem unsafe. For example, an employee may notice a cord that someone could trip over or a machine that has been acting up. Once you hear these reports, act on them. Step 5 Provide fitness equipment for the use of employees. A full gym may not be feasible, but having a few pieces of equipment, such as a treadmill or resistance bands, can help workers get fit on their breaks.


Step 6 Choose a health plan that focuses on preventive care. This may include regular checkups, cancer screenings, health and wellness education and treatments such as acupuncture. Step 7 Encourage your workers to adopt healthy behaviors. For example, you may want to start a smoking cessation or a weight loss group. A company-wide healthy challenge could be a great motivator. Step 8 Bring in health workers to give flu shots. An outbreak of flu can seriously hamper productivity levels. Immunizations in the workplace are convenient and will benefit people who may not take the time to get shots on their own.


POLICY To provide a means for employees to seek information and discuss matters of concern and to obtain fair and objective answers to their questions, issues, and complaints. Employees have the right and responsibility to report concerns related to fraud, waste, abuse, ESH, workplace, or management concerns. While encouraging informal discussions and resolutions to complaints, it also is the policy of JSA to provide a formal grievance process. EMPLOYEE CONCERNS - GENERAL PROCEDURE 1. Employees who have issues or complaints about work-related matters are strongly encouraged to seek resolution through the internal issues and grievance process, which includes informal discussion and formal grievance. 2. 3. If an employee has a complaint about an environmental, health, or safety condition, he/she should inform her/his supervisor immediately. If an employee believes he/she has been subjected to discrimination (including sexual harassment) in the workplace, he/she should inform the Employee Relations Manager immediately. The Employee Relations Manager shall ensure that any allegations of discrimination are investigated. A request for an investigation should be addressed to the Employee Relations Manager in writing and include specic references to the allegation along with the requested remedy. INFORMAL RESOLUTION 1. When an employee has a question or concern about working conditions, job safety, rate of pay, payroll classication, or other matters pertaining to his/her employment at JSA, he/she should consult with his/her immediate supervisor. 2. When an employee seeks such counsel, the supervisor shall address the inquiry promptly, and provide the appropriate requested information or attempt to solve the problem in a professional, reasonable, and timely manner. 3. 4. In addressing employee issues, supervisors and employees may seek the assistance of the Employee Relations Manager whenever necessary. Most employee issues can, and should, be solved at the immediate supervisory level.



Before ling a formal grievance, the employee shall discuss the issue informally with the immediate supervisor. The employee may discuss the issue with a second-level supervisor or the Employee Relations Manager if there is reason to believe that the nature of the issue could lead to reprisal.


If a satisfactory informal resolution of an issue, complaint or problem fails, employees have the right to le a formal grievance. The formal grievance process is classied as PERSONNEL SENSITIVE. This means that only those individuals directly involved in the grievance shall have access to information concerning the grievance. This is not an anonymous process.


Eligibility: employee may le a formal grievance regarding alleged reprisals or retaliation for reporting acts of discrimination, or environmental, health, or safety conditions. Additionally, after efforts at informal resolution have been unsuccessful, any employee may le a formal grievance for resolution of any issue, complaint, or problem regarding a specic management action which adversely affects the employee's terms and conditions of employment.

3. a.

Procedure An employee wanting to submit a formal grievance may rst seek assistance from the Employee Relations Manager in preparing a written grievance statement. The statement shall describe specically the grievable issues, how the employee was adversely affected, and what resolution(s) to the situation the employee proposes.


The employee shall submit a written grievance statement to the Human Resources & Services Manager no more than 20 working days from learning of the action prompting the grievance.


Should the Human Resources & Services Manager be directly involved in the grievance issue, the grievance statement may be submitted to another senior manager or an Associate Director. Acceptance of a grievance by another manager in this circumstance must have the concurrence of the Director of the Laboratory, who may consult with legal counsel.

d. 1. 2.

The Human Resources & Services Manager (or his/her substitute in a circumstance such as described in c. above) shall determine whether the issues raised are grievable. If the Human Resources & Services Manager or his/her substitute believes the statement is incomplete it may be returned to the employee with a request for additional information. If the Human Resources & Services Manager or his/her substitute declares the issue nongrievable, the employee may request that the decision be reviewed by the Associate Director of the employee's division.


If the Associate Director agrees that the issue is non-grievable, the Human Resources & Services Manager or his/her substitute shall so advise the employee in writing, with a concurrence signature by the Associate Director.


On agreement that the issue is grievable, the Human Resources & Services Manager or his/ her substitute shall choose one of the following next action steps: Direct the Employee Relations Manager to investigate the issue by interviewing all parties involved to ascertain and report in writing on the facts; Investigate the issue personally by interviewing all parties involved to ascertain the facts; Designate a Review Panel to investigate, ascertain the facts, and report back in writing on the issue.


The role of these investigative parties is to review and determine the facts of the grievance case; they shall not make any value judgments regarding arguments made by the grieving employee or the respondents. It is also important that they refrain from issuing a formal opinion, rendering a judgment, or offering a resolution or settlement based on the merit of the context/substance of the arguments presented. Such actions are not the role of the Investigators or Review Panel in such a process. Human Resources & Services Manager shall review the reports of the investigative parties to ensure guidelines have been met.


Each person involved with the grievance shall have an opportunity to meet with and present information directly to the Employee Relations Manager, the Human Resources & Services Manager and/or Review Panel. The Employee Relations Manager, the Human Resources & Services Manager and/or the Review Panel also may call for joint interviews to gather information, if deemed appropriate.


Following any of the investigatory methods above, the Human Resources & Services Manager or his/her substitute shall discuss and summarize the ndings of the investigation and his/her recommendations for resolution to the appropriate Associate Director or his/her designee.

h. i.

The Associate Director or his/her designee shall respond in writing to the employee and, if appropriate, to others directly affected. This process, from the time the Employee Relations Manager, the Human Resources & Services Manager or his/her substitute, or a Review Panel receives the charge until a written response is sent to the employee from the Associate Director or his/her designee, shall take no longer than 10 working days.


The employee shall respond in writing to the Associate Director's/designee's communication, indicating acceptance or rejection of the Associate Director's/designee's decision within 10 working days of having received the response.


If the employee does not accept the decision of the Associate Director/designee, he/she may continue the review by requesting in writing, within 10 days of receipt of the Associate Director's/designee's written response, that the Director of the Laboratory review the grievance package. The Director shall review the written documentation and may meet with the employee, the Human Resources & Services Manager or his/her substitute, the Review Panel and any other staff members with pertinent information to discuss the grievance.


In order to prevent the risk of work-related incidents and to facilitate the intervention of those concerned during the construction job site. Health & Safety law requires employers to look after the health, safety and welfare of their employees. They also must consider who could be affected by their work, for example clients, contractors and visitors to their premises. Employers also have a duty to identify, assess and control safety risks and must write down the significant findings of their risk assessment if they have five or more employees. Providing a safe working environment need not be a difficult or time-consuming exercise, particularly if in a low-risk environment. The most important thing is to make safety part of our business culture driven by a commitment from the top of the organization. Benefits of working safely include fewer accidents, reduced insurance premiums, a better-motivated workforce and peace of mind. The affects was indicate that are three things are for human, money and law. That is not only protecting the physically but its benefits for the companies, do not spent extra money to recover the unwelcome accidents happened. Employees whoever involved in construction works they have to know their right, safety and health and what the company care and responsible on them. All those regulations and conditions at site are important to everybody who was been at site, because they were always in risk. The Company has to ensure that works under its control and carried out in such a way to minimize the risk to the health & safety for employees and any other person who could be affected.


www.wordpress.com www.epa.gov businesscasestudies.co wikipedia.org labour.gov.on osh.govt Understanding Human Resource Management By Ken N. Kamoche Organizational Success through Effective Human Resources Management By Ronald R. Sims