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ADULT LEARNING METHODS

Jon Escoto

Tell me, I may listen Teach me, I may remember Involve me, I will do it.
Old Chinese saying

OBJECTIVES
At the end of the talk, the participants will be able to: Know their roles beyond just speaking Learn techniques in maximizing adult group learning Receive encouragement from simple success stories

SYNTHESIS

PUBLIC SPEAKING is a means to an end

LEARNING

ADULT LEARNING THEORY


Adults bring prior experience and knowledge with them. Validate where people are. Create allies, not pupils.

ADULT LEARNING THEORY


Adults want to know what's in it for them (WIFM). Adults enjoy speaking to one another, not just listening to the sound of your voice.

ADULT LEARNING THEORY


Adults have preferences and prejudices that may not be overcome in a one-shot learning session.

ADULT LEARNING THEORY


Adults like to assist you and feel like an acGve part of the learning process. Adults expect to be respected.

ADULT LEARNING THEORY


Adults enjoy acGve learning, small group exercises and moving around the room. Vary learning acGviGes.

ADULT LEARNING THEORY


Adults expect to be able to use what they learn immediately. Make informaGon applicable.

ADULT LEARNING THEORY


Adults learn at dierent speeds and through dierent methods. Be exible.

ADULT LEARNING THEORY


Adults need feedback and construcGve criGcism. The emphasis is on building the person not tearing them down.

ADULT LEARNING THEORY


Adults like to laugh.

In a nutshell
Objec<ve-Directed Rela<onship-Based Learner-Driven Fun-Founded

Objec<ve Directed
Inspira<on / Mo<va<on Skill Building Development of AMtudes / Values

AOer Connec<ng

OBJECTIVES and EXPECTATIONS

Always begin with

Rela<onship-Based

In reality, perception is ALL there is

- Tom Peters

Connecting
Management of Perception

If they don t like you, you re done.


- Jon Escoto

Connecting
Management of Perception

Early attention is focused on you, and not on your work.

Moment of Truth
It is not enough that you are intelligent and professional, you have to LOOK intelligent and professional. It is not enough that you are intelligent and professional, somebody else has to AGREE that you are. It is important that you do things right the first time. You may not have another chance.

ICE BREAKERS part of the LEARNING PROCESS!

EXAMPLES
Games Sharing AcGviGes Ex. Hand Exercise, Fill in the Blanks (Note: Adjusted to the prole of the

parGcipants)

Learner-Driven

You lose 70% of what you HEAR in 72 hours!

Learning Pyramid*

*National Training
Laboratories for Applied Behavioral Sciences

Public Speaking in the Context of Conversing with a Group

You dont have to be the smartest person around!

Libera<ng for all!

The 5-minute RULE!

What is facilitation?
= bringing out and focusing the wisdom of the group, often as the group creates something new or solves a problem.

What is facilita<on?

= bringing out and focusing the wisdom of the group, oOen as the group creates something new or solves a problem.

Teaching vs. Facilitating


A process whereby a Helping/making it easy for participants to learn facilitaro leads a together in a group, or group of students in to achieve something acquiring new skills, together as a group. knowledge, or understanding.

Teaching vs. Facilitating


Most subject area teaching involves telling and teaching the students. Measurable outcome at the end.

Involves helping the participants to discover by themselves.

Content expert
Presents information

Facilitator
Guides process

Provides the right answers

Provides the right questions

Active learning: Participants role


Active learning requires that participants: Acquire new knowledge and skills Solve problems during the training Demonstrate their understanding Apply their knowledge and skills

Understanding
People are more likely to understand what they figure out for themselves than what you figure out for them
(Silverman, 1995)

You dont

need to TELL

Give them an

EXPERIENCE!

AHA!!!

Never do to the par<cipants what they can do for themselves!

Even
Read slides! Passing things Answering quesGons Giving feedback Dening terms Summarizing Reviewing

Dont point!

GIVE!!!

S.L.E.
(Structured Learning Experiences)

Techniques:
Group Feedback Brainstorming Observation & Feedback Case Study Reflection Comment Cards Role-playing Demonstration Rotating Roles Drawing / illustration Silent or Out-Loud Energiser Reading Gallery walk Story Telling

QUESTIONS can help . . .


Encourage systematic analysis n Introduce topics not yet discussed n Evoke participants stories and experience n Broaden participation n Review a difficult concept (or concepts) n Redirect a discussion
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Facilitators can ask . . .


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Open-ended questions Closed-ended questions Overhead questions Relay questions Directed questions Reverse questions Redirected questions

Facilitators can ask . . .


Open-ended Questions
Open-ended questions cannot be answered by a "yes" or "no" response. Since they stimulate thinking and encourage greater discussion, facilitators use open-ended questions to increase a team's participation.

Closed-ended Questions
Unlike open-ended questions, closed-ended questions solicit a one-word response. Typically, you would avoid asking closed ended questions, unless you are working to clarify the group's perspectives or narrow down ideas to a workable number.

Facilitators can ask . . .


Overhead Questions
Addressed to the entire group to encourage discussion, they channel group thinking, or are used to bring out different opinions. If a lively discussion has suddenly stopped,
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"What are some of the other items we could consider under this heading?" "What other remedies for this situation have you found?"

Relay Questions
These questions are returned to the group as in the following example: "That's a good question. How have some of the rest of you handled that problem?"

Facilitators can ask . . .


Directed Question
Directed Questions. Asked to specific individuals, directed questions initiate discussion, redirect the conversation, or draw out the participant. (Note: Don t overuse. Present the
question before directing it to an individual to ensure that others in the group also consider possible responses.)

Reverse Questions
These questions are used to suggest that the person posing the question give his or her own answer. This encourages the participant (Note: Be alert to those who fall
into the habit of asking many questions on topics about which they have strong viewpoints, even to the point of usurping your role.)

Facilitators can ask . . .


Redirected Questions This technique encourages further discussion and at the same time relates the question back to previous discussion. A question may also be redirected to a member known to have special knowledge.
Example: Thank you for the question. Perhaps <NAME> could respond as he/she may have some knowledge of that topic.

VERBAL
Words We Use 7% Voice 38% Nonverbal 55%

VISUAL

VOCAL

Professor Albert Mehrabian, University of California

Body Language to Avoid


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Holding Objects in Front of Your Body Checking the Time or Inspecting Your Fingernails Picking Lint Off of Your Clothes Stroking Your Chin While Looking at Someone Narrowing Your Eyes Standing Too Close Looking Down While in the Presence of Others

Body Language to Avoid


n n n

Touching Your Face During a Conversation Faking a Smile Resting Hands Behind the Head or on the Hips Not Directly Facing the Person You re Speaking To Crossing Your Arms

Body Language to Avoid


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Displaying a Sluggish Posture Scratching at the Backside of Your Head and Neck Messing With the Collar of Your Shirt Increasing Your Rate of Blinking Slouching Your Shoulders Standing with Your Hands Crossed Over Your Genitals

Body Language to Avoid


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Propping Up Your Head with Your Hands Wiping Sweaty Hands onto Your Clothes Sitting on the Edge of Your Chair Foot and Finger Tapping Using Your Hands to Fidget with Small Objects Repeatedly Shifting Body Weight from Foot to Foot

Create the Proper Environment

The training room


Room temperature, light, noise, etc. Sitting arrangements Audiovisual Resources Materials Water, tea, coffee, & snacks W.C. locations

The LEARNING ROOM:


1

2
= Trainer = Participants

The training room: Seating arrangements for working groups


4 5

Fun-Founded

Energizers are part of the curriculum


After lunch or late in the afternoon, participants may become lethargic and unmotivated. Revitalise their energy with a brief fun activity (either physical or not) that gets learning moving!

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Create ALLIES !!!

Intervention Techniques for Disruptive Behavior (P1)


1. The side bar conversationalist
A participant starts a quiet discussion with a neighbor while the trainer is facilitating discussion among the rest of the group.

2. The know-it-all participant


Each time the trainer asks a question, one participant is always the first to answer and gives his/her answer in a way that makes it appear as though his/her district is superior to others.

Intervention Techniques for Disruptive Behavior (P1)


3. The long answer lecturer
A participant volunteers to answer a question and then takes control of the discussion as though she is now instructing everyone in the room.

4. Disagree with a well established fact/ position


A participant disagrees with a clear company/organization position and states that his way of thinking is clearly better based on his/her experience.

Intervention Techniques for Disruptive Behavior (P1)


5. The insensitive comment or joke
A participant makes a mildly insensitive comment that may be offensive to others in the room.

6. Challenge the trainer


A participant challenges the way the trainer presents information. He or she says, "You are not clear - you must say it this way so that we understand."

7. Question the facilitator s credentials


A participant asks you how you were selected as a trainer and asks about your practical experience with the discussion topic.

Intervention Techniques for Disruptive Behavior (P1)


8. I do not believe the answer my colleague provided is correct
A participant challenges the answer that was provided by a colleague.

9. The bored participant


One participant is visibly uninterested in the discussion (i.e. flips through the handout book, rummages in his/her bag, reorganizes materials, etc.).

10. The tired participant


A participant is clearly falling asleep during the session.

Intervention Techniques for Disruptive Behavior (P2)


1. The late participant
A participant arrives 1 or 2 minutes after the session started and tries to find out what he/she has missed from neighbors.

2. Language difficulty
When asked a question, the participant does not respond or indicates that he/she does not understand the question.

3. The fast talker


One participant speaks so fast that it is difficult for nonnative language speakers to understand.

Intervention Techniques for Disruptive Behavior (P2)


4. Questions and answers off the topic
A participant provides answers that do not pertain to the topic at hand.

5. Continue to pursue an issue


A participant continues to pursue an issue when you need to continue to another topic.

6. The interrupter
One participant continually interrupts others who are speaking.

Intervention Techniques for Disruptive Behavior (P2)


7. No participation from the whole group
You ask a question and no one answers.

8. Too much participation


There is too much cross talk at the same time.

9. Expecting answers
The group asks you to answer the questions instead of participating in the discussion.

10. Incorrect information


A number of participants have the wrong information on an issue and they are certain they are correct.

FINAL THOUGHTS
n n n n n

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Build on your strength Minimize your weakness Study and develop your skills Practice, practice, practice, Understand people, Develop love for people Study PEOPLE Never be scared to fail, take the risk

FINAL THOUGHTS
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Improve your learning Improve your communication skills Find a coach and mentor Make friends with technology as tools Learn from others Read a lot Read aloud

NOTHING MUCH IS ACHIEVED WITHOUT ENTHUSIASM!


- Ralph Waldo Emerson

ENTHUSIASM

EN THEOS

You teach NOT on what you know You teach WHO YOU ARE!

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jonmaris@yahoo.com twitter.com/JonEscoto