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Dynamic Analysis of Aircraft Seat According to

FAR/JAR 23 regulation
Ing. Jan Šplíchal
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Brno University of Technology, Institute of Aerospace Engineering
Technická 2 , Brno , 616 69, Czech Republic
E-mail: splichal@lu.fme.vutbr.cz

The paper is focused on the dynamic analysis of the aircraft seat according to the regulation FAR/JAR
chapter 23.562 (b). The dummy (simulating a pilot) was utilized to calculate loads imposed on the pilot
during analyzed load cases. The model was created using MSC. PATRAN (pre/postprocessor) and
MSC. DYTRAN (solver) software packages. Velocities and accelerations were monitored in chosen

Geometrical model 2. Dummy

The dynamic analysis will be demonstrated on FEM model of the dummy (simulating a pilot) is
the example of a seat for a small 4-seater GA integrated in MSC. PATRAN/DYTRAN package
airplane. The airplane is designed according to and the dummy is generated by GEBOD
JAR/FAR-23 regulations (JAR regulation is application. The dummy is composed of 2 main
currently in the process of transformation into CS parts – ellipsoids and skin:
requirements). The geometry was subsequently 1. First part is made from 17 RIGID
transferred (via parasolid) to the MSC. PATRAN ellipsoids. Ellipsoids are connected
preprocessor. This allowed creation of the finite together using linkages that simulate
element (FEM) model of the seat. The geometry articulations. This part of the dummy is
of the seat is on the figure 1. responsible for the behavior of the
2. Second part is the dummy’s skin (using
2D elements).

Figure 2

Figure 1

FEM model
1. Seat FEM
Model of the seat was created using MSC.
PATRAN (pre/postprocessor) and analysed using
MSC. DYTRAN (solver). The rest of the seat
structure was modeled using 1D elements
(BAR2), 2D elements (QUAD4, TRIA3) and 3D
elements (HEX8, WEDGE6). FEM model of the
seat has total of 36 561 nodes and 86 802
elements (including 703 1D elements, 20876 2D
elements and 65223 3D elements).

Figure 3
Material models and pelvis. Results were compared with
Materials in the seat construction were defined recommendations of the regulations for max.
using DMATEP (this material model defines accelerations imposed on the human body
properties of isotropic elasto-plastic
material for shell and beam elements). This 200
Load measured between the pelvis and the lumbar spine

model enables inclusion of the yield stress,

changes in hardening modulus and failure. Time [s]
0 0,01 0,02 0,03 0,04 0,05 0,06 0,07 0,08 0,09 0,1 0,11 0,12 0,13 0,14 0,15 0,16 0,17
Loads -100

Loads were applied in accordance with -200

JAR/FAR 23.562 (b) (1) as the change in

Load [kg]
velocity in the attachment between the -400
seat/restraint system and the test fixture
(see fig. 4). Load

“The change in velocity with the time” of the -600 Maximum permissible load

whole model is in the fig. 5 (seat with an -700

occupant decelerated from this initial -800

Figure 6

Requirements of the regulation:
FAR 23.562 (c)
(7) The compression load measured between
the pelvis and the lumbar spine of the ATD
(anthropomorphic test dummy) may not exceed
680kg (1,500 pounds)

Load measured between the pelvis and the

lumbar spine has max. value of 621 kg. This
value is lower than max. allowable load specified
in the requirement JAR 23.562 (c) (7), which
permits 680 kg. This implies that, according to
the results of simulation, pilot seat complies with
Figure 4 requirements of regulation.
The change in velocity with the time
20 of JAR 23.562 b) (1) 10
19 deceleration
18 velocity 9
16 8
14 7
deceleration (g's)

12 6
velocity [m/s]

10 5
8 4
6 3
4 2
2 1
0 0
0 0,01 0,02 0,03 0,04 0,05 0,06 0,07 0,08 0,09 0,1
time [s]

Figure 5
Computation and results [1] FAR Part 25: Airworthiness standards:
Initial parameters of the computation: Transport category airplanes. Federal Aviation
END TIME 0,15 time of Administration, Washington, D.C. 7/2002
computation [2] MSC.DYTRAN, Users manual, Version2004,
INISTEP,1e-7 initial time step U.S.A., 2004
MINSTEP,1e-9 minimal time step [3] Sedláček R. ,Šperka P., Využití systému
v oblasti výpočtů leteckých konstrukcí,2001
Velocities and accelerations in chosen points on
the dummy were monitored during computation.
Points were chosen where necessary with
respect to monitoring of max. accelerations. Such
points are in the CG of occupant’s head, chest