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176 vues460 pagesLecture notes on heat transfer as provided by MIT
Features energy balances and heat balances
Includes common question at steady state heat transfer

Sep 06, 2013

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Lecture notes on heat transfer as provided by MIT
Features energy balances and heat balances
Includes common question at steady state heat transfer

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

176 vues

00 vote positif00 vote négatif

Lecture notes on heat transfer as provided by MIT
Features energy balances and heat balances
Includes common question at steady state heat transfer

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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ChE 333

Spring 2000 1

Heat Transfer and Energy

What is Heat?

Heat is Energy in Transit. Recall the First law from Thermodynamics.

U = Q - W

What did we mean by all the terms?

What is U ?

What is Q ?

What is W ?

What is Heat Transfer?

Heat transfer is the transfer of Heat effected by a temperature

difference. However, in contrast to what we may have done in

Thermodynamics, we are concerned with the rate of heat transfer. For that,

we need a different energy balance, one that accounts for the rate of

transfer and production, a general energy balance.

We will derive such a balance in later lectures.

Examples of Heat Transfer

Pasteurizing milk

Energy loss from a house by conduction

through a window

Melting of a polymer

Cooling an automobile engine

Cooling or heating a stream in a chemical

process

Condensing vapor leaving a distillation

tower

Solar heating of the earth

Radiational cooling of a pond

Air-conditioning

Temperature control of the human body

Ablational cooling of a space shuttle on re-

entry

U = Q W

Lecture 1

ChE 333

Spring 2000 2

Modes of Heat Transfer

Conduction

Convection

Radiation

Conduction

Conduction is the thermal equivalent of diffusion. In gases, energy is

exchanged between molecules in collisions. You will recall from

Thermodynamics that a measure of the molecular motion and the energy

exchange is the temperature and that conduction is the transfer of

energy from the more energetic molecules to the less energetic. In the

presence of a temperature gradient, energy is then transferred from the high

temperature ( more energetic) to the lower temperature(less energetic). For

liquids and solids, the example is not as clear. Conduction in liquids the

collisions are more frequent and not as energetic and in solids transfer is

by vibrations, for example, in a crystal lattice.

The constitutive equation describing the phenomenon is Fouriers

law

q = k T

What we mean by the notation is the following:

q = q

i

e

i

T =

T

x

i

e

i

Lecture 1

ChE 333

Spring 2000 3

Conduction in one-dimension

To give you some notion of what I mean, examine a simple one-

dimensional conduction problem.

q

x

is the heat flux in watts/m

2

q

x

= k

dT

dx

k is the thermal conductivity in

units of watts/m-K

If we make an energy balance over a

differential element at steady state,

q

x

x+ x

q

x

x

= 0

or q

x

= constant

Then, we see that

T = ax + b or

dT

dx

=

T

1

T

2

L

It follows that at steady state

q

x

= k

T

1

T

2

L

Convection

Convection in heat transfer is a process which involves the diffusion of

heat and the advection of energy by flow. The process can be described

by Newtons Law of Cooling

q n = h T T

b

where h is the heat transfer coefficient as watts/m

2

-K

Typical Values of Heat Transfer Coefficients

q

T

T

1

T

2

x

L

h (watts/m

2

-K)

Free Convection 5 - 25

Forced Convection

gases 5-250

liquids 50 - 20,000

Phase Change

(boiling or condensation) 2500-100,000

Lecture 1

ChE 333

Spring 2000 4

What is the relation between h expressed in English units and SI units ?

In SI units , h = 10 watts/m

2

-K

In English units, h = 1.7612 BTU/hr-ft

2

-F

Quick estimates for conversion changes, divide watts/m

2

-K by 6 to get

BTU/hr-ft

2

-F

Radiation

Thermal radiation is energy emitted by matter that is at a finite

temperature. Emission occurs not only from solids, but from gases and

liquids. The energy is carried by electromagnetic waves, originating at the

expense of the internal energy of the matter. Conduction and convection

depend on the presence of an intermediary. Radiation does not !

The normal component of heat flux emitted by a surface is given by the

Stefan-Boltzmanns Law

q n = T

s

4

where is the emissivity is the Stefan-Boltzman constant

The emissivity is the ratio of the energy emitted by the real surface

compared to that emitted by an ideal surface (a black body). It is

dimensionless.

= 5.67 x 10

-8

watts/m

2

-K

4

and T is in degrees Kelvin.

The net rate of energy transfer between two surfaces

q

i j

n

j

= F

ij

T

i

4

T

j

4

The view factor, F

ij

, depends on the distance R between and the

orientation of the two surfaces.

We will discuss Radiation in the last several weeks of the course.

Lecture 1

ChE 333

Spring 2000 5

Problem Solving

Your textbook outlines a "stock" procedure for addressing, formulating

and solving problems in Heat Transfer. In my view, it is a sound

technique and one that I would ask that you follow.

It involves several steps, each with a prescribed formula. What folloiws is

the outline.

Problem Statement

The statement of the problem and the results required

Solution

1. Known

Read the problem carefully, then state briefly and concisely what is

know about the problem. This is not a simple restaement of the

problem.

2. Find

Briefly and concisely state the results that are required.

3. Schematic

Draw a picture (schematic) of the system. Identify and label the heat

transfer processes and the relevant boundaries of the system (control

surfaces)

4. Assumptions

List all the relevant assumptions you will use in formulating the

problem.

5. Properties

Compile the property valued for all the calculations to follow and

identify the sources of the data.

6. Analysis

Apply the appropriate conservation laws and appropriate constitutive

equations ( rate laws). Develop the analysis as completely as you

can without substituting numerical values. If it is feasible, make the

equations dimensionless. Finally complete the calculation with

numerical values.

7. Comments

Discuss the results. This should include the key conclusions. Were

the initial assumptions valid ? What effect would there be if they

were not? How sensitive is your solution to the parameters?

Lecture 1

ChE 333

Spring 2000 6

Measurement of Thermal Conductivity

A Design Problem

Statement of the Problem

Measure the conductivity of the metal in a metal rod connected to a

constant temperature sink (an ice bath)

Water flows through a well-mixed reservoir. In enters at T

h1

and leaves at

the same temperature as it is in the water reservoir, T

h2

. The rod, the two

reservoirs are insulated from the surroundings.

Derive a relationship for the thermal conductivity and recommend a flow

rate for the water.

Solution

1. Known

The heat lost by the fluid in the lower reservoir is transferred to the ice

batch through the rod. The temperature is known for the ce bath. The

water flow is measured and known, and we measure the water

temperatures in and out of the reservoir.

2. Find

Derive a relationship for the thermal conductivity and recommend a flow

rate for the water.

3. Schematic

F

T

h1

F

T

h2

T

T

h2

h2

L = 6 in.

D = 0.5 in.

D

Lecture 1

ChE 333

Spring 2000 7

4. Assumptions

There are a number of assumptions in this energy balance. What are they?

5. Properties

Some are given in the schematic, but what should we list ?

Data k (cal/s-cm-

K)

k (Btu/h-ft-

F)

Aluminum 0.45 108

Copper 0.9 216

Steel 0.13 32

Conditions

and Data

T

h1

=

80F

T

c

=

32F

k = 32BTU/ft-

h-F

C

pw

=

1BTU/lb-

F

= 62lb./ft^3

L = 6in.

D = 0.5in.

Lecture 1

ChE 333

Spring 2000 8

6. Analysis

Energy balance on the rod

Heat exchanged from the water = heat transferred across the rod

Q =

w

F

w

C

pw

T

h1

T

h2

=

k

L

D

2

4

T

h2

T

c

We did not state the constitutive relations . What are they?

There are a number of assumptions in this energy balance. What are they?

We can solve for the thermal conductivity , k.. The result gives us an

equation by which we might better design the experiment.

k =

4L

D

2

w

F

w

C

pw

T

h1

T

h2

T

h2

T

c

The dimensions, L and D are fixed as are all the variables save T

h1

and F

w

.

What are the best choices for these variables?

Dimensionless form for the solution.

We can group parameters as , so that

T

h1

T

h2

T

h2

T

c

=

D

2

k

4L

w

F

w

C

pw

=

and the temperature rise can be expressed simply as

T

h1

T

h2

T

h1

T

c

=

1 +

Lecture 1

ChE 333

Spring 2000 9

If we calculate the temperature rise as a function of flow rate we can obtain

the following table.

In an experiment we can measure temperature no more precisely that 0.1

F so that the highest flow rate would be 5 ml/min.

Some experimental questions

How precise can you control and measure flow rates?

How good is the well-stirred assumption?

How precise are the temperature measurements?

Given the precision of measurement, what is the

precision of the estimation of the thermal conductivity?

Flow rate

T

h1

T

h2

T

h1

T

c

T

h1

T

h2

cc/min.

100 0.00670 0.00666 0.3195

75 0.00894 0.00886 0.4251

50 0.01340 0.0132 0.6349

25 0.02681 0.0261 1.2533

10 0.06701 0.0628 3.0151

5 0.13405 0.1182 5.6738

4 0.16756 0.1435 6.8887

3 0.22342 0.1826 8.7656

2 0.33512 0.2510 12.0483

1 0.67025 0.4013 19.2618

Lecture 2 Spring 2000

ChE 333 1

Introduction to Conduction

Fourier's Law

The constitutive equation for conduction, we have see, is Fourier's Law. It

says that the heat flux vector is a linear function of the temperature

gradient, that is :

What we mean by the notation is the following:

Then for each of the components of q, we have the relation:

q = k T

q = q

i

e

i

T =

T

x

i

e

i

q

i

= k

T

x

i

Lecture 2 Spring 2000

ChE 333 2

Thermal Properties of Matter

Thermal conductivity

The conductivity is a material property that is a very strong function

of the state of the material.

The range of values goes from less than 0.01 Watts/m-K for gaseous

CO

2

to over 600 Watts/m-K for Ag metal. The change may be as much

as 5 orders of magnitude

.

Lecture 2 Spring 2000

ChE 333 3

Thermal Conductivity of Gases

Lecture 2 Spring 2000

ChE 333 4

Thermal Conductivity of Solids

The thermal conductivity of solids differ significantly as the next figure shows

.

Lecture 2 Spring 2000

ChE 333 5

Conductive Loss through a Window Pane

Examine the simple one-dimensional

conduction problem as heat flow

through a windowpane. The window

glass thickness, L, is 1/8 in. If this is the

only window in a room 9x12x8 or 864

ft

3

, the area of the window is 2 ft x 3 ft

or 6 ft

2

.

Recall that q

x

is the heat flux and that k

is the thermal conductivity

q

x

= k

dT

dx

The energy at steady state yielded

q

x

= k

T

1

T

2

L

The room is well heated and the temperature is uniform, so the heat low

through the windowpane is

Q = k

T

1

T

2

L

A

If the room temperature is 60 F and the exterior temperature is 20 F, and

k is 0.41 Btu/hr-ft2-F then

Q = 0.41

60 20

0.125 / 12

6 = 9444

Btu

hr

Questions

Is this a large rate?

How can you tell whether it is large or not?

q

T

T

1

T

2

x

L

Lecture 2 Spring 2000

ChE 333 6

Energy balance on the Room

How long does it take for the room temperature to change from 60 F to

45 F?

To make this estimate, we need to solve an energy balance on the room. A

simple analysis yields

d

dt

VC

p

T

1

T

ref

= Q

Recognizing that heat capacity density are essentially constant, the

equation becomes

dT

1

dt

=

kA

VC

p

L

T

1

T

2

Note that

=

VC

p

L

kA

and that has units of time.

At the outset, T

1

= T

10

= 60 F

The solution of the differential equation

representing the energy balance is

T

1

T

2

T

10

T

2

= e

46 F, we need all the data in the table.

t

= ln

T

1

T

2

T

10

T

2

= ln

45 20

60 20

= 0.47

It follows that t = 0.47 = 1.75 minutes.

Data

T

2

= 20F

T

1 0

= 60F

T

1

= 45F

k = 0.41 BTU/ft-h-F

A = 6ft^2

V = 864ft^3

L = 0.125 in.

air

= 0.07 lb/ft^3

C

pair

= 0.24 BTU/lb.-F

Lecture 2 Spring 2000

ChE 333 7

Heat Conduction in a Composite Solid

Examine the simple one-dimensional

conduction problem as heat flow

through a thermally insulated

windowpane. Each layer of window

glass thickness, L, is 1/16 in. The

insulation layer of air between the two

panes is also 1/16 in.

Recall that q

x

is the heat flux and that k

is the thermal conductivity

q

x

= k

dT

dx

The energy at steady state yielded

q

x

= k

T

1

T

2

L

The heat flow through the glass is given by

In layer 1

Q = k

1

T

0

T

1

1

A

In layer 2

Q = k

2

T

1

T

2

2

A

and in layer 3 by

Q = k

3

T

2

T

3

3

A

Then we can rewrite the equations in this form

Q

3

k

3

= T

2

T

3

A ; Q

2

k

2

= T

1

T

2

A ; Q

1

k

1

= T

0

T

1

A

If we add the three equations, we obtain

Q

A

1

k

1

+

2

k

2

+

3

k

3

= T

0

T

3

q

T

T

0

T

2

x

L

1

T

1

T

3

L

3

L

2

Lecture 2 Spring 2000

ChE 333 8

We can consider the thickness/conductivity as a resistance so that

Let R

i

=

i

k

i

so then

1

R

=

1

R

1

+

1

R

2

+

1

R

3

The heat flow is then of the following form :

Q =

T

0

T

3

R

A

This is like a problem of current flow in a series circuit.

In the single pane problem discussed in Lecture 1, we noted that the

resistance, /k, was 1/(192(0.41) = 0.254 hr-ft

2

-F/Btu. Recall that for the

problem of cooling the room, was 1.75 minutes. The thermal

conductivity of air is 0.014 Btu/hr-ft-F. so that

1

k

1

=

3

k

3

=

0.0254

2

;

2

k

2

=

1

96 0.014

= 0.744

as a consequence the reciprocal of the overall resistance is 0.744 +

(0.0254) = 0.746.

Then we see that = (1.min) (0.746/0.0254) = 29.37 min

Lecture 2 Spring 2000

ChE 333 9

The Convective Boundary

Condition

Again consider a windowpane, but now

there is a heat transfer limitation at one

boundary described by a boundary

condition.

q

x

= h T

r

T

i

Conduction through the glass is

described by

q

x

= k

T

i

T

a

T

i

T

a

=

k

q

x

; T

r

T

i

=

1

h

q

x

Solving for the temperatures we get

T

i

= T

a

+

k

q

x

+

1

h

q

x

Solving for q

x

, the relation becomes

q

x

=

1

k

+

1

h

T

i

T

a

Which modified shows a correction to

the heat transfer coefficient modulated by

the conduction problem

The dimensionless number in the denominator is the Biot

number, a ratio of the convective heat transfer coefficient to the

equivalent heat transfer coefficient due to conduction.

Tr

T

i

T

a

L

q

x

=

h

h

k

+ 1

T

i

T

a

Bi =

h

k

Lecture 2 Spring 2000

ChE 333 10

Heat Transfer across a Composite Cylindrical Solid.

In the case of heat transfer in a cylinder, there is radial symmetry do that

heat conduction is important only in the radial direction.

The heat flux in the radial direction is

given by Fouriers law.

q

r

= k

dT

dr

The total heat flow through any circular surface is constant

Q = k 2rL

dT

dr

= constant = C

Rearranging we obtain a relation for the temperature gradient

dT

dr

=

C

k 2rL

which upon separation of variables is

dT =

C

k 2L

dr

r

An indefinite integration yields the temperature profile.

T =

C

k 2L

ln r + a

1

The boundary conditions are

at r = R

1

, T = T

1

;

at r = R

2

, T = T

2

q

r2

= q

r2

at r = R

3

, T = T

3

q

r3

= h(T

3

- T

0

)

T

1

T

2

T

3

T

0

R

1

R

2

R

3

Lecture 2 Spring 2000

ChE 333 11

so that

T

1

T

2

=

C

k

1

2L

ln

R

1

R

2

; T

2

T

3

=

C

k

2

2L

ln

R

2

R

1

It follows that

T

1

T

0

=

C

2L

1

k

1

ln

R

2

R

1

+

1

k

2

ln

R

3

R

2

+

1

h

This can be expressed as

Q =

2L

1

k

1

ln

R

2

R

1

+

1

k

2

ln

R

3

R

2

+

1

hR

3

T

1

T

0

Optimal Insulation on a Pipe

Is there an optimal thickness for the exterior insulation? In the context of

the problem just formulated, is there a best value for R

3

?

Note that Q = f(R

3

).

To find an extremum,

dQ

dR

3

= 0 and

d

2

Q

dR

3

2

< 0

Some algebra yields:

hR

3

k

2

= 1

It offers a critical radius for R

3

= k

2

/h beyond which the heat

loss increases.

Lecture 2 Spring 2000

ChE 333 1

Introduction to Conduction

Fourier's Law

The constitutive equation for conduction, we have see, is Fourier's Law. It

says that the heat flux vector is a linear function of the temperature

gradient, that is :

What we mean by the notation is the following:

Then for each of the components of q, we have the relation:

q = k T

q = q

i

e

i

T =

T

x

i

e

i

q

i

= k

T

x

i

Lecture 2 Spring 2000

ChE 333 2

Thermal Properties of Matter

Thermal conductivity

The conductivity is a material property that is a very strong function

of the state of the material.

The range of values goes from less than 0.01 Watts/m-K for gaseous

CO

2

to over 600 Watts/m-K for Ag metal. The change may be as much

as 5 orders of magnitude

.

Lecture 2 Spring 2000

ChE 333 3

Thermal Conductivity of Gases

Lecture 2 Spring 2000

ChE 333 4

Thermal Conductivity of Solids

The thermal conductivity of solids differ significantly as the next figure shows

.

Lecture 2 Spring 2000

ChE 333 5

Conductive Loss through a Window Pane

Examine the simple one-dimensional

conduction problem as heat flow

through a windowpane. The window

glass thickness, L, is 1/8 in. If this is the

only window in a room 9x12x8 or 864

ft

3

, the area of the window is 2 ft x 3 ft

or 6 ft

2

.

Recall that q

x

is the heat flux and that k

is the thermal conductivity

q

x

= k

dT

dx

The energy at steady state yielded

q

x

= k

T

1

T

2

L

The room is well heated and the temperature is uniform, so the heat low

through the windowpane is

Q = k

T

1

T

2

L

A

If the room temperature is 60 F and the exterior temperature is 20 F, and

k is 0.41 Btu/hr-ft2-F then

Q = 0.41

60 20

0.125 / 12

6 = 9444

Btu

hr

Questions

Is this a large rate?

How can you tell whether it is large or not?

q

T

T

1

T

2

x

L

Lecture 2 Spring 2000

ChE 333 6

Energy balance on the Room

How long does it take for the room temperature to change from 60 F to

45 F?

To make this estimate, we need to solve an energy balance on the room. A

simple analysis yields

d

dt

VC

p

T

1

T

ref

= Q

Recognizing that heat capacity density are essentially constant, the

equation becomes

dT

1

dt

=

kA

VC

p

L

T

1

T

2

Note that

=

VC

p

L

kA

and that has units of time.

At the outset, T

1

= T

10

= 60 F

The solution of the differential equation

representing the energy balance is

T

1

T

2

T

10

T

2

= e

46 F, we need all the data in the table.

t

= ln

T

1

T

2

T

10

T

2

= ln

45 20

60 20

= 0.47

It follows that t = 0.47 = 1.75 minutes.

Data

T

2

= 20F

T

1 0

= 60F

T

1

= 45F

k = 0.41 BTU/ft-h-F

A = 6ft^2

V = 864ft^3

L = 0.125 in.

air

= 0.07 lb/ft^3

C

pair

= 0.24 BTU/lb.-F

Lecture 2 Spring 2000

ChE 333 7

Heat Conduction in a Composite Solid

Examine the simple one-dimensional

conduction problem as heat flow

through a thermally insulated

windowpane. Each layer of window

glass thickness, L, is 1/16 in. The

insulation layer of air between the two

panes is also 1/16 in.

Recall that q

x

is the heat flux and that k

is the thermal conductivity

q

x

= k

dT

dx

The energy at steady state yielded

q

x

= k

T

1

T

2

L

The heat flow through the glass is given by

In layer 1

Q = k

1

T

0

T

1

1

A

In layer 2

Q = k

2

T

1

T

2

2

A

and in layer 3 by

Q = k

3

T

2

T

3

3

A

Then we can rewrite the equations in this form

Q

3

k

3

= T

2

T

3

A ; Q

2

k

2

= T

1

T

2

A ; Q

1

k

1

= T

0

T

1

A

If we add the three equations, we obtain

Q

A

1

k

1

+

2

k

2

+

3

k

3

= T

0

T

3

q

T

T

0

T

2

x

L

1

T

1

T

3

L

3

L

2

Lecture 2 Spring 2000

ChE 333 8

We can consider the thickness/conductivity as a resistance so that

Let R

i

=

i

k

i

so then

1

R

=

1

R

1

+

1

R

2

+

1

R

3

The heat flow is then of the following form :

Q =

T

0

T

3

R

A

This is like a problem of current flow in a series circuit.

In the single pane problem discussed in Lecture 1, we noted that the

resistance, /k, was 1/(192(0.41) = 0.254 hr-ft

2

-F/Btu. Recall that for the

problem of cooling the room, was 1.75 minutes. The thermal

conductivity of air is 0.014 Btu/hr-ft-F. so that

1

k

1

=

3

k

3

=

0.0254

2

;

2

k

2

=

1

96 0.014

= 0.744

as a consequence the reciprocal of the overall resistance is 0.744 +

(0.0254) = 0.746.

Then we see that = (1.min) (0.746/0.0254) = 29.37 min

Lecture 2 Spring 2000

ChE 333 9

The Convective Boundary

Condition

Again consider a windowpane, but now

there is a heat transfer limitation at one

boundary described by a boundary

condition.

q

x

= h T

r

T

i

Conduction through the glass is

described by

q

x

= k

T

i

T

a

T

i

T

a

=

k

q

x

; T

r

T

i

=

1

h

q

x

Solving for the temperatures we get

T

i

= T

a

+

k

q

x

+

1

h

q

x

Solving for q

x

, the relation becomes

q

x

=

1

k

+

1

h

T

i

T

a

Which modified shows a correction to

the heat transfer coefficient modulated by

the conduction problem

The dimensionless number in the denominator is the Biot

number, a ratio of the convective heat transfer coefficient to the

equivalent heat transfer coefficient due to conduction.

Tr

T

i

T

a

L

q

x

=

h

h

k

+ 1

T

i

T

a

Bi =

h

k

Lecture 2 Spring 2000

ChE 333 10

Heat Transfer across a Composite Cylindrical Solid.

In the case of heat transfer in a cylinder, there is radial symmetry do that

heat conduction is important only in the radial direction.

The heat flux in the radial direction is

given by Fouriers law.

q

r

= k

dT

dr

The total heat flow through any circular surface is constant

Q = k 2rL

dT

dr

= constant = C

Rearranging we obtain a relation for the temperature gradient

dT

dr

=

C

k 2rL

which upon separation of variables is

dT =

C

k 2L

dr

r

An indefinite integration yields the temperature profile.

T =

C

k 2L

ln r + a

1

The boundary conditions are

at r = R

1

, T = T

1

;

at r = R

2

, T = T

2

q

r2

= q

r2

at r = R

3

, T = T

3

q

r3

= h(T

3

- T

0

)

T

1

T

2

T

3

T

0

R

1

R

2

R

3

Lecture 2 Spring 2000

ChE 333 11

so that

T

1

T

2

=

C

k

1

2L

ln

R

1

R

2

; T

2

T

3

=

C

k

2

2L

ln

R

2

R

1

It follows that

T

1

T

0

=

C

2L

1

k

1

ln

R

2

R

1

+

1

k

2

ln

R

3

R

2

+

1

h

This can be expressed as

Q =

2L

1

k

1

ln

R

2

R

1

+

1

k

2

ln

R

3

R

2

+

1

hR

3

T

1

T

0

Optimal Insulation on a Pipe

Is there an optimal thickness for the exterior insulation? In the context of

the problem just formulated, is there a best value for R

3

?

Note that Q = f(R

3

).

To find an extremum,

dQ

dR

3

= 0 and

d

2

Q

dR

3

2

< 0

Some algebra yields:

hR

3

k

2

= 1

It offers a critical radius for R

3

= k

2

/h beyond which the heat

loss increases.

Lecture 2 Spring 2000

ChE 333 1

Introduction to Conduction

Fourier's Law

The constitutive equation for conduction, we have see, is Fourier's Law. It

says that the heat flux vector is a linear function of the temperature

gradient, that is :

What we mean by the notation is the following:

Then for each of the components of q, we have the relation:

q = k T

q = q

i

e

i

T =

T

x

i

e

i

q

i

= k

T

x

i

Lecture 2 Spring 2000

ChE 333 2

Thermal Properties of Matter

Thermal conductivity

The conductivity is a material property that is a very strong function

of the state of the material.

The range of values goes from less than 0.01 Watts/m-K for gaseous

CO

2

to over 600 Watts/m-K for Ag metal. The change may be as much

as 5 orders of magnitude

.

Lecture 2 Spring 2000

ChE 333 3

Thermal Conductivity of Gases

Lecture 2 Spring 2000

ChE 333 4

Thermal Conductivity of Solids

The thermal conductivity of solids differ significantly as the next figure shows

.

Lecture 2 Spring 2000

ChE 333 5

Conductive Loss through a Window Pane

Examine the simple one-dimensional

conduction problem as heat flow

through a windowpane. The window

glass thickness, L, is 1/8 in. If this is the

only window in a room 9x12x8 or 864

ft

3

, the area of the window is 2 ft x 3 ft

or 6 ft

2

.

Recall that q

x

is the heat flux and that k

is the thermal conductivity

q

x

= k

dT

dx

The energy at steady state yielded

q

x

= k

T

1

T

2

L

The room is well heated and the temperature is uniform, so the heat low

through the windowpane is

Q = k

T

1

T

2

L

A

If the room temperature is 60 F and the exterior temperature is 20 F, and

k is 0.41 Btu/hr-ft2-F then

Q = 0.41

60 20

0.125 / 12

6 = 9444

Btu

hr

Questions

Is this a large rate?

How can you tell whether it is large or not?

q

T

T

1

T

2

x

L

Lecture 2 Spring 2000

ChE 333 6

Energy balance on the Room

How long does it take for the room temperature to change from 60 F to

45 F?

To make this estimate, we need to solve an energy balance on the room. A

simple analysis yields

d

dt

VC

p

T

1

T

ref

= Q

Recognizing that heat capacity density are essentially constant, the

equation becomes

dT

1

dt

=

kA

VC

p

L

T

1

T

2

Note that

=

VC

p

L

kA

and that has units of time.

At the outset, T

1

= T

10

= 60 F

The solution of the differential equation

representing the energy balance is

T

1

T

2

T

10

T

2

= e

46 F, we need all the data in the table.

t

= ln

T

1

T

2

T

10

T

2

= ln

45 20

60 20

= 0.47

It follows that t = 0.47 = 1.75 minutes.

Data

T

2

= 20F

T

1 0

= 60F

T

1

= 45F

k = 0.41 BTU/ft-h-F

A = 6ft^2

V = 864ft^3

L = 0.125 in.

air

= 0.07 lb/ft^3

C

pair

= 0.24 BTU/lb.-F

Lecture 2 Spring 2000

ChE 333 7

Heat Conduction in a Composite Solid

Examine the simple one-dimensional

conduction problem as heat flow

through a thermally insulated

windowpane. Each layer of window

glass thickness, L, is 1/16 in. The

insulation layer of air between the two

panes is also 1/16 in.

Recall that q

x

is the heat flux and that k

is the thermal conductivity

q

x

= k

dT

dx

The energy at steady state yielded

q

x

= k

T

1

T

2

L

The heat flow through the glass is given by

In layer 1

Q = k

1

T

0

T

1

1

A

In layer 2

Q = k

2

T

1

T

2

2

A

and in layer 3 by

Q = k

3

T

2

T

3

3

A

Then we can rewrite the equations in this form

Q

3

k

3

= T

2

T

3

A ; Q

2

k

2

= T

1

T

2

A ; Q

1

k

1

= T

0

T

1

A

If we add the three equations, we obtain

Q

A

1

k

1

+

2

k

2

+

3

k

3

= T

0

T

3

q

T

T

0

T

2

x

L

1

T

1

T

3

L

3

L

2

Lecture 2 Spring 2000

ChE 333 8

We can consider the thickness/conductivity as a resistance so that

Let R

i

=

i

k

i

so then

1

R

=

1

R

1

+

1

R

2

+

1

R

3

The heat flow is then of the following form :

Q =

T

0

T

3

R

A

This is like a problem of current flow in a series circuit.

In the single pane problem discussed in Lecture 1, we noted that the

resistance, /k, was 1/(192(0.41) = 0.254 hr-ft

2

-F/Btu. Recall that for the

problem of cooling the room, was 1.75 minutes. The thermal

conductivity of air is 0.014 Btu/hr-ft-F. so that

1

k

1

=

3

k

3

=

0.0254

2

;

2

k

2

=

1

96 0.014

= 0.744

as a consequence the reciprocal of the overall resistance is 0.744 +

(0.0254) = 0.746.

Then we see that = (1.min) (0.746/0.0254) = 29.37 min

Lecture 2 Spring 2000

ChE 333 9

The Convective Boundary

Condition

Again consider a windowpane, but now

there is a heat transfer limitation at one

boundary described by a boundary

condition.

q

x

= h T

r

T

i

Conduction through the glass is

described by

q

x

= k

T

i

T

a

T

i

T

a

=

k

q

x

; T

r

T

i

=

1

h

q

x

Solving for the temperatures we get

T

i

= T

a

+

k

q

x

+

1

h

q

x

Solving for q

x

, the relation becomes

q

x

=

1

k

+

1

h

T

i

T

a

Which modified shows a correction to

the heat transfer coefficient modulated by

the conduction problem

The dimensionless number in the denominator is the Biot

number, a ratio of the convective heat transfer coefficient to the

equivalent heat transfer coefficient due to conduction.

Tr

T

i

T

a

L

q

x

=

h

h

k

+ 1

T

i

T

a

Bi =

h

k

Lecture 2 Spring 2000

ChE 333 10

Heat Transfer across a Composite Cylindrical Solid.

In the case of heat transfer in a cylinder, there is radial symmetry do that

heat conduction is important only in the radial direction.

The heat flux in the radial direction is

given by Fouriers law.

q

r

= k

dT

dr

The total heat flow through any circular surface is constant

Q = k 2rL

dT

dr

= constant = C

Rearranging we obtain a relation for the temperature gradient

dT

dr

=

C

k 2rL

which upon separation of variables is

dT =

C

k 2L

dr

r

An indefinite integration yields the temperature profile.

T =

C

k 2L

ln r + a

1

The boundary conditions are

at r = R

1

, T = T

1

;

at r = R

2

, T = T

2

q

r2

= q

r2

at r = R

3

, T = T

3

q

r3

= h(T

3

- T

0

)

T

1

T

2

T

3

T

0

R

1

R

2

R

3

Lecture 2 Spring 2000

ChE 333 11

so that

T

1

T

2

=

C

k

1

2L

ln

R

1

R

2

; T

2

T

3

=

C

k

2

2L

ln

R

2

R

1

It follows that

T

1

T

0

=

C

2L

1

k

1

ln

R

2

R

1

+

1

k

2

ln

R

3

R

2

+

1

h

This can be expressed as

Q =

2L

1

k

1

ln

R

2

R

1

+

1

k

2

ln

R

3

R

2

+

1

hR

3

T

1

T

0

Optimal Insulation on a Pipe

Is there an optimal thickness for the exterior insulation? In the context of

the problem just formulated, is there a best value for R

3

?

Note that Q = f(R

3

).

To find an extremum,

dQ

dR

3

= 0 and

d

2

Q

dR

3

2

< 0

Some algebra yields:

hR

3

k

2

= 1

It offers a critical radius for R

3

= k

2

/h beyond which the heat

loss increases.

Lecture 3 Spring 2000

ChE 333 1

Conduction in a Simple Fin

Finned tubes are common in heat exchangers to afford greater surface area

for heat transfer. How do they enhance heat transfer?

Steady State Energy

Balance

Conductive flux at z

q

z

z

= k

dT

dz

z

Conductive flux at z

q

z

z+ z

= k

dT

dz

z+ z

The convective flux in the x direction

q

x

z

= h T z T

a

Combining the equations, we obtain

k

dT

dz

z

k

dT

dz

z

2Bw h T z T

a

2wz =0

So that when we take the limit as z ---> 0

d

dz

k

dT

dz

=

h

B

T z T

a

The boundary conditions are

at z = 0, T = T

a

and at z = L, q

z

L

= k

dT

dz

L

= 0

L

x

T

w

z

T

a

Lecture 3 Spring 2000

ChE 333 2

Adimensionalization

If we define the following dimensions

=

T T

a

T

w

T

a

; =

z

L

; N =

hL

2

kB

The differential equation becomes

d

2

d

2

= N

2

At = 0 , = 1 and at = 1 ,

d

d

= 0

The equation becomes

= cosh N + tanh N sinh N

Rate of heat flow into fin through the base

Q = k

dT

dz

z =0

2Bw

Rate of convection from the surface

Q = 2wh T T

a

dz

0

L

Lecture 3 Spring 2000

ChE 333 3

Bounds

If the fins temperature were the same as the base, the rate of heat transfer

from the fin surface would be

The minimum flux through an unfinned surface is

Q

0

= 2wBh T

w

T

a

The maximum heat flow from the fin

Q

max

= 2wLh T

w

T

a

The fractional heat flow through the fin is the efficiency

Q

Q

max

=

2wh T T

a

dz

0

L

2wLh T

w

T

a

Expressed in dimensionless terms the efficiency is

=

Q

Q

max

= d

0

1

For a planar flat fin, the

efficiency is given by

=

tanh N

N

Efficiency Plot

0.1

1

0.1 1 10

Modulus

E

f

f

i

c

i

e

n

c

y

Lecture 3 Spring 2000

ChE 333 4

Conduction with Heat Generation

Consider an insulated electrical wire of radius R

1

covered with a thickness

of electrical insulation so that the outside radius is

R

2

.

Joule heating is given by R

2

S

e

= I

2

R =

I

2

k

e

R

1

The heat flux in the copper wire is given by Fouriers Law

q

r

= k

dT

dr

An energy balance (steady-state) yields

2rq

r

r

2rq

r

r + r

L +S

e

2r dr L = 0

so that the differential equation becomes

d

dr

rq

r

= rS

e

When we invoke Fouriers law, we obtain the conduction equation.

d

dr

r

dT

dr

= r

S

e

k

When the equation is integrated in the wire region, we obtain

T =

S

e

4k

r

2

a ln r + b

Lecture 3 Spring 2000

ChE 333 5

The same can be done in the insulation to give

d

dr

r

dT

1

dr

= 0

The solution is

T

1

= c ln r + d

Now there are four constants to determine four boundary conditions.

T = T

1

and k

dT

dr

= k

1

dT

1

dr

at r = R

1

T = T

1

and k

dT

dr

= k

1

dT

1

dr

at r = R

1

k

1

dT

1

dr

= h T

1

T

a

The final condition is that the temperature T is finite at r = 0.

The results are the following two equations.

T T

a

=

S

e

R

1

2

4k

1

r

R

1

2

2k

k

1

ln

R

1

R

2

+

2k

hR

2

T T

a

=

S

e

R

1

2

2k

1

ln

R

2

r

+

2k

hR

2

Lecture 4 Spring 2000

ChE 333 1

The Energy Balance

Consider a volume enclosing a mass M and bounded by a surface .

At a point x, the density is , the local

velocity is v, and the local Energy

density is U.

The rate of change total energy in is:

d

dt

UdV

q n dS

vTn dS

+ gvdV

U = Q W

An equivalent form is

d

dt

UdV

+ q n dS

=

vTn dS

+ gvdV

describing the Energy Equation is:

t

U + Uv + q = vT + gv

U

v

v

s

.

n

ChE 333 2

The first term is the local rate of energy change

The second is the convective energy flow

The third is the sum of reversible work and dissipation

The last is the work done by the gravitational acceleration.

Other Conservation Laws

Mass

t

+ v = 0

Momentum

t

v + vv T g = 0

Mechanical Energy

This is obtained by taking the inner product of the momentum equation

and the momentum equation to yield

v

t

v + vv T g = 0

The real Energy Equation

The real Energy equation is obtained by subtracting the Mechanical

Energy Balance from the complete Energy Equation, using the mass

balance and recognizing that H = U + PV.

t

H + vH + q =

v W

s

+

=1

S

This is simplified recalling that

H

T

p

= C

p

C

p

t

T + vT + q =

v W

s

+

=1

S

Lecture 4 Spring 2000

ChE 333 3

Applications of the Energy Equation

to Steady State Conduction

The Energy Equation was

C

p

t

T + vT + q =

v W

s

+

=1

S

But for systems at steady state where there is no motion, no shaft work

done, and no chemical reaction

time derivatives vanish

the velocity, v, is zero

the shaft work iz zero, and

the reaction rate is zero..

This means that the energy equation has a very simple form

Recall that Fourier's Law is a relation for the heat flux, q,

so that

In rectangular Cartesian coordinates, the resulting equation becomes the

steady state head conduction equation .

q = 0

q = k T

k T = 0

and it follows for constantk, that

2

T = 0

2

T

x

2

+

2

T

y

2

+

2

T

z

2

= 0

Lecture 4 Spring 2000

ChE 333 4

Boundary Conditions

Types of boundary conditions in heat transfer problems

1. Constant surface temperature

On a surface S, the temperature is constant if

T(x, t) = T

s

2. Constant heat flux

a) At a surface S, the flux is continuous, finite, and constant so

that :

b) At an adiabatic surface S, the flux vanishes:

3. Convective Surface condition

At any surface, the flux leaving one body is equal to the flux leaving

the other, so that

q

i

= k

T

x

i

S

?

q

i

= k

T

x

i

S

?

= 0

k

T'

x

i

S

1

= k

T"

x

i

S

2

Lecture 4 Spring 2000

ChE 333 5

A Simple Steady State Conduction Problem

Consider a rectangular slab of infinite extent in the z-direction

_______ side is length L, the vetrical sides are of length W.

The differential equation for steady heat conduction in 2 dimensions is:

The boundary conditions are:

T

1

T

1

T

1

T

2

2

T

x

2

+

2

T

y

2

= 0

T = T

1

at y = W

T = T

0

at y = 0

T = T

0

at x = 0

T = T

0

at x = L

Lecture 4 Spring 2000

ChE 333 6

If the Temperature. T, and the independent variables , x and y, are made

dimensionless, as

The conduction equation becomes

With the boundary conditions transformed to

The method we use to solve this partial differential equation is "the method

of separation of variables".

Assume that the solution is of the form

We obtain an equation of the form

=

T T

0

T

1

T

0

and =

y

W

and =

x

L

2

+

L

W

2

2

= 0

= 1 at = 1

= 0 at = 0

= 0 at = 0

= 0 at = 1

= F G

2

F G

2

+

L

W

2

2

F G

2

= 0

Lecture 4 Spring 2000

ChE 333 7

We group the terms that depend on each individual independent variable

so that

If we divide by FG and separate variables, we obtain

G

d

2

F

d

2

+

L

W

2

F

d

2

G

d

2

= 0

For simplicity, let

2

=

L

W

1

F

d

2

F

d

2

=

L

W

2

1

G

d

2

G

d

2

= constant =

2

Lecture 4 Spring 2000

ChE 333 8

The result is that we have two ordinary differential equations to solve:

so that

The solutions to the pair are :

The entire solution is of the form

If we recognize that since at = 0, = 0, then B = 0 and the solution

simplifies considerably.

d

2

F

d

2

+

2

F = 0

d

2

G

d

2

2

G = 0

= F G = A sin + B cos

C sinh

+ D cosh

F = A sin + B cos

G = C sinh

+ D cosh

= A' sinh

sin

Lecture 4 Spring 2000

ChE 333 9

The boundary condition at = 0 gives

So that B' must be zero and the simplified solution is

There are two constants left, and A', and two boundary conditions.

The condition at = 1 leads to

And we must note that

Either A' must vanish and the solution is trivial or

This is true if and only if = n where n = 0, 1,2,3,.......

That means that there are a countable infinite number of solutions. To

find the solution we need to add all the possible solutions and determine

the coefficients (constants).

= 0 at = 0 leads to

0 = A' sinh 0 sin + B' cosh 0 sin

= A' sinh

sin

0 = A' sinh

sin

0 = sin

= a

n

sinh

n

sin n

n= 1

ChE 333 10

The coefficients may be determined by the last boundary condition.

To determine the coefficient a

n

, we have to recognize the orthogonality

property of sin functions, that is,

To determine the coefficients, we can use the orthogonality properties of

the sine and cosine functions.

We integrate

= 1 at = 1

1 = a

n

sinh

n

sin n

n= 1

sin(n)sin(m)d

0

1

=

0 for m n

2

for m = n

a

n

sinh

n

sin(n)sin(m)d

0

1

n= 1

= (1)sin(m)d

0

1

Lecture 4 Spring 2000

ChE 333 11

Remember that the first sine integral is non-zero if and only if n = m.

Now the equation for a

n

is

or

Finally the solution is

a

n

2

sinh

n

= sin(n)d

0

1

=

cos (n)

0

1

n

a

n

=

2

1 1

n

n sinh

n

=

2 1 1

n

n

sinh

n

sinh

n

sin n

n= 1

Spring 2000

Applications of the Energy Equation

Solids with a Uniform Temperature

Suppose a metal sphere of uniform temperature, T.

Heat is transferred by convection with a heat transfer

coefficient, h. The temperature of the surroundings is

T

a

Therefore the energy balance is

C

p

V

dT

dt

= hA T T

a

(Please note the difference between this equation and 11.1.1 in the text. This is the

correct form)

If the sphere is initially at T

0

, how does one describe the cooling of the

sphere?

The equation is separable so that

dT

T T

a

=

hA

C

p

V

dt

It follows that the solution is

ln

T T

a

T

0

T

a

=

hA

C

p

V

t

Or more explicitly

T T

a

T

0

T

a

= e

hA

C

p

V

t

ChE 333- Lecture 6 2

Spring 2000

Adimensionalization

If I had defined the following:

=

T T

a

T

0

T

a

and =

C

p

V

hA

The solution has a simple expression ... = e

-t/

Measurement of a Convective Heat Transfer Coefficient

Suppose a sphere of radius R in a stagnant gas of infinite extent. The

heat flux from the sphere through the gas is given by Fouriers law

q

r

= k

g

dT

dr

The heat flow through a spherical shell is constant so

r

2

q

r

= r

2

k

g

dT

dr

= C

The boundary conditions are T = T

s

at r = R and T -> T

a

at r ->

The solution becomes

T T

a

T

R

T

a

=

R

r

ChE 333- Lecture 6 3

Spring 2000

We can calculate the heat flux at the surface as

q

r

r = R

= k

g

dT

dr

r = R

= k

g

T

R

T

a

R

We can define a heat transfer coefficient as

h

q

r

T

R

T

a

=

k

g

R

The corresponding Nusselt Number for heat transfer in a stagnant gas is

This represents a lower bound for convective heat

transfer, given that there is no gas flow. We expect

the heat transfer coefficient to be larger.

Nu =

hD

k

g

= 2

ChE 333- Lecture 6 4

Spring 2000

The experiment

The thermal conductivity of air is 0.014 Btu/ft-F. If the sphere was 1

cm. in diameter, then h = 0.014(1/2.54(12)) = 4.2 Btu/hr-ft

2

-F

Note that h = = 4.2 Btu/hr-ft

2

-F = 0.00117 Btu/sec-ft

2

-F

If = 436 lb/ft

3

and C

p

= 0.12 Btu/lb.-F, then

=

0.00117 6

436 0.12 1 / 30

= 0.00403 sec

If the heat transfer coefficient were 5 times larger (Nu = 10) then =

0.02 sec,

If the heat transfer coefficient were 10 times larger (Nu = 100) then =

0.2 sec,

It should be clear that we cannot make a reasonable verification of a

uniform temperature until we solve for the temperature field in the

sphere.

Lecture 8

ChE 333 1

Unsteady State Heat Conduction in a Bounded Solid

How Does a Solid Sphere Cool ?

We examined the cooling a sphere of radius R. Initially the sphere is at a

uniform temperature T

0

. It is cooled by convection to an air stream at

temperature T

a

.

How long does it take to cool to T

a

?

The answer is and was simple ..... an infinitely long time. In a sense

because it is the answer equivalent to the solution of the Archimedean

Paradox.

If I walk half the distance to a wall, how many steps will I have to take to

reach the wall ?

The answer is an infinite number!

However, if I get within a millimeter of the wall, for intents and purposes, I

am there.

So if the temperature is within 1 % of the final temperature, it will have

reached the final temperature.

What temperature am I taking about.....the center line temperature, the

surface temperature, the average temperature ???

We will choose the average temperature, .

The first model we looked at should be valid for small Biot numbers

=

T T

a

T

0

T

a

= e

hA

C

p

V

t

= e

3Bix

Fo

To get this form we had to recognize that for spheres, A/V = 3/R.

If = 0.01, then 3 Bi x

Fo

= ln (0.01), so that x

Fo

= 1.535/Bi

At large Biot numbers, the suitable model was

sph

= 0.608 e

9.87x

Fo

Lecture 8

ChE 333 2

Now for this case the value of x

Fo

it takes to reach = 0.01 is

x

Fo

= 0.415

A plot of the response is shown below

Time for a temperature

drop of 99%

0.1

1

10

100

0.01 0.1 1 10 100

Bi

X

F

o

Some Dimensional Arguments

At large Biot numbers, the dimensionless time is constant, that is, x

Fo

= 0.415, but

x

Fo

=

t

R

2

so that for two spheres one of size R

1

and another R

2,

the ratio of the

cooling times is

t

1

t

2

=

R

2

R

1

2

Lecture 8

ChE 333 3

Heat Transfer in a Semi-Infinite region

The questions we have posed thus far and the solutions have been really

only applicable for Long times. That is, when the temperature field in

the sphere, for example, has developed to the center of the sphere. But

what happens at Short times?

Consider a large planar solid whose extent (y-direction) is very large.

What is the temperature history of the slab if it is suddenly brought into

contact with a fluid at temperature T

a

? The transient conduction equation

is

T

t

=

2

T

y

2

at t = 0, T = T

0

at y = 0 , T = T

a

as y , T = T

0

Lets make the problem dimensionless.

The temperature can be expressed as

=

T T

a

T

0

T

a

so that the problem reposed is

t

=

y

2

= 1 at t = 0

= 0 at y = 0

= 1 as y

Lecture 8

ChE 333 4

Solution

Let = f((y,t)) where = cy

m

t

n

, then we can introduce that into the

differential equation.

t

=

d

d

t

=

d

d

t

=

d

d

cny

m

t

n 1

y

=

d

d

y

=

d

d

y

=

d

d

cmy

m1

t

n

y

2

=

d

d

y

2

+

d

2

d

2

y

2

y

2

=

d

d

cm m 1 y

m 2

t

n

+

d

2

d

2

c

2

m

2

y

2m2

t

2n

putting these derivatives into an equation we get

d

d

cny

m

t

n 1

=

d

d

cmy

m 1

t

n

+

d

d

cm m 1 y

m 2

t

n

+

d

2

d

2

c

2

m

2

y

2m 2

t

2n

We can divide by cy

m

t

n

so that we obtain

d

d

nt

1

=

d

d

my

1

+

d

d

m m 1 y

2

+

d

2

d

2

cm

2

y

2

Grouping we obtain a more compact form

d

d

nt

1

my

1

m m 1 y

2

=

d

2

d

2

cm

2

y

2

Note that things simplify if we pick m = 1. A bit of exercise will show that

the appropriate choice for is

=

y

4t

Lecture 8

ChE 333 5

Solution of the Differential Equation

The equation becomes and ordinary differential equation

2

d

d

+

d

2

d

2

= 0

The boundary conditions are

= 1 for

= 0 for = 0

The solution we have seen is related to an error function defined as

erf (x) =

1

e

t

2

dt

0

depth,

T

, that is, the distance at which the dimensionless temperature goes

from 0 to 0.99.

The solution for is = erf(), so that for the penetration depth

= 0.99 = erf

T

4t

It follows that

T

4t

= 2

This means that if

T

is less than the thickness of the slab, it behaves as a

semi-infinite region.

Lecture 8

ChE 333 6

Heat Conduction with a Convective Boundary Condition

The boundary condition at the cooling surface can have a major effect on

the process. The problem in this instance is posed as

T

t

=

2

T

y

2

at t = 0, T = T

0

at y = 0 , k

s

T

y

= h T T

a

as y , T = T

0

The problem can again be solved using combination of variables and the

same transformation as above to yield

= erf

y

4t

+ exp y + t erfc

y

4t

+ t

where y =

hy

k

s

and t =

h

k

s

2

t

Lecture 8

ChE 333 7

Surface temperature of a Cooling Sheet

Polyethylene is extruded and coated onto an insulated substrate, moving at

20 cm/sec. The molten polymer is coated at a uniform temperature T

0

of

400F. Cooling is achieved by blowing air at a temperature T

a

of 80F.

Earlier heat transfer studies determined that the heat transfer coefficient, h,

is 0.08 cal/cm-sec-F. The coating thickness B is 0.1 cm.

At what point downstream does the surface temperature, T(0) fall to 144

F ?

Data

T

0

= 400F h = 3.35 kW/m

2

-K B = 0.1 cm.

T

a

= 80F k

s

= 0.33 W/m-K = 1.3 10

-7

m

2

/sec

The Biot number can be estimated as:

Bi =

hB

k

s

=

3350 0.001

0.33

= 10.15

The dimensionless surface temperature ratiois

s

=

T 0 T

a

T

0

T

a

=

144 80

400 80

= 0.2

The Gurney-Lurie Chart 11.4c yields for Bi 10, the ratio of the surface

temperature to the mid-plane temperature

However, since

1

0

= 0.15

,

we can calculate the mid-plane temperature

from the relation for

s

which is

s

=

1

0

1

0

= 0.2

This gives a midplane-temperature of

1

0

= 0.2/0.15 > 1........Nonsense

Whats wrong ???

We did a lot of things wrong.

Lecture 8

ChE 333 8

First of all the solution we used involved only 1 term of an infinite series...

1

= A

1

e

1

2

x

Fo

sin

1

=

1

0

sin

1

We also get into trouble if we use such an equation for a short time

solution. Therefore avoid the charts for small x

Fo

and large Biot numbers.

The short time solution we presented in the last lecture had the form.

= erf

y

4t

+ exp y + t erfc

y

4t

+ t

where y =

hB

k

s

y

B

and t =

hB

k

s

2

t

B

2

Now for this case, y = 0 and we can use figure 11.3.2. We can determine

that the value of t at which = 0.2.

We observe that t

1/2

= 2.65 and consequently t = 7.65

Recall that C

p

= k/ = 2.5 MJ/m

2

-K.

This leads to

t =

hB

k

s

2

t

B

2

= 7.65 =

h

k

s

2

t

We calculate that the time passed is t = 0.52 seconds and since d = Vt, the

distance is d = (20 cm/s) 0.52 sec = 10.4 cm.

Lecture 8

ChE 333 9

An alternative method

We can use the complete Fourier expansion, not just one term.

=

4 sin

n

2

n

+ sin 2

n

cos

n

e

n

2

x

Fo

n =1

n

tan

n

= Bi

The first set of eigenvalues are

n ln

1 1.429

2 4.306

3 7.228

If we calculate the first three terms of the Fourier expansion, we obtain

(1) = 0.178e

2.04x

Fo

+ 0.155e

18.5x

Fo

For = 0.2, by trial and error, we obtain x

Fo

= 0.608. If we calculate the

time, we get 0.52 sec. The same as the short time solution.

This allows us a measure of short time. as for a slab

4

t

B

2

1 or x

Fo

1

16

Lecture 9

ChE 333 1

Heat Transfer in a Slab

Consider a large planar solid whose thickness (y-direction) is L. What is

the temperature history of the slab if it is suddenly brought into contact

with a fluid at temperature T? The transient conduction equation is

Lets make the problem dimensionless.

The temperature can be expressed as

so that the problem reposed is

T

t

=

2

T

y

2

at t = 0,T = T

0

at y = 0 , T = T

1

for t > 0

at y = L , T = T

1

=

T T

1

T

0

T

1

; =

y

L

; =

t

L

2

t

=

y

2

= 1 at = 0

= 0 at = 0

= 0 as = 1

Lecture 9

ChE 333 2

How do we solve the equation ?

Suppose z has the form = Y()G()

The equation is separable in the form

Integrating each of the equations we obtain

The solution for y(,) has the form

We can construct the exact solution using the boundary conditions

It follows that B must be 0 if the condition is true for all > 0

2

=

YG

2

YG

2

= G

dY

d

Y

d

2

G

d

2

= 0

1

Y

dY

d

=

1

G

d

2

G

d

2

=

2

dY

d

=

2

Y ;

d

2

G

d

2

=

2

G

Y() = Ke

(, ) = Asin() +Bcos() e

(0, ) = Asin(0) +Bcos(0) e

= 0

Lecture 9

ChE 333 3

Now the other boundary condition

Now this is true for all > 0 if and only if sin() = 0

but sin() = 0 only where = n where n = 0, 1, 2, .....

This means there are a countable infinity of solutions so that

To obtain the coefficients A

n

, we need to use the initial condition.

To determine the coefficients, we can use the orthogonality properties of

the sine and cosine functions. (See Appendix)

sin(n)sin(m)d

1

1

=

0 for m n

for m= n

(1, ) = Asin() e

= 0

(, ) = e

A

n

sin(n)

n= 1

= 1 at < 0

z(, 0) = A

n

sin(n) = 1

n= 1

Lecture 9

ChE 333 4

We integrate

You might remember that the first sine integral is non-zero if and only if

n = m. Now the equation for A

n

is

The result for the definite integrals follow from what I gave above . It

follows that

We saw earlier that the solution can be described as:

(, 0)sin(m)d

0

1

= sin(m)d

0

1

A

n

sin(n)sin(m)d

0

1

n= 1

= sin(m)d

0

1

A

n

=

sin(n)d

0

1

sin

2

(n)d

0

1

=

sin(x)dx

0

n

sin

2

(x)dx

0

n

A

n

=

4

1

n

n +

1

2

Lecture 9

ChE 333 5

We have already examined how the sum converges. For > 0.2, only

one term suffices to describe the solution. We can look at many different

classes of problems. The general problem for transient heat transfer in a

slab is one posed as

The dimensionless form is:

The solution is of the form

(, ) =

4

1

2n + 1

e

2n +1

2

sin( 2n + 1 )

n = 0

T

t

=

2

T

y

2

at t = 0, T = T

0

at y = 0 , k

T

y

= h T T

1

for t > 0

at y =

L

2

,

T

y

= 0

C

n

=

4 sin

n

2

n

+ sin 2

n

and

n

tan

n

= Bi

(, ) = C

n

e

n

2

sin(

n

2

)

n = 0

t

=

y

2

= 1 at = 0

= Bi at = 0

= 0 as = 1

Lecture 9

ChE 333 6

Again the approximate solution is the one-term solution

This argument is the same for any transient 1-dimensional heat transfer

problems involving cylinders, planes or spheres.

Examples

Infinite Cylinder

The solution is

An approximate one-term solution is

Note that along the center line

(, ) C

1

e

1

2

sin(

1

2

)

(, ) = C

n

e

n

2

J

0

(

n

)

n = 0

C

n

=

2

n

J

1

n

2 J

0

2

n

+ J

1

2

n

and

n

J

1

n

J

0

n

= Bi

=

1

= 1 at = 0 in 0, 1

= Bi at = 1

= 0 at = 0

(, ) = C

1

e

1

2

J

0

(

1

)

0

(0, ) = C

1

e

1

2

Lecture 9

ChE 333 7

So that the simpler representation is

(, ) =

0

J

0

(

1

)

Lecture 9

ChE 333 8

Sphere

The solution is

The Approximate Solution

The center temperature is

So that the temperature can be expressed as

=

1

= 1 at = 0 in 0, 1

= Bi at = 1

= 0 at = 0

C

n

=

4 sin

n

n

cos

n

2

n

+ sin 2

n

and 1

n

cot

n

= Bi

(, ) = C

n

e

n

2

sin(

n

)

n = 0

(, ) = C

1

e

1

2

sin(

1

)

0

(0, ) = C

1

e

1

2

(, ) =

0

sin(

1

)

Lecture 9

ChE 333 9

Short Time Solutions

Consider a large planar solid whose extent (y-direction) is very large.

What is the temperature history of the slab if it is suddenly brought into

contact with a fluid at temperature T

a

? The transient conduction equation

is

Lets make the problem dimensionless.

The temperature can be expressed as

=

T T

a

T

0

T

a

so that the problem reposed is

T

t

=

2

T

y

2

at t = 0, T = T

0

at y = 0 , k

T

y

= h T T

a

T

a

as y , T = T

0

t

=

y

2

= 1 at t = 0

y

= Bi at y = 0

= 1 as y

Lecture 9

ChE 333 10

Solutions

We noted earlier that the equation can be solved by a combination of

variables supposing that = (,t) and we saw that the the appropriate

choice for is

=

y

4t

The solutions for a number of different cases are as follows:

Case 1 Constant Surface Temperature (T = T

s

)

Case 2 Constant Surface Heat Flux (q

s

= q

0

)

Case 3 Surface Convection

= erf

y

4t

+ exp y + t erfc

y

4t

+ t

T T

s

T

i

T

s

= erf

y

t

q

"

s

t =

k T

s

T

i

t

T T

s

=

2 q

"

0

t

k

e

y

2

4t

q

"

0

y

k

erfc

y

4t

Lecture 9

ChE 333 11

where y =

hy

k

s

and t =

h

k

s

2

t

Lecture 9

ChE 333 12

Surface temperature of a Cooling Sheet

Polyethylene is extruded and coated onto an insulated substrate, moving at

20 cm/sec. The molten polymer is coated at a uniform temperature T

0

of

400F. Cooling is achieved by blowing air at a temperature T

a

of 80F.

Earlier heat transfer studies determined that the heat transfer coefficient, h,

is 0.08 cal/cm-sec-F. The coating thickness B is 0.1 cm.

At what point downstream does the surface temperature, T(0) fall to 144

F ?

Data

T

0

= 400F h = 3.35 kW/m

2

-K B = 0.1 cm.

T

a

= 80F k

s

= 0.33 W/m-K = 1.3 10

-7

m

2

/sec

The Biot number can be estimated as:

Bi =

hB

k

s

=

3350 0.001

0.33

= 10.15

The dimensionless surface temperature ratio is

s

=

T 0 T

a

T

0

T

a

=

144 80

400 80

= 0.2

The Gurney-Lurie Chart 11.4c yields for Bi 10, the ratio of the surface

temperature to the mid-plane temperature

However, since

1

0

= 0.15

,

we can calculate the mid-plane temperature

from the relation for

s

which is

s

=

1

0

1

0

= 0.2

This gives a midplane-temperature of

1

0

= 0.2/0.15 > 1........Nonsense

Whats wrong ???

We did a lot of things wrong.

Lecture 9

ChE 333 13

First of all the solution we used involved only 1 term of an infinite series...

1

= A

1

e

1

2

x

Fo

sin

1

=

1

0

sin

1

We also get into trouble if we use such an equation for a short time

solution. Therefore avoid the charts for small x

Fo

and large Biot numbers.

The short time solution we presented in the last lecture had the form.

= erf

y

4t

+ exp y + t erfc

y

4t

+ t

where y =

hB

k

s

y

B

and t =

hB

k

s

2

t

B

2

Now for this case, y = 0 and we can use figure 11.3.2. We can determine

that the value of t at which = 0.2.

We observe that t

1/2

= 2.65 and consequently t = 7.65

Recall that C

p

= k/ = 2.5 MJ/m

2

-K.

This leads to

t =

hB

k

s

2

t

B

2

= 7.65 =

h

k

s

2

t

We calculate that the time passed is t = 0.52 seconds and since d = Vt, the

distance is d = (20 cm/s) 0.52 sec = 10.4 cm.

Lecture 9

ChE 333 14

An alternative method

We can use the complete Fourier expansion, not just one term.

=

4 sin

n

2

n

+ sin 2

n

cos

n

e

n

2

x

Fo

n =1

n

tan

n

= Bi

The first set of eigenvalues are

n

n

1 1.429

2 4.306

3 7.228

If we calculate the first three terms of the Fourier expansion, we obtain

(1) = 0.178e

2.04x

Fo

+ 0.155e

18.5x

Fo

For = 0.2, by trial and error, we obtain x

Fo

= 0.608. If we calculate the

time, we get 0.52 sec. The same as the short time solution.

This allows us a measure of short time. as for a slab

4

t

B

2

1 or x

Fo

1

16

Lecture 10 3/7/00

ChE 333 1

Convective Heat Transfer

Examples

1. Melt Spinning of Polymer fibers

2. Heat transfer in a Condenser

3. Temperature control of a Re-entry vehicle

Fiber spinning

The fiber spinning process presents a unique engineering problem,

primarily due to the effects of shape variations, heat and possibly the

viscoelastic behavior of the materials (polymers for example) typically

used. This becomes evident when the design of the spinneret geometry is

needed to produce a specified fiber size and shape. Determining the proper

die geometry given the desired final fiber shape is further complicated by

the heat and viscoelastic effects. In addition, since the fiber is pulled from

the spinneret, the final dimensions of the fiber are difficult to determine.

The effects of viscous heating and air cooling must be monitored to ensure

that the material does not degrade because of extreme local temperatures,

often difficult to measure because of the small size. The stresses and

deformation of the material must also be predicted to avoid the fiber from

breaking. All these effects complicate the design of the fiber spinning

process.

Lecture 10 3/7/00

ChE 333 2

Definition of a Heat Transfer Coefficient

For heat transfer in conducting systems, we have seen that we can express

the heat flux across a surface S as

q n

s

= k

s

T n

s

We have used a similar representation to develop detailed descriptions of

mass and transfer in a number of situations where the physics or chemistry

is well-understood, e.g., permeation through a membrane, heat transfer to a

sphere. We showed that we could get a description of the macroscopic

transfer across an interface by the use of a Heat Transfer Coefficient.

q n

s

= h T T

b

We do nor always have such a good model or understanding. The are

other equivalent physical situations, e.g., turbulent flow in a pipe. There we

use a measure of the frictional loss in the pipe as a momentum transfer

coefficient. The dimensionless form was the Friction Factor. The

dimensionless mass transfer coefficient is the Nusselt Number.

Nu =

hL

k

Lecture 10 3/7/00

ChE 333 3

Methods of Analysis

1. Detailed Solution of the Conservation Laws

2. Approximate Analysis

3. Dimensional Analysis

4. Empirical Correlation of Data

We have seen several examples of Detailed Solution and we have done

some Approximate Analysis, e.g., mass transfer to or from a flowing film,

heat transfer from a solid sphere. What we did was to transform the exact

problem into a simpler more solvable one using mathematical analysis.

What we do in the next few lectures is examine in greater detail the last

three methods as tools to analyze heat transfer and to design processes.

Approximate Analysis and Film Theory

Film Theory is the simplest and oldest approach in the use of mass transfer

coefficients and in their prediction. The Theory is attributed to Nernst.

Examine the neighborhood of the phase boundary. We assume that the

flow field consists of two regions, a uniform region in the bulk of the fluid

far from the surface and a region in the vicinity of the boundary where

viscosity dominates (since there is no slip at the boundary).

Lecture 10 3/7/00

ChE 333 4

Film Model

The film model presumes that the velocity field is linearized in some sense

near the boundary so that

=

v

x

y

S

U

=

F

s

A

This means that the film has a thickness

U

f

1

2

U

2

If we introduce that notion into our analysis

U

1

2

fU

2

=

2

fU

Not surprisingly we can relate the fractional layer thickness to the

Reynolds number

L

=

2

fUL

=

2

f Re

f A Re

1

4

Lecture 10 3/7/00

ChE 333 5

Dimensionless Heat Transfer Coefficient

We defined the Heat Transfer Coefficient, h , by

q n

s

= k

s

T n

s

= h T T

b

so that the Nusselt number is given as

Nu

L

=

q n

s

k T T

b

=

hL

k

Observe that

Nu

L

=

hL

k

=

L

*

=

L

*

=

1

2

f Re

*

so that

Nu

L

=

1

2

f Re

*

= g(Pr) Pr

1/ 3

Then we observe a relation rather like the ones we calculated in our more

detailed models.

Nu

L

=

1

2

f ReSc

1/ 3

Lecture 10 3/7/00

ChE 333 6

The Chilton-Colburn Analogy

In the 1930s, based on the Nernst Film Theory, two duPont researchers

proposed an analogy between heat transfer (and we have seen, mass

transfer) and momentum transfer. They defined a dimensionless number

termed a j-factor, j

H

.

j

H

=

Nu

L

RePr

1/ 3

=

f

2

For mass transfer, the relation was

j

D

Sh

L

ReSc

1/ 3

=

f

2

Simple film theory, then, predicts that

Nu

L

=

1

2

f RePr

1/ 3

=

0.079

2

Re

0.25

RePr

1 / 3

or simplified

Nu

L

= 0.04 Re

0.75

Pr

1/ 3

Lecture 10 3/7/00

ChE 333 1

Convective Heat Transfer

Examples

1. Melt Spinning of Polymer fibers

2. Heat transfer in a Condenser

3. Temperature control of a Re-entry vehicle

Fiber spinning

The fiber spinning process presents a unique engineering problem,

primarily due to the effects of shape variations, heat and possibly the

viscoelastic behavior of the materials (polymers for example) typically

used. This becomes evident when the design of the spinneret geometry is

needed to produce a specified fiber size and shape. Determining the proper

die geometry given the desired final fiber shape is further complicated by

the heat and viscoelastic effects. In addition, since the fiber is pulled from

the spinneret, the final dimensions of the fiber are difficult to determine.

The effects of viscous heating and air cooling must be monitored to ensure

that the material does not degrade because of extreme local temperatures,

often difficult to measure because of the small size. The stresses and

deformation of the material must also be predicted to avoid the fiber from

breaking. All these effects complicate the design of the fiber spinning

process.

Lecture 10 3/7/00

ChE 333 2

Definition of a Heat Transfer Coefficient

For heat transfer in conducting systems, we have seen that we can express

the heat flux across a surface S as

q n

s

= k

s

T n

s

We have used a similar representation to develop detailed descriptions of

mass and transfer in a number of situations where the physics or chemistry

is well-understood, e.g., permeation through a membrane, heat transfer to a

sphere. We showed that we could get a description of the macroscopic

transfer across an interface by the use of a Heat Transfer Coefficient.

q n

s

= h T T

b

We do nor always have such a good model or understanding. The are

other equivalent physical situations, e.g., turbulent flow in a pipe. There we

use a measure of the frictional loss in the pipe as a momentum transfer

coefficient. The dimensionless form was the Friction Factor. The

dimensionless mass transfer coefficient is the Nusselt Number.

Nu =

hL

k

Lecture 10 3/7/00

ChE 333 3

Methods of Analysis

1. Detailed Solution of the Conservation Laws

2. Approximate Analysis

3. Dimensional Analysis

4. Empirical Correlation of Data

We have seen several examples of Detailed Solution and we have done

some Approximate Analysis, e.g., mass transfer to or from a flowing film,

heat transfer from a solid sphere. What we did was to transform the exact

problem into a simpler more solvable one using mathematical analysis.

What we do in the next few lectures is examine in greater detail the last

three methods as tools to analyze heat transfer and to design processes.

Approximate Analysis and Film Theory

Film Theory is the simplest and oldest approach in the use of mass transfer

coefficients and in their prediction. The Theory is attributed to Nernst.

Examine the neighborhood of the phase boundary. We assume that the

flow field consists of two regions, a uniform region in the bulk of the fluid

far from the surface and a region in the vicinity of the boundary where

viscosity dominates (since there is no slip at the boundary).

Lecture 10 3/7/00

ChE 333 4

Film Model

The film model presumes that the velocity field is linearized in some sense

near the boundary so that

=

v

x

y

S

U

=

F

s

A

This means that the film has a thickness

U

f

1

2

U

2

If we introduce that notion into our analysis

U

1

2

fU

2

=

2

fU

Not surprisingly we can relate the fractional layer thickness to the

Reynolds number

L

=

2

fUL

=

2

f Re

f A Re

1

4

Lecture 10 3/7/00

ChE 333 5

Dimensionless Heat Transfer Coefficient

We defined the Heat Transfer Coefficient, h , by

q n

s

= k

s

T n

s

= h T T

b

so that the Nusselt number is given as

Nu

L

=

q n

s

k T T

b

=

hL

k

Observe that

Nu

L

=

hL

k

=

L

*

=

L

*

=

1

2

f Re

*

so that

Nu

L

=

1

2

f Re

*

= g(Pr) Pr

1/ 3

Then we observe a relation rather like the ones we calculated in our more

detailed models.

Nu

L

=

1

2

f ReSc

1/ 3

Lecture 10 3/7/00

ChE 333 6

The Chilton-Colburn Analogy

In the 1930s, based on the Nernst Film Theory, two duPont researchers

proposed an analogy between heat transfer (and we have seen, mass

transfer) and momentum transfer. They defined a dimensionless number

termed a j-factor, j

H

.

j

H

=

Nu

L

RePr

1/ 3

=

f

2

For mass transfer, the relation was

j

D

Sh

L

ReSc

1/ 3

=

f

2

Simple film theory, then, predicts that

Nu

L

=

1

2

f RePr

1/ 3

=

0.079

2

Re

0.25

RePr

1 / 3

or simplified

Nu

L

= 0.04 Re

0.75

Pr

1/ 3

Lecture 11

ChE 333 1

Exact Laminar Boundary Layer Theory

Heat Transfer from a Flat Plate

In a boundary layer, we have to describe the velocity field and the

temperature field

Conservation of Mass

u

x

x

+

u

y

y

= 0

Conservation of x-component of Linear Momentum

u

x

u

x

x

+ u

y

u

x

y

=

2

u

x

y

2

Conservation of y-component of Linear Momentum

P

y

= 0

Conservation of Energy

C

p

u

x

T

x

+ C

p

u

y

T

y

= k

2

T

y

2

The Boundary Conditions

u

x

= U, T = T

at x 0 or y

u

x

= 0, T = T

0

at y = 0 for all x

The Mass balance can be integrated to yield

u

y

=

u

x

x

dy

o

y

Lecture 11

ChE 333 2

If we introduce this relation in both the temperature and velocity equations

we obtain

u

x

u

x

x

u

x

x

dy

o

y

u

x

y

=

2

u

x

y

2

u

x

T

x

u

x

x

dy

o

y

T

y

=

k

C

p

2

T

y

2

Both equations are very similar and can be expressed as

u

x

u

x

x

dy

o

y

y

=

y

2

where this equation represents both conservation of x-momentum and

conservation of energy and

where for the x-momentum equation

=

u

x

U

; =

u

= 1

and where for the energy equation

=

T T

0

T

T

0

; =

T

=

= Pr

Recognize that we have constructed an equation that describes both the

momentum boundary layer and the energy boundary layer. Let us look

for solutions of that are functions of (x,y), that is,

We can define a combination of variables

=

y

2

U

x

1 / 2

Lecture 11

ChE 333 3

The equation for becomes an ordinary differential equation for = f().

2

u

d

?

?

d

dy

=

d

2

d

2

where

= 0 at = 0

= 1 as

If () is defined as

= 2

u

d

0

d

dy

=

d

2

d

2

This can be integrated twice to yield :

, =

e

d

0

d

0

e

d

0

d

0

u

. and (). We have to solve for

u

numerically, but once the function is known then all is known.

We can observe similarity for the temperature and momentum boundary

layers since that

u

. =

for Pr = 1.

Lecture 11

ChE 333 4

Solution for the Momentum Boundary Layer

The Momentum Boundary Layer equation can be expressed as

d

2

d

2

=

d

3

d

3

since

d

2

d

2

= 2

d

u

d

and

d

3

d

3

= 2

d

2

u

d

2

The boundary conditions are

at = 0

d

d

= 0

as

d

d

= 1

One method of solving the equation is to express the solution of the

equation as a power series in .

=

2

2!

+

5

5!

+ 11

8

8!

375

11

11!

+ ....

The equation has this form since the function and the first derivative vanish

at = 0 ( velocities vanish at the boundary ). The parameter must be

determined from the free stream behavior, e.g.

as

d

d

= 1

The value of which satisfies the free stream condition is 1.3282.

Lecture 11

ChE 333 5

Approximate Analytical Solution

For the Boundary Layer equation and from the solution given above, we

can determine that the solution is very near the free stream solution when

= 2.5.. If we define the boundary layer thickness where the value of

=

2

U

x

1/ 2

= 2.5

then we can see that

x

=

Ux

1/ 2

= Re

x

0.5

We can do the equivalent to determine a Thermal boundary layer

thickness from

k

T

y

y=0

= k

T

0

T

T

so that

T

x

= 2

Ux

0.5

d

T

d

Recall the solution for

, =

e

d

0

d

0

e

d

0

d

0

Now

0, = e

d

0

d

0

1

= e

0.664

3

T

2

2

d

0

1

Lecture 11

ChE 333 6

The linear approximation for is within 10% of the exact solution.

We observe that

T

(0) = 0.68

T

1/3

, then we see

T

x

= 2.94

Ux

0.5

Pr

1/ 3

The corresponding Nusselt number relation is

Nu =

hx

k

= 0.34

Ux

1/ 2

Pr

1/ 3

Correlations for Heat Transfer Coefficients

Turbulent flow inside pipes

The simple film theory gives us a relation for the Chilton-Colburn Analogy

that for turbulent flow

j

H

= f / 2

where the j-factor was defined as j

H

= Nu Re

-1

Pr

-1/3

.

At high Reynolds numbers and Prandtl numbers, the Friend-Metzner

relation is useful.

Flow outside Pipes and Cylinders

Nu = 0.35 + 0.56 Re

0.52

St =

Nu

Re Pr

=

h

C

p

G

=

f

2

f

2

1.2 + 11.8

f

2

f

2

1/ 2

Pr 1 Pr

1 / 3

Lecture 11

ChE 333 1

Exact Laminar Boundary Layer Theory

Heat Transfer from a Flat Plate

In a boundary layer, we have to describe the velocity field and the

temperature field

Conservation of Mass

u

x

x

+

u

y

y

= 0

Conservation of x-component of Linear Momentum

u

x

u

x

x

+ u

y

u

x

y

=

2

u

x

y

2

Conservation of y-component of Linear Momentum

P

y

= 0

Conservation of Energy

C

p

u

x

T

x

+ C

p

u

y

T

y

= k

2

T

y

2

The Boundary Conditions

u

x

= U, T = T

at x 0 or y

u

x

= 0, T = T

0

at y = 0 for all x

The Mass balance can be integrated to yield

u

y

=

u

x

x

dy

o

y

Lecture 11

ChE 333 2

If we introduce this relation in both the temperature and velocity equations

we obtain

u

x

u

x

x

u

x

x

dy

o

y

u

x

y

=

2

u

x

y

2

u

x

T

x

u

x

x

dy

o

y

T

y

=

k

C

p

2

T

y

2

Both equations are very similar and can be expressed as

u

x

u

x

x

dy

o

y

y

=

y

2

where this equation represents both conservation of x-momentum and

conservation of energy and

where for the x-momentum equation

=

u

x

U

; =

u

= 1

and where for the energy equation

=

T T

0

T

T

0

; =

T

=

= Pr

Recognize that we have constructed an equation that describes both the

momentum boundary layer and the energy boundary layer. Let us look

for solutions of that are functions of (x,y), that is,

We can define a combination of variables

=

y

2

U

x

1 / 2

Lecture 11

ChE 333 3

The equation for becomes an ordinary differential equation for = f().

2

u

d

?

?

d

dy

=

d

2

d

2

where

= 0 at = 0

= 1 as

If () is defined as

= 2

u

d

0

d

dy

=

d

2

d

2

This can be integrated twice to yield :

, =

e

d

0

d

0

e

d

0

d

0

u

. and (). We have to solve for

u

numerically, but once the function is known then all is known.

We can observe similarity for the temperature and momentum boundary

layers since that

u

. =

for Pr = 1.

Lecture 11

ChE 333 4

Solution for the Momentum Boundary Layer

The Momentum Boundary Layer equation can be expressed as

d

2

d

2

=

d

3

d

3

since

d

2

d

2

= 2

d

u

d

and

d

3

d

3

= 2

d

2

u

d

2

The boundary conditions are

at = 0

d

d

= 0

as

d

d

= 1

One method of solving the equation is to express the solution of the

equation as a power series in .

=

2

2!

+

5

5!

+ 11

8

8!

375

11

11!

+ ....

The equation has this form since the function and the first derivative vanish

at = 0 ( velocities vanish at the boundary ). The parameter must be

determined from the free stream behavior, e.g.

as

d

d

= 1

The value of which satisfies the free stream condition is 1.3282.

Lecture 11

ChE 333 5

Approximate Analytical Solution

For the Boundary Layer equation and from the solution given above, we

can determine that the solution is very near the free stream solution when

= 2.5.. If we define the boundary layer thickness where the value of

=

2

U

x

1/ 2

= 2.5

then we can see that

x

=

Ux

1/ 2

= Re

x

0.5

We can do the equivalent to determine a Thermal boundary layer

thickness from

k

T

y

y=0

= k

T

0

T

T

so that

T

x

= 2

Ux

0.5

d

T

d

Recall the solution for

, =

e

d

0

d

0

e

d

0

d

0

Now

0, = e

d

0

d

0

1

= e

0.664

3

T

2

2

d

0

1

Lecture 11

ChE 333 6

The linear approximation for is within 10% of the exact solution.

We observe that

T

(0) = 0.68

T

1/3

, then we see

T

x

= 2.94

Ux

0.5

Pr

1/ 3

The corresponding Nusselt number relation is

Nu =

hx

k

= 0.34

Ux

1/ 2

Pr

1/ 3

Correlations for Heat Transfer Coefficients

Turbulent flow inside pipes

The simple film theory gives us a relation for the Chilton-Colburn Analogy

that for turbulent flow

j

H

= f / 2

where the j-factor was defined as j

H

= Nu Re

-1

Pr

-1/3

.

At high Reynolds numbers and Prandtl numbers, the Friend-Metzner

relation is useful.

Flow outside Pipes and Cylinders

Nu = 0.35 + 0.56 Re

0.52

St =

Nu

Re Pr

=

h

C

p

G

=

f

2

f

2

1.2 + 11.8

f

2

f

2

1/ 2

Pr 1 Pr

1 / 3

Lecture 12

ChE 333 1

Design Problem

Superheater for a Polymer Solution

1

Ethylene-propylene rubber (EPR) is polymerized in a solvent. The

product of the reaction is a 6% (by weight) solution of EPR in

perchloroethylene. The polymer is recovered as "crumbs" from a drum

dryer. Production capacity is limited by the capacity of the dryer. It is

believed that concentrating the feed to the dryer will provide the sufficient

increase in capacity.

Your problem is to specify the design of a superheater that would

heat the solution sufficiently so that upon flashing to atmospheric pressure

the solution is concentrated to at least 12%.

Task 1 Determine all the physical properties to use in this problem

heat capacities, densities, chemical activity as a function of concentration

Task 2 Write a computer program or spreadsheet to calculate the

prescribed pressure and temperature required at the end of the superheater

Task 3 Write a computer program or spreadsheet to calculate the size

of the heat exchanger.

Data

The production of rubber is 300lbs./hr or 0.0379 kg/hr

The feed temperature is 35C

Note: This is an open-ended problem with insufficient

information given for you to solve the problem. You have to find the data

and make a reasonable set of assumptions about the fluid to be used to

heat the rubber.

1

NOTE This is an open ended, somewhat poorly defined, problem.

Lecture 12

ChE 333 2

Heat Transfer Analysis in Pipe Flow

Consider the problem of flow in a long pipe of circular cross-section. The

inside diameter of the pipe is D and is maintained at a constant

temperature T

o

. The fluid flow through the pipe at a flow rate, Q.

The goal is to describe the average temperature as a function of distance in

the pipe.

MODEL

Energy balance

C

p

u

z

T

z

k

1

r

r

r

T

r

_

,

+

2

T

z

2

1

]

1

Momentum balance

0 =

p

z

+ u

1

r

_

,

r

u

z

r

Initial and Boundary conditions

at z = 0 T = T

i

for all r

at r = 0

T

r

=

u

z

r

= 0

at r = R T = T

R

; u

z

= 0

Lecture 12

ChE 333 3

Adimensionalization and Scaling

The convective heat transfer equation

C

p

u

z

T

z

k

1

r

r

r

T

r

_

,

+

2

T

z

2

1

]

1

can be scaled using a set of reference parameters

=

T T

R

T

1

T

R

; =

z

L

; =

r

R

; v =

u

z

v

The equation is

C

p

v v T

1

T

R

L

=

k T

1

T

R

R

2

1

+

R

2

L

2

2

which after some multiplication becomes

v

=

kL

C

p

v R

2

1

+

R

2

L

2

2

It follows that if R/L is amall then only the first term in the Laplacian is

important and the equation can be written ignoring axial heat conduction.

Lecture 12

ChE 333 4

The dimensional form of the equation is:

C

p

u

z

T

z

= k

1

r

_

,

r

T

r

along with the boundary and initial conditions

T = T

1

at z = 0

T = T

R

at r = R

T

r

= 0 at r = 0

We could solve for the temperature profile in detail, but it might be better if we

seek a solution for the average temperature by integrating over the crossection at

position z.

0

R

C

p

u

z

T

z

r dr =

_

,

r

T

r

dr

0

R

If the velocity field is independent of axial position, we can write

C

p

z

u

z

Tr dr k

0

R

r

T

r

1

]

0

R

kR

T

r

R

0

Examine an average temperature <T>, the mixing cup temperature, the

mean temprature of the fluid that leaves cross section at z = z

T =

u

z

T 2r dr

0

R

u

z

2r dr

0

R

=

u

z

T 2r dr

0

R

Q

Lecture 12

ChE 333 5

This last equation can be re-written as

u

z

Tr dr

0

R

=

Q

2

T

The integrated energy equation is :

C

p

d

dz

Q

2

T

1

]

kR

T

r

R

The material balance teaches us that

Q = w = constant

So that we can write:

wC

p

d T

dz

k2R

T

r

R

Recall that we can define a heat transfer coefficient by an expression such

as :

k

T

r

R

h T T

R

[ ]

and the equation for the mixing cup temperature is :

wC

p

d T

dz

Dh T

R

T [ ]

Lecture 12

ChE 333 6

This can be prepared for integration

2

:

d T

R

T ( )

T

R

T

Dh

wC

p

dz

The relation is integrated readily if h is not a function of z

3

T T

R

T

1

T

R

exp

Dhz

wC

p

_

,

exp 4St

z

D

_

,

The definition of the Stanton Number is :

St

h

C

p

U

Nu

RePr

Nu

Pe

where Pe = Re Pr

T

2

T

R

T

1

T

R

exp 4St

L

D

_

,

exp

DLh

wC

p

_

,

2

From here on, ,we drop the brackets on T<>T> for convenience and the experinced players

benefit!!!

3

We can still use the same relation for St = h/C

p

U where

h

1

L

hdz

0

L

Lecture 12

ChE 333 7

Other Ways of Defining and using Heat Transfer Coefficients

Q

H

= hA(T)

Questions

What is Q

H

and what is T

We know that an energy balance contains:

Q

H

= +wC

p

(T

1

T

2

)

We can rewrite as

T +

wC

p

T

1

T

2

( )

DLh

After integrating we find that

DLh

wC

p

ln

T

2

T

R

T

1

T

R

It follows that I can write

Q

H

= hA(T)

if the temperature difference is T

T

T

2

T

1

ln

T

2

T

R

T

1

T

R

_

,

T

1

T

2

ln

T

1

T

R

T

2

T

R

_

,

T

1

T

R

( ) T

2

T

R

( )

ln

T

1

T

R

T

2

T

R

_

,

T

ln

Lecture 13 3/18/00

ChE 333 1

Parallel Plate Heat Exchanger

Parallel Plate Heat Exchangers are use in a number of thermal

processing applications. The characteristics are that the fluids flow in the

narrow gap, between two parallel sheets. The flow is usually laminar.

For our example, assume a fluid flows confined between two parallel

planes. both held at a fixed temperature, T

H

. The fluid enters at T

1

into the

heated section at a mean velocity U. The flow is laminar so that the

velocity profile is given by

u y ( )

3

2

U 1

y

H

_

,

2

1

]

1

The volumetric flow rate per unit width is given by

q

w

= 2UH

Reasonable assumptions include, Steady State, no viscous dissipation,

constant thermal properties, etc.

Lecture 13 3/18/00

ChE 333 2

Fluid in

laminar

flow

x

y = H

y = H

Uniform wall temperature T

H

x

Uniform inlet

temperature T

1

x=0

Temperature profile T(x,y)

y

Figure 12.5.1 Laminar flow between heated parallel planes

The convective energy balance is given by

u y ( )

T

x

2

T

y

2

+

2

T

x

2

_

,

As we saw in the case of a tubular channel, radial conduction is much

larger than axial conduction so the equation can be simplified to

u(y)

T

x

2

T

Dy

2

Boundary Conditions

T = T

1

at x = 0 for all y Initial temperature profile

T

y

0 at y 0 for all x Symmetry at the channel axis

T = T

H

at y H for all x 0 Wall temperature

Lecture 13 3/18/00

ChE 333 3

Non-Dimensional Form of the Equation

We can make the equation dimensionless with these definitions

T T

H

T

1

T

H

; y* =

y

H

; x*

x

UH

2

So that the equation and its boundary conditions become

3

2

1 y*

2

x*

=

y*

2

1 at x* 0 for all y*

y*

0 at y* 0 for all x*

0 at y* t1 for all x* 0

The solution of the equation can be expressed as a series solution

= A

n

exp

2

3

n

2

x* a

nm

y*

n

n= 0

m= 0

Q

H

= 2 U H [

C

p

(T

1

T

cm

)]

where T

cm

is the mixing cup average temperature.

Lecture 13 3/18/00

ChE 333 4

The mixing cup average obtained from the temperature profile is

cm

3

2

U 1

y

H

2

x, y dy

0

H

3

2

U 1

y

H

2

dy

0

H

It can, therefore, be written as

cm

G

m

exp

2

m

2

x*

3

_

,

m0

m G

m

m

2

0 0.910 2.83

1 0.0533 32.1

2 0.0153 93.4

Everything we want to know about the temperature profile is in the

solution given above.

There is a simple one-term approximation since the second eigenvalues is

so much larger than the first.

cm

0.91 exp 1.89x* ( )

Lecture 13 3/18/00

ChE 333 5

The Local Heat Transfer Coefficient

The local heat transfer coefficient is defined in terms of the heat transferred

to the fluid in a differential distance along the exchanger.

dQ

H

= - UH C

p

dT

cm

= h

ln

(T

cm

- T

H

) dx

Recalling the non-dimensionalization, we can express the local heat

transfer coefficient, h

ln

, as

h

ln

UH

cm

_

,

k

UH

2

_

,

d

cm

dx *

_

,

From the solution for the dimensionless mixing cup temperature, we obtain

4h

ln

H

k

Nu

ln

8

3

m

2

G

m

exp 2

m

2

x */3

( )

m0

G

m

exp 2

m

2

x*/3

( )

m0

Here the Nusselt number is defined with a length scale 4 H, that is the

hydraulic diameter.

D

H

= 4 (cross-sectional are)/(wetted perimeter)

1

The one-term appoximation to

n

provides the limiting value for the

Nusselt number for large x*

Nu

ln

8

3

0

2

7.55

This is generally valid if x* > 0.1

1

Note that D

H

=

4 2HW

2W+ 4H

=

4H

1+

2H

W

Lecture 13 3/18/00

ChE 333 6

We will find shortly that, though the local Nusselt is useful, we will have

recourse to an average value over the length of the heat exchanger

Nu

L

1

x

L

*

Nu

ln

x * ( )

0

x

L

*

dx*

Though it would appear that we would have to return to the detailed

solution for

cm

, the energy balance yields us a simpler form to evaluate.

Nu

L

4

x

L

*

ln

1

cm

x

L

*

( )

_

,

Short Time Solutions

The equations describing the entrance region of the Parallel Plate Heat

Exchanger are identical save for the the midplane condition

u(y)

T

x

2

T

Dy

2

Boundary Conditions

T = T

1

at x = 0 for all y Initial temperature profile

T T

1

as y

Free stream condition

T = T

H

at y H for all x 0 Wall temperature

Lecture 13 3/18/00

ChE 333 7

Approximate Velocity Profile

In the entrance region, the thermal boundary layer is thin compared to the

width of the channel so that the velocity profile can be approximated by a

linear profile and the problem is then posed as

y

T

x

2

T

y

2

Boundary Conditions

T = T

1

at x = 0 for all y Initial temperature profile

T T

1

as y

Free stream condition

T = T

H

at y H for all x 0 Wall temperature

Here from an expansion of the velocity profile near the wall, = 3U/H.

The problem is identical in statement to the falling film problem discussed

in Mass Transfer and the solution is the same. We can use a combination

of variables

= y

9x

1/ 3

Thsolution for is

=

exp

3

d

0

exp

3

d

0

=

exp

3

d

0

4

3

Lecture 13 3/18/00

ChE 333 8

Nusselt Number Relations

The heat flux at the boundary is

q

y

x = k

dT

dy

y=0

= k T

H

T

1

9x*

1 / 3

The heat transferred per unit width is

Q

H

W

= k

dT

dy

y= 0

dx

0

L

=

3k T

H

T

1

2

4

3

9

1/ 3

so that the local heat transfer coefficient can be expressed as

h x =

q

y

T

H

T

1

= k

9x

1 / 3

4

3

The local Nusselt Number relation is

Nu(x) =

4h(x)H

k

=

4

UH

2

3x

1 / 3

4

3

=

3.12

x*

1/ 3

Expressed as an average Nusselt Number the relation becomes

Nu

L

=

4h

L

H

k

= 2.95 Re Pr

H

4L

1/ 3

Lecture 14 3/18/00

ChE 333 1

Correlations for Heat Exchange

Forced Convection Heat Transfer in Laminar Flow in a Tube

There are two measures of the state of a system in Heat Transfer...Reynolds

number and the Graetz number

Graetz Number Reynolds number

(local)

Gz =

D

x

Re Pr

Re =

UD

(average)

Gz =

D

L

Re Pr

Re =

UD

Profile

Uniform Wall Temperature

Local Heat Transfer Coefficient

Nu = 1.077 Gz

1/ 3

for Gz >100

Average Heat Transfer Coefficient

Nu = 1.61 Gz

1/ 3

for Gz >1000

Uniform Heat Flux

Local Heat Transfer Coefficient

Nu = 1.302 Gz

1/ 3

for Gz >10

4

Average Heat Transfer Coefficient

Nu = 1.953 Gz

1/ 3

for Gz >10

4

Lecture 14 3/18/00

ChE 333 2

Simultaneously Developing Temperature and Velocity Profiles

Nu = 1.86 Gz

1/ 3

w

0.14

for Gz

w

0.14

2

Fully Developed Laminar Forced Convection Heat Transfer

Constant Wall Temperature

Nu = 3.66

Constant Wall Heat Flux

Nu = 4.36

Overall Heat Transfer

Nu = 3.66

2

+ 1.61

3

Gz

1 / 3

Forced Convection Heat Transfer in Turbulent Pipe Flow

Heat Transfer in Entry Length

h

x

h

=

1

0.113 ln

x

D

+ 0.693

Fully Developed Forced Convection Heat Transfer

Colburn Equation

Nu = 0.023 Re

0.8

Pr

0.4

Dittus-Boelter Equation

Nu = 0.0225 Re

0.795

Pr

0.495

e

0.0225 ln Pr

2

ChE 333 - Lecture 15 1

Heat and Mass Transfer 3/18/00

Some Observations on Natural or Free Convection

Sometimes a single physical process in nature can explain a variety of events. Free convection is

one such process. It functions because heated fluids, due to their lower density, rise and cooled

fluids fall. A heated fluid will rise to the top of a column, radiate heat away and then fall to be re-

heated, rise and so on. Gasses, like our atmosphere, are fluids, too. A packet of fluid can become

trapped in this cycle. When it does, it becomes part of a convection cell.

Convection cells can form at all scales. They can be millimeters across or larger than Earth. They all

work the same way. The convection that you are most likely to have observed is in cumulonimbus

clouds or "thunderheads." These towering vertical clouds can be seen to evolve over a few minutes.

The tops of the clouds have a sort of cauliflower appearance as warm moist air rises through the

center of the cloud. The moisture in the cloud condenses as it cools. The air gives up some of its

heat to the cold high altitude air and begins to fall.

As the air falls along the exterior of the cloud, it returns to warmer low altitudes where it can be

caught up in the rising column of air in the center of the cloud. This fountain-like cell can form

alongside other cells, and a packet can move between cells. Hail forms when water droplets, carried

by the strong updrafts, freeze, fall through the cloud and are caught in the updraft again. An

additional layer of water freezes around the ice ball each time it makes a trip up through the cloud.

Eventually, the hail becomes too heavy to be carried up anymore, so it falls to the ground. Large

hailstones, when cut apart, show multiple layers, indicating the number of vertical trips the stone

made while it was caught in the convection cell.

Convection also occurs on the Sun. A high resolution white light image of the Sun shows a pattern

that looks something like rice grains. Very large convection cells cause this granulation. The bright

center of each cell is the top of a rising column of hot gas. The dark edges of each grain are the

cooled gas beginning its descent to be re-heated. These granules are the size of Earth and larger.

They constantly evolve and change.

Thunderheads and granulation are large-scale examples of convection. Fortunately, there are

examples of convection that fit into a classroom. An excellent example can be seen in hot Japanese

Miso (soybean paste) soup.

The interior of the broth is hot. The surface of the soup is exposed to cool air. Hot packets of fluid

rise out of the interior of the soup to the surface where they give off heat. Now cooled, they fall

down into the bowl to be re-heated. Left alone, the soup will dissipate its heat in this way (and

through conduction with the sides of the bowl) and reach room temperature.

The soybean paste granules and other ingredients will highlight the convection cells vividly. As

students gaze into their soup, they will see the rising and descending columns of fluid. The cells

will evolve and change their positions. Dark bottomed bowls show the effect best. If the soup is

stirred up, students can observe the cells reform. Of course, the demonstration material can be

consumed at the conclusion of the demonstration.

Free onvection acts as described in the examples above where gravity's effects are present (so that

warm, low density fluids can rise and cool, high density fluids can fall). What happens in the

weightlessness of space where up (rise) and down (fall) have no meaning?

ChE 333 - Lecture 15 2

Heat and Mass Transfer 3/18/00

How do We Describe Free convection?

Free convection is driven by density differences. In order to describe the

process, we can express the change in density as a function of temperatuer

in terms of a Taylors Series

T = T +

T

T

T T + ....

The coefficient of volumetric expansion is

=

1

T

T

so that the Taylors series can be expressed more simply.

T = T 1 + T T + ....

Role of buoyancy on the flow field

If there is a gravitational field, then there is a buoyancy force that acts on

the fluid to impart motion to the fluid. The induced motion would be

influenced by the viscosty or viscous drag. Such motion we term

natural convection or free convection.

In a column of fluid of height L, with a cross section A (normal to x-axis),

the body force acting across the ends of the column is BAL. If the body

force were unopposed by drag or viscous forces the momentum of the fluid

would be of order (u)

2

. The buoyancy driven velocity u

b

would be no

larger than

u

b

= O

gL

1 / 2

ChE 333 - Lecture 15 3

Heat and Mass Transfer 3/18/00

One can express the velocity in terms of a Reynolds Number

Re

b

=

u

b

L

=

gL

3

1 / 2

The natural number to describe natural convection is the Grashof Number,

a merasure of the buoyancy forces to inertial forces.

Gr =

gL

3

= T

leads to a simpler expression.

Gr =

gL

3

2

T

Buoyancy-induced Flow in a Confined Space

Suppose two vertical plates located 2b apart, One palte is heated and

maintained at T

1

The second plate is set at T

2

. Suppose as well that all the

physical properties are independent of temperature. The temperature field

does not change appreciably. Now the energy equation looks like L:

v

y

T

y

+ v

z

T

z

=

2

T

y

2

+

2

T

z

2

The velocity field is one dimensional so that

v 0,v

z

(y) = v

z

0

,v

z

0

(y)

ChE 333 - Lecture 15 4

Heat and Mass Transfer 3/18/00

Then the temperature equation simplifies to

d

2

T

dy

2

= 0 where

T = T

1

at y = b

T = T

2

at y = + b

and the solution can be expressed as

T = T

m

1

2

T

y

b

T = T

1

T

2

; T

m

=

1

2

T

1

+ T

2

The Navier-Stokes equation describing the flow field in the z-direction is

d

2

v

z

d y

2

=

dp

dz

+ g

For this mode, we make the Boussinesq approximation that is all

properties are T-independednt save density.

d

2

v

z

d y

2

=

dp

dz

+ g g T T

Now if we examine the perturbation expansion of v

z

applied to the N-S

eqaution, we observe that since

v

z

= v

z

0

+ v

z

1

The leading term of the perturbation expansion is the solution to

0 = =

dp

dz

+ g

That is, in the zeroth approximation, there is no flow in the z-direction as a result of

the temperature field... the pressure field is given by the hydrostatic law.... the

pressure field is balanced by the gravitational force.

However, in the first approximation, the velocity field is governesd ny the balance of

viscous forces and buoyancy forces.

d

2

v

z

1

d y

2

= g T T

ChE 333 - Lecture 15 5

Heat and Mass Transfer 3/18/00

The conservation equations are actually coupled, but in this first

approximation, we may treat them as uncoupled

d

2

v

z

1

d y

2

= g T

m

T

1

2

T

y

b

The boundary conditions are v

z

= 0 at y = - b and at y = +b

The solution is simple.

v

z

1

=

gb

2

T

12

y

b

3

A

y

b

2

y

b

+ A

where

A = 6

T

m

T

T

However, there should be no net flowhat is :

v

z

dy

b

b

= 0

This demands that A = 0, so

v

z

1

=

gb

2

T

12

y

b

3

y

b

We can make the velocity dimensionless

v

z

1

b

=

1

12

Gr

y

b

3

y

b

Gr is the Grashof number and is a measure of the buoyancy forces to the

viscous forces.

ChE 333 - Lecture 16 1

Heat Transfer 3/18/00

Buoyancy-induced Flow:

Natural Convection in a Unconfined Space

If we examine the flow induced by heat transfer from a single vertical flat

plat, we observe that the flow resembles that of a boundary layer. The

appropriate description begins with the conservation laws.

Mass

v

y

y

+

v

z

z

= 0

Momentum

v

y

v

z

y

+ v

z

v

z

z

=

2

v

z

y

2

+

2

v

z

z

2

p

z

g

Energy

v

y

T

y

+ v

z

T

z

=

2

T

y

2

+

2

T

z

2

The velocity field is such that the induced flow is viewed as a perturbation

of the steady flow.

v v

y

1

,v

z

0

(y) + v

y

1

Now if we examine the perturbation expansion of v

z

applied to the Navier-

Stokes equation, the leading term of the perturbation expansion is the

solution to

0 = =

dp

dz

+ g

That is, in the zeroth approximation, there is no flow in the z-direction as a result of

the temperature field... the pressure field is given by the hydrostatic law.... the

pressure field is balanced by the gravitational force.

ChE 333 - Lecture 16 2

Heat Transfer 3/18/00

Velocity Field

The velocity field is governed by.

v

y

v

z

y

+ v

z

v

z

z

=

2

v

z

y

2

+

2

v

z

z

2

p

z

g g T T

The conservation equations are clearly coupled. The solution mirrors the

results obtained in Boundary Layer theory analysis.

The boundary conditions are

at y = 0 v

z

= v

y

= 0 T = T

0

at y = v

z

= 0 T = T

1

at z = - v

z

= v

y

= 0 T = T

1

The solution is not simple, but involves combination of variables solutions

as in Boundary Layer theory. The problem is best solved by putting the

equations in dimensionless form.

Y =

H

B

1/ 4

; V

y

=

B

3

H

1/ 4

; V

z

=

BH

1/ 2

B = gT

ChE 333 - Lecture 16 3

Heat Transfer 3/18/00

Dimensionless Equations

Without belaboring the procedure in detail, the results in dimensionless

form are.

The differential equations

= 0

Pr

1

+

z

2

+

2

2

+

+

z

2

+

2

2

For sufficiently small , the equations are simpler. It simply means that

changes in the are less important than chasnges in the direction.

= 0

+

z

2

Pr

1

+

z

2

+

The boundary conditions are

at = 0

ez

=

y

= 0 = 1

at =

z

= 0 = 0

at = -

z

=

y

= 0 = 0

1

Heat Transfer Correlations

ChE 333 - Lecture 16 4

Heat Transfer 3/18/00

We can use the solution or at least the form of the solution of the

equations, as we note the definition of the heat flux per unit length.

q' = k

T

y

=0

dz

0

H

=

kTH

Y

=0

d

0

1

It is apparent that the definite integral is a function only of Pr since

= , , Pr

It follows that since the definite intergral is a constant C = C(Pr), that we

can express the flux q as

q' = CkT Gr Pr

1 / 4

where the Grashof number here is

Gr =

2

gH

3

T

2

It is easy to recall the definition of a heat transfer coefficient.

q'

H

= hT

and we obtain for our model

Nu = C Gr Pr

1/ 4

= CRa

1 / 4

ChE 333 - Lecture 16 5

Heat Transfer 3/18/00

An Empirical Correlation

Chu and Churchill developed a more useful quasi-empirical model

Nu

1/ 2

= Nu

1/ 2

+

Ra

L

300

Ra

L

300

1 +

0.5

Pr

0.5

Pr

9 /16

16/ 9

1/ 6

Geometry L Nu

0

Vertical Surface L 0.68

Vertical cylinder L 0.68

Horizontal cylinder D 0.36

Sphere D/2

Inclined disk 9D/11 0.56

ChE 333 - Lecture 16 6

Heat Transfer 3/18/00

An Example

Heat Loss from a Horizontal Pipe

An uninsulated pipe, 5 cm in outside diam., runs horizontally through a

laboratory maintained at 30C.. Air enter the pipe at 80C at a rate of 300

kg/hr. The pipe is 20 meters.. The down stream pressure in the pipe is 10

5

Pa gauge. What is the heat loss from the pipe and what is the exit

temperatrure of the air ?

Assume the principal resistance to heat transfer is on the outside of the

pipe. We assume as well that he external surface is 10C lower than the

inside of the pipe. (Can we get a better estimate ? How?

The physical parameters are

= 1.0 kg/m

3

; = 2 x 10

-5

kg/m-sec ; Pr = 0.7 ; C

p

= 1.005 kJ/kg-K

so that we evaluate the Rayleigh number as

Ra = GrPr = 350000

From the Chu-Churchill equation, we obtain Nu = 10, so that

h =

k

D

Nu = 5.8

watts

m

2

C

In order to calculate the heat loss we need to know the T

T

lm

= T

h

T

c

lm

We can make a first approximation that

T

lm

= T

h

T

c

lm

T

h

T

c

max

This allows us to get a quick estimate of the heat loss and the exit

temperature from the Heat Exchanger Design Equation.

w

air

C

p

T

in

h

T

out

h

= hAT

lm

ChE 333 - Lecture 16 7

Heat Transfer 3/18/00

T

in

h

T

out

h

=

hAT

lm

w

air

C

p

=

5.18 3.14 40

300 / 3600 1005

= 8.3C

That means that T ~ 36C so (T

in

- T

out

) = 7.5 C

ChE 333 - Lecture 17 1

Heat Transfer 3/18/00

Boiling Bubbles, Condensing Drops and Films:

Heat Transfer with a Phase Transition

It was clear in the last examination that many of you had little

understanding of what happens with heat transfer during a phase transition,

that is, in boiling, or in condensation. We saw that heat transfer during

condensation happens at a single temperature for a single component

system. The same is true of boiling. This makes analysis of condensers

and evaporators, and reboilers a bit easier than liquid liquid heat

exchangers. However, it isnt all that simple because there are lot of

pheniomenolgy in these processes.

Boiling

Ltes examine Boiling first. Imagine a horizontal heated flat plate of large

extent on which is a liquid at its boiling point. The temperature of the plate

is controlled.

What does the liquid look like

at very low heating rates ?

at moderate heating rates ?

at high heating rates ?

We measure the heat flux to the fluid as a function of the temperature

difference between the plate and the fluid. The heat flux from the plate at

temperature T

s

to the saturated fluid at T

sat

is described by

q n = h T

b

T

s

= h T

e

The term T

e

is the excess temperature, that is, the temperature difference

between the surface and the boiling liquid.

The Boiling process is characterized by the formation of vapor bubbles

which grow and detach from the surface. The character of the boiling we

observe depends largely on magnitude of the excess temperature.

ChE 333 - Lecture 17 2

Heat Transfer 3/18/00

Modes of Boiling

We observe three principal modes of boiling :

Free ConvectionBoiling

Nucleate Boiling

Film Boiling

There are of course, transitions between each regime. This is clear in the

following Boiling Curve

Free Convection Boiling occurs when T

e

T

e,A

~ 5C

During Free Convection Boiling, bubbles are formed on

isolated spots on the surface and are swept away by the

buoyancy forces ( free convection determines the motion).

Depending on whether the flow is laminar or tubulent, the heat

transfer coefficient varies as T

e

1/4

or T

e

1/3

and therefore the

heat flux qn is proportional to T

e

5/4

or T

e

4/3

.

The magnitude

is much larger than free convection in the absence of a phase

change.

ChE 333 - Lecture 17 3

Heat Transfer 3/18/00

Nucleate Boiling

Nucleate Boiling occurs when T

e,A

T

e

T

e,C

where T

e,C

~ 50C.

Vapor nucleates on the surface and the bubble rise towards the free

surface. Most of the heat exchange is directly from the surface to the fluid

with extensive mixing of the fluid. As T

e

rises, the bubble density

increases until a maximum concentration of bubbles occur as a

consequence of bubble coalescence. This corresponds to a maximum in

the heat flux . This Critical Heat Flux is in excess of 1 MW/m

2

.

q n

critical

~

24

V

H

fg

g

L

V

V

2

1/ 4

L

+

V

L

1/ 2

The Nucleate Boiling regime is characterized by extremely large heat

transfer coefficients, h, often larger than 10 kW/m

2

-K . As T

e

continues

to rise beyond the critical T

e

, the flux will decrease as the coaleschence

increases as the bubble collapse dominates.

Transition Boiling occurs when T

e,C

T

e

T

e,D

where T

e,D

~ 150C

ChE 333 - Lecture 17 4

Heat Transfer 3/18/00

Film Boiling

Film Boiling occurs when T

e

T

e,D

. Heat Transfer in Film

Boiling is

due to both radiation and convection.

h

4 / 3

= h

conv

4/ 3

+ h

rad

h

rad

1 / 3

where the radiative heat transfer coefficient is

h

rad

= 5.67x10

8

T

s

4

T

sat

4

T

e

T

sat

and the convective heat transfer coefficient is described by

h

conv

= 0.62

k

v

3

L

v

g H

v

+ 0.4C

p,v

T

e

v

DT

e

1 / 4

ChE 333 - Lecture 17 1

Heat Transfer 3/18/00

Boiling Bubbles, Condensing Drops and Films:

Heat Transfer with a Phase Transition

It was clear in the last examination that many of you had little

understanding of what happens with heat transfer during a phase transition,

that is, in boiling, or in condensation. We saw that heat transfer during

condensation happens at a single temperature for a single component

system. The same is true of boiling. This makes analysis of condensers

and evaporators, and reboilers a bit easier than liquid liquid heat

exchangers. However, it isnt all that simple because there are lot of

pheniomenolgy in these processes.

Boiling

Ltes examine Boiling first. Imagine a horizontal heated flat plate of large

extent on which is a liquid at its boiling point. The temperature of the plate

is controlled.

What does the liquid look like

at very low heating rates ?

at moderate heating rates ?

at high heating rates ?

We measure the heat flux to the fluid as a function of the temperature

difference between the plate and the fluid. The heat flux from the plate at

temperature T

s

to the saturated fluid at T

sat

is described by

q n = h T

b

T

s

= h T

e

The term T

e

is the excess temperature, that is, the temperature difference

between the surface and the boiling liquid.

The Boiling process is characterized by the formation of vapor bubbles

which grow and detach from the surface. The character of the boiling we

observe depends largely on magnitude of the excess temperature.

ChE 333 - Lecture 17 2

Heat Transfer 3/18/00

Modes of Boiling

We observe three principal modes of boiling :

Free ConvectionBoiling

Nucleate Boiling

Film Boiling

There are of course, transitions between each regime. This is clear in the

following Boiling Curve

Free Convection Boiling occurs when T

e

T

e,A

~ 5C

During Free Convection Boiling, bubbles are formed on

isolated spots on the surface and are swept away by the

buoyancy forces ( free convection determines the motion).

Depending on whether the flow is laminar or tubulent, the heat

transfer coefficient varies as T

e

1/4

or T

e

1/3

and therefore the

heat flux qn is proportional to T

e

5/4

or T

e

4/3

.

The magnitude

is much larger than free convection in the absence of a phase

change.

ChE 333 - Lecture 17 3

Heat Transfer 3/18/00

Nucleate Boiling

Nucleate Boiling occurs when T

e,A

T

e

T

e,C

where T

e,C

~ 50C.

Vapor nucleates on the surface and the bubble rise towards the free

surface. Most of the heat exchange is directly from the surface to the fluid

with extensive mixing of the fluid. As T

e

rises, the bubble density

increases until a maximum concentration of bubbles occur as a

consequence of bubble coalescence. This corresponds to a maximum in

the heat flux . This Critical Heat Flux is in excess of 1 MW/m

2

.

q n

critical

~

24

V

H

fg

g

L

V

V

2

1/ 4

L

+

V

L

1/ 2

The Nucleate Boiling regime is characterized by extremely large heat

transfer coefficients, h, often larger than 10 kW/m

2

-K . As T

e

continues

to rise beyond the critical T

e

, the flux will decrease as the coaleschence

increases as the bubble collapse dominates.

Transition Boiling occurs when T

e,C

T

e

T

e,D

where T

e,D

~ 150C

ChE 333 - Lecture 17 4

Heat Transfer 3/18/00

Film Boiling

Film Boiling occurs when T

e

T

e,D

. Heat Transfer in Film

Boiling is

due to both radiation and convection.

h

4 / 3

= h

conv

4/ 3

+ h

rad

h

rad

1 / 3

where the radiative heat transfer coefficient is

h

rad

= 5.67x10

8

T

s

4

T

sat

4

T

e

T

sat

and the convective heat transfer coefficient is described by

h

conv

= 0.62

k

v

3

L

v

g H

v

+ 0.4C

p,v

T

e

v

DT

e

1 / 4

Lecture 19

ChE 333 1

Heat Exchangers - Introduction

Concentric Pipe Heat Exchange

Energy Balance on Cold Stream (differential)

dQ

C

= wC

p

C

dT

C

= C

C

dT

C

Energy Balance on Hot Stream (differential)

dQ

H

= wC

p

H

dT

H

= C

H

dT

H

Overall Energy Balance (differential)

For an adiabatic heat exchanger, the energy lost to the surroundings is

zero so what is lost by one stream is gathered by the other.

dQ

C

+ dQ

H

= 0

T

c1

T

c2

T

h1

T

h1

Lecture 19

ChE 333 2

Heat Exchange Equation

It follows that the heat exchange from the hot to the cold is expressed in

terms of the temperature difference between the two streams.

dQ

H

= U T

H

T

C

dA

The proportionality constant is the Overall heat transfer coefficient

( discussion later)

Solution of the Energy Balances

The Energy Balance on the two streams provides a delation for the

differential temperature change.

dT

H

=

dQ

H

C

H

and dT

C

=

dQ

C

C

C

However, we should recall that we have an adiabatic heat exchanger so

that

d T =

dQ

H

C

H

1 +

C

H

C

C

Overall Energy balances on each stream

Hot Fluid

Q

H

= C

H

T

H1

T

H2

Cold fluid

Q

C

= C

C

T

C2

T

C1

Overall Energy balance on the Exchanger

Q

C

+ Q

H

= 0

Lecture 19

ChE 333 3

The equation for T can be modified using the overall energy balances to

yield

d T =

dQ

H

C

H

T

2

T

1

T

H1

T

H2

The denominator is the energy lost by the hot stream, so

d T =

dQ

H

Q

H

T

2

T

1

Application of the relation for energy transfer between the two streams

yields

d T =

UdAT

Q

H

T

2

T

1

Integration of the relation is the basis of a design equation for a heat

exchanger.

ln

T

2

T

1

=

UA

Q

H

T

2

T

1

Rearrangement of the equation leads to

The Design Equation for a Heat Exchanger

Q

H

= UA

T

2

T

1

ln

T

2

T

1

= UAT

lm

Lecture 19

ChE 333 4

Design of a Parallel Tube Heat Exchanger

The Exchanger

The Design Equation for a Heat Exchanger

Q

H

= UA

T

2

T

1

ln

T

2

T

1

= UAT

lm

Glycerin-water solution with a Pr = 50 (at 70 C) flows through a set of

parallel tubes that are plumbed between common headers. We must heat

this liquid from 20 C to 60C with a uniform wall temperature of 100 C.

The flow rate, F, is 0.002 m

3

/sec (31.6 gal/sec.).

How many parallel tubes are required ?

How do we select L and D for these tubes ?

Data

The heat capacity, C

p

, is 4.2 kJ/kg-K

The density, , is 1100 kg/m

3

The liquid has a kinematic viscosity, = 10

3

cm

2

/sec.

T

c1

T

c2

T

h1

T

h1

Lecture 19

ChE 333 5

Step 1

Calculate the heat load

Q

c

= FC

p

T

out

T

out

Q

c

= 1100

kg

m

3

0.002

m

3

sec

4.2

kJ

kgK

1K

1C

60 20 C

Q

c

= 369.6

kJ

sec

= 369.6 kWatts

Step 2

Calculate the heat transfer coefficient

If the flow is laminar, likely since glycerin is quite viscous,

and the Re < 2000

the Nusselt number relation for laminar flow can be expressed as

Nu = 3.66

3

+ 1.61

3

Gz

1 / 3

The Graetz number is

Gz = Re Pr

D

L

If the flow is turbulent (Re > 2000), the Nusselt numberr is given by

Nu = 0.023 Re

0.8

Pr

0.4

We do not know the flow per tube and therefore we do not know the Re.

However we dont need to know that. In Lecture 27 we observed for Heat

Transfer in a Tube that

T T

R

T

1

T

R

= exp

Dhz

wC

p

= exp 4St

z

D

Lecture 19

ChE 333 6

The definition of the Stanton Number is :

St =

h

C

p

U

=

Nu

RePr

=

Nu

Pe

Given a Re and Pr, we can calculate the Nu and the Stanton Number, the

latter prviding us with the temperature at length L from the previous

equation. Lets examine several configurations at L/D = 50, 100, 200.

The Excel table below can be used to specify a design chart.

Design Chart

Pr = 50 L/D =50

Re Nu St cm

1 3.7610 7.52E-02 0.0233

3 3.9482 2.63E-02 0.2682

6 4.1996 1.40E-02 0.4966

10 4.4940 8.99E-03 0.6380

20 5.0980 5.10E-03 0.7750

30 5.5852 3.72E-03 0.8301

100 7.7548 1.55E-03 0.9254

200 9.5962 9.60E-04 0.9532

500 12.8779 5.15E-04 0.9746

1000 16.1628 3.23E-04 0.9840

2000 20.3244 2.03E-04 0.9899

5000 100.1133 4.00E-04 0.9802

10000 174.3074 3.49E-04 0.9827

20000 303.4868 3.03E-04 0.9849

30000 419.7714 2.80E-04 0.9861

To obtain the numbers in the spreadsheet, we used the Nusselt number

relation for laminar flow expressed as

Nu = 3.66

3

+ 1.61

3

Gz

1 / 3

Lecture 19

ChE 333 7

and for turbulent flow as

Nu = 0.023 Re

0.8

Pr

0.4

Design Chart

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.0001

0.0010

0.0100

0.1000

1.0000

1 10 100 1000 10000

Reynolds' Number

T

e

m

p

e

r

a

t

u

r

e

L/ D = 50

L/ D = 100

L/ D = 200

Lecture 19

ChE 333 8

Step 3

Calculate the Area required

Base case

D = 2 cm. and L = 100 D = 2 meters

For this case we observe that from the calculations for

cm

Reduced Temperature

Re L/D = 50 L/D = 100 L/D = 200

1 0.0233 0.0006 0.0000

3 0.2682 0.0789 0.0069

8.8 0.5000 0.3966 0.1718

10 0.6380 0.4387 0.2099

12 0.6800 0.4966 0.2682

12.3 0.6854 0.5042 0.2763

24.4 0.8040 0.6836 0.5017

50 0.8805 0.8073 0.6888

60 0.8945 0.8301 0.7254

70 0.9050 0.8473 0.7532

100 0.9254 0.8805 0.8073

200 0.9532 0.9254 0.8805

500 0.9746 0.9596 0.9358

1000 0.9840 0.9746 0.9596

2000 0.9899 0.9840 0.9746

5000 0.9802 0.9913 0.9862

6000 0.9809 0.9923 0.9878

8000 0.9819 0.9936 0.9899

9000 0.9824 0.9941 0.9907

We can observe that the flow rate per tube is given by

F

nt

=

F

n

t

so that the Reynolds number is

Re =

4F

Dn

t

Lecture 19

ChE 333 9

As a consequence we can observe that the total length of tubing is not

dependent on D alone but on othere considerations that might set a

condition for Re, e.g. a pressure drop limitation. Wv find that for this base

case, we find

n

t

L = A =

4F

Re

L

D

We find that

cm

= 0.5

L/D Re n

t

L n

t

50 8.8 14.47 14.46

100 12.3 20.70 10.35

200 24.4 20.87 5.21

Does it make sense?

Lecture 19

ChE 333 10

Maximum Cooling Capacity of an Exchanger of Fixed Area

Water is available for use as a coolant for an oil stream in a double-pipe

heat exchanger.

The flow rate of the water is 500 lb

m

/hr.

The heat exchanger has an area of 15 ft

2

.

The oil heat capacity, C

po

, is 0.5 BTU/lb-F

The overall heat transfer coefficient, U, is 50 BTU/hr-ft

2

-F

The initial temperature of the water, T

w0

, is 100F

The maximum temperature of the water is 210F

The initial temperature of the oil, T

w0

, is 250F

The minimum temperature of the oil, T

w0

, is 140F

Estimate the maximum flow rate of oil that may be cooled assuming a

fixed flow rate of water at 500 lb

m

/hr

There are two possible modes of operation

Co-current flow

Counter-current flow

Let us look at both cases

Co-current flow

Constraints

T

w

< 210 ; T

w

< T

o

; T

o

140

Energy balances

Oil

Q

o

= F

o

C

po

T

o1

T

o2

= F

o

0.5 250 T

o2

Water

Q

w

= F

w

C

pw

T

w1

T

w2

F

o

C

p0

T

o1

T

o2

= 500(1.0)(210 100) = 55,000 BTU / hr

Lecture 19

ChE 333 11

Recall the Design equation

Q

H

= UA

T

2

T

1

ln

T

2

T

1

= UAT

lm

Now the T

lm

is given by

T

lm

=

T

2

T

1

ln

T

2

T

1

=

Q

w

UA

=

55000

(50)(15)

= 73.3

Using the temperatures, we obtain T

0max

= 238.5 F

and from the heat balance for oil, we obtain

F

o

=

C

po

Q

o

T

o1

T

o2

=

0.5 250 238.5

55000

= 9560 lb / h

Counter-current Flow

Constraints

T

w

< 210 ; T

w

< T

o

; T

o

140

Energy balances

Oil

Q

o

= F

o

C

po

T

o1

T

o2

= F

o

0.5 250 T

o2

Water

Q

w

= F

w

C

pw

T

w1

T

w2

Lecture 19

ChE 333 12

F

o

C

p0

T

o1

T

o2

= 500(1.0)(210 100) = 55,000 BTU / hr

Recall the Design equation

Q

H

= UA

T

2

T

1

ln

T

2

T

1

= UAT

lm

Now the T

lm

is given by

T

lm

=

T

2

T

1

ln

T

2

T

1

=

Q

w

UA

=

55000

(50)(15)

= 73.3

Using the temperatures, we obtain T

0max

= 221 F

and from the heat balance for oil, we obtain the oil flow rate as 3800

lbm/hr.

I thought that countercurrent flow was supposed to be more efficient.

What is the problem ?

Lecture 20

ChE 333 1

Design of a Parallel Tube Heat Exchanger

The Exchanger

100F

Water: 70F

5 ft/s

Benzene

180 F

7500 lb/h

The Design Equation for a Heat Exchanger

Q

H

= UA

T

2

T

1

ln

T

2

T

1

= UAT

lm

Problem

Find the Required Length of a Heat Exchanger with Specified Flows:

Turbulent Flow in Both Streams

The design constraints are given in the schematic above. We show this as

a countercurrent configuration, but we will examine the cocurrent case as

well. The benzene flow is specified as a mass flow rate (in pound mass

units), and the water flow is given as a linear velocity. Heat transfer

coefficients are not provided; we will have to calculate them based on our

earlier discussions and the correlations presented in earlier lectures.

The inside tube is specified as "Schedule 401-14 inch steel."

Lecture 20

ChE 333 2

Pipe "schedules" are simply agreed-upon standards for pipe construction

that specify the wall thickness of the pipe. Perrys Handbook specifies the

following dimensions for

the inside pipe :

Schedule 40 1 1/4 pipe

D

o

= 1.66 in. = 0.138 ft. S

c

= D

2

/4 = 0.0104 ft

2

D

i

= 1.38 in = 0.115 ft. (cross-sectional area for flow)

the outside pipe :

Schedule 40 2 pipe

D

i

= 2.07 in = 0.115 ft.

To calculate the heat exchanger area, we must find A

o

= DL. We know

the diameter; what is the length ?

The Design Equation is

Q

h

= U

o

A

o

T

ln

The overall heat transfer coefficient, U

o

, is given by

U

o

=

1

r

o

1

r

o

h

o

+

ln r

o

/ r

i

k

+

1

r

ihi

1

We can write it as:

U

o

A

o

L

=

1

h

o

A

o / L

+

ln r

o

/ r

i

2k

+

1

h

i

A

i

/ L

1

= R

1

To evaluate the parameters of the problem, we need the physical and

thermal properties and conditions for flow in the system

T

b

= 140F

b

= 52.3 lb

m

/ft

3 C

p

= 0.45 BTU/lb-F

k

b

= 0.085 Btu / h ft F

Pr =

C

pb

k

b

= 5

b

= 0.39 cP =

0.39

1000

1

47.88

= 8.1 x 10

6

lb

f

s / ft

2

= 2.6 X 10

4

lb

m

/fts

Lecture 20

ChE 333 3

Internal Film Resistance

The Nusselt number on the inside of the inner pipe is given by the Dittus-

Boelter equation.

Nu =

h

i

D

i

k

b

= 0.023 Re

0.8

Pr

0.3

= 337

so that the film heat transfer coefficient

h

i

= 249 Btu/hft

2

F

The heat transfer area per unit length is

A

i

L

= (0.115) = 0.361 ft

2

/ft

so that the inner film resistance is :

h

i

A

i

L

1

= 249 (0.361)

1

= 0.011 h ft F / Btu

The other tube dimensions are

D

oi

= 0.138 ft and D

io

= 0.172 ft

Calculation of the Water Flow Rate

The hydraulic diameter is

D

eq

= 4

D

2

i,o

D

o,i

2

/ 4

D

i,o

+ D

o,i

= D

i,o

D

o,i

= 0.034 ft

Given the water velocity of 5 ft/s, we can solve for the water flow rate

W

water

= 9300 lb

m

/h

The Overall Energy balance

(wC

p

T)

benz

= (wC

p

T)

water

Solving for the outlet water temperature:

7500 (0.45) (100 180) = 9300 (1) (70 T

out

)

gives the exit temperature as:

T

out

= 99F

Lecture 20

ChE 333 4

External Film Resistance

The physical properties of the water must be estimated in order to

determine the film heat transfer coefficient in the annular shell. The

average water temperature T

b

is calculated as 84.7 F

= 0.8 cp k = 0.34 BTU/h-ft-F = 62.4 lb/ft

3

so that the Reynolds number can be calculated.

Re

VD

eq

=

62.4 lb

m

/ft

3

32.2 lb

m

f/lb

f

s

2

(5 ft / s) 0.034 ft

1.67 x 10

5

lb

f

s / ft

2

= 2 x 10

4

From the Dittus-Boelter equation, the Nusselt number is given as:

Nu = 0.023 Re

0.8

Pr

0.4

= 127

so that the external film coefficient, h

o

, is

h

o

= 1270 Btu/hft

2

F

The external area/length is

A

0

L

= (0.138) = 0.434 ft

2

/ ft

so that the external film resistance is

h

0

A

0

L

1

= 1270 (0.434)

1

= 0.00181hftF / Btu

Conduction Resistance

The last term in the equation for the overall heat transfer coefficient is

ln r

0

/ r

i

2k

= 0.00116 h ft F / Btu

Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient

The overall resistance is

(U)

1

= R = 0.011 + 0.00116 + 0.00181 + = 0.014

benzene wall water

Lecture 20

ChE 333 5

Log-Mean T

T

ln

=

(180 99) (100 70)

ln (81 / 30)

= 51F

Heat Load

Q

h

= wC

p

T

= 7500 (0.45) (180 - 100) = 2.7 x 10

5

Btu/h

Heating Rate/unit Length

Q

h

L

=

UA

L

T

ln

= (R)

1

T

ln

= 3640 Btu / h ft

Given the heat load, we can calculate the length of tubing so that

L =

Q

h

3640

=

2.7 x 10

5

3640

= 74 ft

The case we considered was countercurrent flow, but we noted in an

earlier example that in co-current flow we could be more fluid. Now is the

pipe longer or shorter ?

Lecture 20

ChE 333 6

A Co-current Flow Heat Exchanger

The Design Equation for a Heat Exchanger

Q

H

= UA

T

2

T

1

ln

T

2

T

1

= UAT

lm

The heat loads are identical, the Overall Resistances to heat transfer (UA)

-1

are no different since the film coefficients do not change, but the T

lm

are

different.

Counter current Co-current

T

1

(water) = 99 T

1

(water) = 70

T

1

(benzene) = 180 T

1

(benzene) = 180

T

2

(water) = 70 T

2

(water) = 99

T

2

(benzene) = 100 T

2

(benzene) = 100

T

1

= 81 T

1

= 110

T

2

= 30 T

2

= 1

T

ln

= 51 T

ln

= 23.2

L = 74 L = 163 ft

There are two observations to be made. First that the tube length required

for co-current flow is more than twice as long. Secondly that the approach

temperature for co-current flow becomes diminishingly small.

Lecture 20

ChE 333 7

Questions

Question 1.

To have a single concentric pipe heat exchanger 73 ft. long may be

impractical. Why ?

Question 2.

What are the alternatives and can you make a rapid evaluation of the their

requirements ?

Question 3.

What if we use more tubes, do I need more area ? How do I estimate the

number of tubes and the required area for a single pass heat exchanger.

Question 4.

If we use more tubes, should we specify the tubes to be smaller. Why?

How do we estimate the effect ?

Lecture 20

ChE 333 8

Question 1.

To have a single concentric pipe heat exchanger 73 ft. long may be

impractical. Why ?

Where do I put a 73 ft. piece of pipe ? Can I fold it up? Can I cut it into

shoter pieces and have them in parallel. ?

Question 2.

What are the alternatives and can you make a rapid evaluation of the their

requirements ?

One alternative is to cut the pipe into 12 equal length, place them in a

header and put a shell around the bundle of tubes.

Question 3.

If we use more tubes, do I need more area ? How do I estimate the number

of tubes and the required area for a single pass heat exchanger.

If we use N identical tubes, Re

new

= Re

old

/N since

Re =

UD

=

Q

4D

From the Dittus-Boelter equation we have

Nu = 0.023 Re

0.8

Pr

0.4

= 127

The internal film heat tarnsfer coefficient h

i

~ Q

If the new flow rate is Q/N then h

i

~ (1/ N

new

)

0.8

So that for 12 identical tubes h

inew

= 0.137 h

iold

The overall resistance is now

R = 0.011/(0.137) + 0.00181 + 0.00116 = 0.0833

The required length is L

new

/L

old

= R

new

/ R

old

/ = 0.0833/0.014 = 5.95

so that L

new

is 73(5.95) = 434.2 ft.

Lecture 20

ChE 333 9

Question 4.

If we use more tubes, should we specify the tubes to be smaller. Why?

How do we estimate the effect ?

When we introduced the use of multiple tubes, we decreased the Re to

significantly reduce the internal film resistance. We can then use similar

arguments in decreasing the tube diameter, but we have the following

consequences

1. we reduce the area/length for heat transfer.

2. we increase the Reynolds number and the heat transfer coefficient

3. we increase the pressure drop

4. we make it harder to clean

How do we do evaluate the trade-offs ?

Lecture 21

ChE 333 1

Effectiveness Concept for Heat Exchangers

The Design Equation for a Heat Exchanger

Q

H

= UA

T

2

T

1

ln

T

2

T

1

= UAT

lm

A typical problem in the analysis of a heat exchanger is the Performance

calculation. That is, we are asked , given inlet conditions to evaluate how

the exchanger performs, that is what are the outlet temperatures. With the

equation given above, the solution may be reached only by trial-and-error.

Effectiveness

An alternate approach lies in the notion of exchanger effectiveness, E.

E =

actual heat transfer

maximumpossible heat transfer

Overall Energy Balance

The actual heat transfer is given by the energy balance

(wC

p

T)

hot

= (wC

p

T)

cold

The maximum possible temperature rise is the difference between the

temperatures of the two entering streams (T

hin

- T

cin

). Which fluid

undergoes the maximum temperature rise ? Of course, it is the one with

the least heat capacitance

(wC

p

)

min

(T)

max

= (wC

p

)

max

(T)

min

It follows then that

Q

max

= (wC

p

)

min

(T

hin

- T

cin

)

max

Lecture 21

ChE 333 2

Definitions of Effectiveness

For the Double-Pipe Heat Exchanger there are four possible cases:

Co-Current Counter-Current

Hot Fluid minimum Case 1 Case 3

Cold Fluid minimum Case 2 Case 4

Case 1- Co-Current flow, hot fluid minimal

E =

wC

p

h

T

h1

T

h2

wC

p

h

T

h1

T

c1

=

T

h1

T

h2

T

h1

T

c1

Case 2- Co-Current flow, cold fluid minimal

E =

wC

p

c

T

c2

T

c1

wC

p

c

T

h1

T

c1

=

T

c2

T

c1

T

h1

T

c1

Case 3- Counter-Current flow, hot fluid minimal

E =

wC

p

h

T

h1

T

h2

wC

p

h

T

h1

T

c2

=

T

h1

T

h2

T

h1

T

c2

Case 4- Counter-Current flow, cold fluid minimal

E =

wC

p

c

T

c1

T

c2

wC

p

c

T

h1

T

c2

=

T

c1

T

c2

T

h1

T

c2

Lecture 21

ChE 333 3

Number of Transfer Units

Recall the definition of the ratio of thermal capacitances

R =

WC

p

c

WC

p

h

=

C

c

C

h

=

T

h1

T

h2

T

c2

T

c1

Also we can reexamine the Design Equation and rewrite it in the following

form:

ln

T

h2

T

c2

T

h1

T

c1

=

UA

C

c

1 + R

or

T

h2

T

c2

T

h1

T

c1

= e

UA

C

c

1+R

We need to express this temperature ratio in terms of the effectiveness, E.

A good deal of algebra leads for Case 1 to

E =

1 + e

UA

C

c

1+R

1 + R

For case 2 the equation is the relation is very similar and indeed would be

the same if R were replaced by R

min

= C

min

/C

max

.

E =

1 e

UA

C

min

1+R

min

1 + R

min

Lecture 21

ChE 333 4

For case 3 and case 4, the equation can be expressed as a single relation.

E =

1 e

UA

C

min

1 R

min

1 + R

min

e

UA

C

min

1 R

min

We can define a dimensionless group as the Number of Transfer Units

(NTU)

NTU =

UA

C

min

This whole concept can be extended to all kinds of exchanger

configurations, e.g.,.shell and tube with n tube passes and one shell pass; a

cross-flow exchanger.

Cross-flow Heat Exchangers

Types - Mixed

Un-Mixed

Example Automobile radiator

Cross-flow

Mixed/Unmixed Exchanger

unmixed stream- minimal stream

E = R 1 exp R 1 e

NTU

mixed stream- minimal stream

E = 1 exp R 1 e

RNTU

Lecture 21

ChE 333 5

Unmixed/Unmixed Exchanger

Cross-flow

E = 1 exp R NTU

0.22

exp R NTU

0.78

1

Lecture 22

ChE 333 1

Design of a 1/2 Heat Exchanger

The Device is a 1 Shell Pass and a 2 Tube Pass Exchanger

The Design Equation for a Heat Exchanger

Q

H

= UAF

T

2

T

1

ln

T

2

T

1

= UAFT

lm

F is the correction to the T for a non-ideal flow path. To determine this

for this exchanger , noting that it is at the same time a co-current and a

counter-current exchange, we have to solve some enrgy balances.

Overall Energy Balance

(wC

p

T)

hot

= (wC

p

T)

cold

This leads to a ratio of thermal capacitances

R =

WC

p

C

WC

p

H

=

C

C

C

H

=

T

H1

T

H2

T

C2

T

C1

Lecture 22

ChE 333 2

or it can be written as

R =

WC

p

tube

WC

p

shell

=

C

tube

C

shell

=

T

shell

T

tube

Shell Balance on a first section of tube (cold stream)

C

C

T

C

'

z

T

C

'

z+ z

= U T

C

'

T

H

dA

2

Shell Balance on a second section of tube (cold stream)

C

C

T

z

"

z

T

C

"

z+ z

= U T

H

T

C

" dA

2

Overall Shell Balance on a second section of tube (hot stream)

C

H

T

H

z

T

H

z+ z

= U T

H

T

C

" dA

2

+ U T

H

T

C

' dA

2

The corresponding differential equations.

C

C

U

dT

C

'

dA

=

T

H

T

C

'

2

C

C

U

dT

C

"

dA

=

T

H

T

C

"

2

C

H

dT

H

dA

= U

T

H

T

C

"

2

U

T

H

T

C

'

2

Lecture 22

ChE 333 3

If we normalize the distance term to

dn

UdA

C

C

In this representation the equations are easier to formulate:

dT

C

'

dn

=

T

H

T

C

'

2

dT

C

"

dn

=

T

H

T

C

"

2

1

R

dT

H

dn

=

T

C

"

T

H

2

+

T

C

'

T

H

2

Energy balance from z to L

C

H

T

H

T

Hz

= C

C

T

C

"

T

C

'

This becomes

1

R

T

H

T

Hz

= T

C

"

T

C

'

Lecture 22

ChE 333 4

Eliminate all the T

C

variables, from the equations and the overall energy

balance, we obtain

dT

C

"

dn

=

dT

C

'

dn

+

1

R

dT

H

dn

=

T

H

2

+

T

C

'

+

1

R

T

H

T

Hz

2

and

T

C

'

T

H

2

+

1

R

dT

H

dn

=

T

H

2

+

T

C

'

+

1

R

T

H

T

Hz

2

The final form of the temperature equation is

1

R

d

2

T

H

dn

2

+

dT

H

dn

1

4R

T

H

T

Hz

= 0

Boundary Conditions

T

H

= T

H1

at n = 0

T

H

= T

H2

at n = n

L

where n

L

= UA/C

C

If we set a dimensionless T

H

, we obtain

=

T

H

T

H2

T

H1

T

H2

and the equation

1

R

d

2

dn

2

+

d

dn

1

4R

= 0

Boundary Conditions

=

1

at n = 0

=

2

at n = n

L

Lecture 22

ChE 333 5

The solution requires algebraic gymnastics, but it produces

F =

R

2

+ 1

R 1

ln

1 P

1 PR

ln

2

P

1 R R

2

+ 1

2

P

1 R + R

2

+ 1

where

P =

T

C2

T

C1

T

H1

T

C1

T

hermal design of shell-and-tube

heat exchangers (STHEs) is

done by sophisticated computer

software. However, a good un-

derstanding of the underlying principles

of exchanger design is needed to use this

software effectively.

This article explains the basics of ex-

changer thermal design, covering such

topics as: STHE components; classica-

tion of STHEs according to construction

and according to service; data needed for

thermal design; tubeside design; shellside

design, including tube layout, baffling,

and shellside pressure drop; and mean

temperature difference. The basic equa-

tions for tubeside and shellside heat

transfer and pressure drop are well-

known; here we focus on the application

of these correlations for the optimum de-

sign of heat exchangers. A followup arti-

cle on advanced topics in shell-and-tube

heat exchanger design, such as allocation

of shellside and tubeside uids, use of

multiple shells, overdesign, and fouling,

is scheduled to appear in the next issue.

Components of STHEs

It is essential for the designer to have a

good working knowledge of the mechani-

cal features of STHEs and how they in-

uence thermal design. The principal

components of an STHE are:

shell;

shell cover;

tubes;

channel;

channel cover;

tubesheet;

baffles; and

nozzles.

Other components include tie-rods and

spacers, pass partition plates, impinge-

ment plate, longitudinal baffle, sealing

strips, supports, and foundation.

The Standards of the Tubular Ex-

changer Manufacturers Association

(TEMA) (1) describe these various com-

ponents in detail.

An STHE is divided into three parts:

the front head, the shell, and the rear

head. Figure 1 illustrates the TEMA

nomenclature for the various construction

possibilities. Exchangers are described by

the letter codes for the three sections

for example, a BFL exchanger has a bon-

net cover, a two-pass shell with a longitu-

dinal baffle, and a xed-tubesheet rear

head.

Classication

based on construction

Fixed tubesheet. A xed-tubesheet

heat exchanger (Figure 2) has straight

tubes that are secured at both ends to

tubesheets welded to the shell. The con-

struction may have removable channel

covers (e.g., AEL), bonnet-type channel

covers (e.g., BEM), or integral tubesheets

(e.g., NEN).

The principal advantage of the xed-

tubesheet construction is its low cost be-

cause of its simple construction. In fact,

the xed tubesheet is the least expensive

construction type, as long as no expan-

sion joint is required.

Other advantages are that the tubes can

be cleaned mechanically after removal of

SHELL- AND- TUBE HEAT EXCHANGERS

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING PROGRESS FEBRUARY 1998

Copyright 1997 American Institute of Chemical Engineers. All rights reserved. Copying and downloading permitted with restrictions.

Effectively Design

Shell-and-Tube

Heat Exchangers

Rajiv Mukherjee,

Engi neers Indi a Lt d.

To make the most

of exchanger

design software,

one needs to

understand STHE

classication,

exchanger

components, tube

layout, baffling,

pressure drop, and

mean temperature

difference.

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING PROGRESS FEBRUARY 1998

SHELL- AND- TUBE HEAT EXCHANGERS

s Figure 1. TEMA designations for shell-and-tube heat exchangers.

E

F

G

H

J

K

X

One-Pass Shell

Two-Pass Shell

with Longitudinal Baffle

Split Flow

Double Split Flow

Divided Flow

Cross Flow

Kettle-Type Reboiler

A

B

Removable Channel and Cover

C

N

Bonnet (Integral Cover)

Integral With Tubesheet

Removable Cover

D

Special High-Pressure Closures

T

U

W

U-Tube Bundle

Pull-Through Floating Head

Floating Head with Backing Device

S

P

N

Outside Packed Floating Head

Fixed Tube Sheet

Like "C"Stationary Head

Fixed Tube Sheet

Like "B"Stationary Head

Externally Sealed

Floating Tubesheet

Fixed Tube Sheet

Like "A"Stationary Head

Stationary Head Types Shell Types Rear Head Types

M

L

Channel Integral With Tubesheet

and Removable Cover

the channel cover or bonnet, and that

leakage of the shellside uid is mini-

mized since there are no anged joints.

A disadvantage of this design is

that since the bundle is xed to the

shell and cannot be removed, the out-

sides of the tubes cannot be cleaned

mechanically. Thus, its application is

limited to clean services on the shell-

side. However, if a satisfactory chem-

ical cleaning program can be em-

ployed, xed-tubesheet construction

may be selected for fouling services

on the shellside.

In the event of a large differential

temperature between the tubes and

the shell, the tubesheets will be un-

able to absorb the differential stress,

thereby making it necessary to incor-

porate an expansion joint. This takes

away the advantage of low cost to a

signicant extent.

U-tube. As the name implies, the

tubes of a U-tube heat exchanger

(Figure 3) are bent in the shape of a

U. There is only one tubesheet in a U-

tube heat exchanger. However, the

lower cost for the single tubesheet is

offset by the additional costs incurred

for the bending of the tubes and the

somewhat larger shell diameter (due

to the minimum U-bend radius), mak-

ing the cost of a U-tube heat ex-

changer comparable to that of a xed-

tubesheet exchanger.

The advantage of a U-tube heat

exchanger is that because one end is

free, the bundle can expand or con-

tract in response to stress differen-

tials. In addition, the outsides of the

tubes can be cleaned, as the tube bun-

dle can be removed.

The disadvantage of the U-tube

construction is that the insides of the

tubes cannot be cleaned effectively,

since the U-bends would require ex-

ible-end drill shafts for cleaning.

Thus, U-tube heat exchangers should

not be used for services with a dirty

uid inside tubes.

Floating head. The oating-head

heat exchanger is the most versatile

type of STHE, and also the costliest.

In this design, one tubesheet is xed

relative to the shell, and the other is

free to oat within the shell. This

permits free expansion of the tube

bundle, as well as cleaning of both

the insides and outsides of the tubes.

Thus, oating-head SHTEs can be

used for services where both the

shellside and the tubeside uids are

dirty making this the standard con-

struction type used in dirty services,

such as in petroleum reneries.

There are various types of oat-

ing-head construction. The two most

common are the pull-through with

backing device (TEMA S) and pull-

through (TEMAT) designs.

The TEMA S design (Figure 4) is

the most common conguration in

the chemical process industries (CPI).

The oating-head cover is secured

against the oating tubesheet by bolt-

ing it to an ingenious split backing

ring. This oating-head closure is lo-

cated beyond the end of the shell and

contained by a shell cover of a larger

diameter. To dismantle the heat ex-

changer, the shell cover is removed

rst, then the split backing ring, and

then the oating-head cover, after

which the tube bundle can be re-

moved from the stationary end.

In the TEMA T construction (Fig-

ure 5), the entire tube bundle, includ-

ing the oating-head assembly, can

be removed from the stationary end,

since the shell diameter is larger than

the oating-head ange. The oating-

head cover is bolted directly to the

oating tubesheet so that a split back-

ing ring is not required.

The advantage of this construction

is that the tube bundle may be re-

moved from the shell without remov-

ing either the shell or the oating-

head cover, thus reducing mainte-

nance time. This design is particular-

ly suited to kettle reboilers having a

dirty heating medium where U-tubes

cannot be employed. Due to the en-

larged shell, this construction has the

highest cost of all exchanger types.

FEBRUARY 1998 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING PROGRESS

Support

Bracket

Stationary

Tubesheet

Stationary

Tubesheet

Bonnet

(Stationary

Head)

Bonnet

(Stationary

Head)

Baffles Tie Rods

and Spacers

s Figure 2. Fixed-tubesheet heat exchanger.

Tubeplate Shell Tubes Baffles Header

s Figure 3. U-tube heat exchanger.

There are also two types of packed

oating-head construction outside-

packed stuffing-box (TEMA P) and

outside-packed lantern ring (TEMA

W) (see Figure 1). However, since

they are prone to leakage, their use is

limited to services with shellside u-

ids that are nonhazardous and non-

toxic and that have moderate pres-

sures and temperatures (40 kg/cm

2

and 300C).

Classication

based on service

Basically, a service may be single-

phase (such as the cooling or heating

of a liquid or gas) or two-phase (such

as condensing or vaporizing). Since

there are two sides to an STHE, this

can lead to several combinations of

services.

Broadly, services can be classied

as follows:

single-phase (both shellside and

tubeside);

condensing (one side condens-

ing and the other single-phase);

vaporizing (one side vaporizing

and the other side single-phase); and

condensing/vaporizing (one side

condensing and the other side

vaporizing).

The following nomenclature is

usually used:

Heat exchanger: both sides single-

phase and process streams (that is,

not a utility).

Cooler: one stream a process uid

and the other cooling water or air.

Heater: one stream a process uid

and the other a hot utility, such as

steam or hot oil.

Condenser: one stream a condens-

ing vapor and the other cooling water

or air.

Chiller: one stream a process

fluid being condensed at sub-atmo-

spheric temperatures and the other a

boiling refrigerant or process stream.

Reboiler: one stream a bottoms

stream from a distillation column and

the other a hot utility (steam or hot

oil) or a process stream.

This article will focus specically

on single-phase applications.

Design data

Before discussing actual thermal

design, let us look at the data that

must be furnished by the process li-

censor before design can begin:

1. ow rates of both streams.

2. inlet and outlet temperatures of

both streams.

3. operating pressure of both

streams. This is required for gases,

especially if the gas density is not

furnished; it is not really necessary

for liquids, as their properties do not

vary with pressure.

4. allowable pressure drop for

both streams. This is a very important

parameter for heat exchanger design.

Generally, for liquids, a value of

0.50.7 kg/cm

2

is permitted per shell.

Ahigher pressure drop is usually war-

ranted for viscous liquids, especially

in the tubeside. For gases, the allowed

value is generally 0.050.2 kg/cm

2

,

with 0.1 kg/cm

2

being typical.

5. fouling resistance for both

streams. If this is not furnished, the

designer should adopt values speci-

ed in the TEMA standards or based

on past experience.

6. physical properties of both

streams. These include viscosity,

thermal conductivity, density, and

specic heat, preferably at both inlet

and outlet temperatures. Viscosity

data must be supplied at inlet and

outlet temperatures, especially for

liquids, since the variation with tem-

perature may be considerable and is

irregular (neither linear nor log-log).

7. heat duty. The duty specied

should be consistent for both the

shellside and the tubeside.

8. type of heat exchanger. If not

furnished, the designer can choose

this based upon the characteristics of

the various types of construction de-

scribed earlier. In fact, the designer is

normally in a better position than the

process engineer to do this.

9. line sizes. It is desirable to

match nozzle sizes with line sizes to

avoid expanders or reducers. Howev-

er, sizing criteria for nozzles are usu-

ally more stringent than for lines, es-

pecially for the shellside inlet. Conse-

quently, nozzle sizes must sometimes

be one size (or even more in excep-

tional circumstances) larger than the

corresponding line sizes, especially

for small lines.

10. preferred tube size. Tube size

is designated as O.D. thickness

length. Some plant owners have a

preferred O.D. thickness (usually

based upon inventory considerations),

and the available plot area will deter-

mine the maximum tube length.

Many plant owners prefer to stan-

dardize all three dimensions, again

based upon inventory considerations.

11. maximum shell diameter. This

is based upon tube-bundle removal re-

quirements and is limited by crane ca-

pacities. Such limitations apply only to

exchangers with removable tube bun-

dles, namely U-tube and oating-head.

For xed-tubesheet exchangers, the

only limitation is the manufacturers

fabrication capability and the avail-

ability of components such as dished

ends and anges. Thus, oating-head

heat exchangers are often limited to a

shell I.D. of 1.41.5 m and a tube

length of 6 m or 9 m, whereas xed-

tubesheet heat exchangers can have

shells as large as 3 m and tubes

lengths up to 12 m or more.

12. materials of construction. If

the tubes and shell are made of iden-

tical materials, all components should

be of this material. Thus, only the

shell and tube materials of construc-

tion need to be specied. However, if

the shell and tubes are of different

metallurgy, the materials of all princi-

pal components should be specied

to avoid any ambiguity. The principal

components are shell (and shell

cover), tubes, channel (and channel

cover), tubesheets, and baffles.

Tubesheets may be lined or clad.

13. special considerations. These

include cycling, upset conditions, al-

ternative operating scenarios, and

whether operation is continuous or

intermittent.

Tubeside design

Tubeside calculations are quite

straightforward, since tubeside ow

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING PROGRESS FEBRUARY 1998

SHELL- AND- TUBE HEAT EXCHANGERS

represents a simple case of ow

through a circular conduit. Heat-trans-

fer coefficient and pressure drop both

vary with tubeside velocity, the latter

more strongly so. A good design will

make the best use of the allowable

pressure drop, as this will yield the

highest heat-transfer coefficient.

If all the tubeside uid were to

ow through all the tubes (one tube

pass), it would lead to a certain veloc-

ity. Usually, this velocity is unaccept-

ably low and therefore has to be in-

creased. By incorporating pass parti-

tion plates (with appropriate gasket-

ing) in the channels, the tubeside uid

is made to ow several times through

a fraction of the total number of tubes.

Thus, in a heat exchanger with 200

tubes and two passes, the uid ows

through 100 tubes at a time, and the

velocity will be twice what it would

be if there were only one pass. The

number of tube passes is usually one,

two, four, six, eight, and so on.

Heat-transfer coefficient

The tubeside heat-transfer coeffi-

cient is a function of the Reynolds

number, the Prandtl number, and

the tube diameter. These can be bro-

ken down into the following funda-

mental paramet ers: physi cal

propert i es (namely viscosity, ther-

mal conductivity, and specific heat);

tube diameter; and, very important-

ly, mass velocity.

The variation in liquid viscosity is

quite considerable; so, this physical

property has the most dramatic effect

on heat-transfer coefficient.

The fundamental equation for tur-

bulent heat-transfer inside tubes is:

Nu = 0.027 (Re)

0.8

(Pr)

0.33

(1a)

or

(hD/k) =

0.027 (DG/)

0.8

(c/k)

0.33

(1b)

Rearranging:

h = 0.027(DG/)

0.8

(c/k)

0.33

(k/D) (1c)

Viscosity inuences the heat-trans-

fer coefficient in two opposing ways

as a parameter of the Reynolds

number, and as a parameter of Prandtl

number. Thus, from Eq. 1c:

h ()

0.330.8

(2a)

h ()

0.47

(2b)

In other words, the heat-transfer

coefficient is inversely proportional

to viscosity to the 0.47 power. Simi-

larly, the heat-transfer coefficient is

directly proportional to thermal con-

ductivity to the 0.67 power.

These two facts lead to some inter-

esting generalities about heat transfer.

Ahigh thermal conductivity promotes

a high heat-transfer coefficient. Thus,

cooling water (thermal conductivity

of around 0.55 kcal/hmC) has an

extremely high heat-transfer coeffi-

cient of typically 6,000 kcal/hm

2

C,

followed by hydrocarbon liquids

(thermal conductivity between 0.08

and 0.12 kcal/hmC) at 2501,300

kcal/hm

2

C, and then hydrocarbon

gases (thermal conductivity between

0.02 and 0.03 kcal/hmC) at

50500 kcal/hm

2

C.

Hydrogen is an unusual gas, be-

cause it has an exceptionally high

thermal conductivity (greater than

that of hydrocarbon liquids). Thus,

its heat-transfer coefficient is to-

ward the upper limit of the range

for hydrocarbon liquids.

The range of heat-transfer coeffi-

cients for hydrocarbon liquids is

FEBRUARY 1998 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING PROGRESS

Stationary-Head

Channel

Stationary

Tubesheet Shell

Support

Saddles

Floating

Tubesheet

Floating-Head

Cover

Shell

Cover

Tie Rods

and Spacers

Pass

Partition

Baffles

s Figure 4. Pull-through oating-head exchanger with backing device (TEMA S).

Shell

Weir

Support

Saddle Baffles

Support

Saddle

Floating

Tubesheet

Floating-Head

Cover

Shell

Cover

Stationary-Head

Channel

Tie Rods

and Spacers

Pass

Partition

s Figure 5. Pull-through oating-head exchanger (TEMA T).

rather large due to the large variation

in their viscosity, from less than 0.1

cP for ethylene and propylene to more

than 1,000 cP or more for bitumen.

The large variation in the heat-transfer

coefficients of hydrocarbon gases is

attributable to the large variation in

operating pressure. As operating pres-

sure rises, gas density increases. Pres-

sure drop is directly proportional to

the square of mass velocity and in-

versely proportional to density. There-

fore, for the same pressure drop, a

higher mass velocity can be main-

tained when the density is higher. This

larger mass velocity translates into a

higher heat-transfer coefficient.

Pressure drop

Mass velocity strongly inuences

the heat-transfer coefficient. For tur-

bulent ow, the tubeside heat-transfer

coefficient varies to the 0.8 power of

tubeside mass velocity, whereas tube-

side pressure drop varies to the square

of mass velocity. Thus, with increas-

ing mass velocity, pressure drop in-

creases more rapidly than does the

heat-transfer coefficient. Consequent-

ly, there will be an optimum mass ve-

locity above which it will be wasteful

to increase mass velocity further.

Furthermore, very high velocities

lead to erosion. However, the pres-

sure drop limitation usually becomes

controlling long before erosive veloc-

ities are attained. The minimum rec-

ommended liquid velocity inside

tubes is 1.0 m/s, while the maximum

is 2.53.0 m/s.

Pressure drop is proportional to

the square of velocity and the total

length of travel. Thus, when the num-

ber of tube passes is increased for a

given number of tubes and a given

tubeside ow rate, the pressure drop

rises to the cube of this increase. In

actual practice, the rise is somewhat

less because of lower friction factors

at higher Reynolds numbers, so the

exponent should be approximately

2.8 instead of 3.

Tubeside pressure drop rises steeply

with an increase in the number of tube

passes. Consequently, it often happens

that for a given number of tubes and

two passes, the pressure drop is much

lower than the allowable value, but

with four passes it exceeds the allow-

able pressure drop. If in such circum-

stances a standard tube has to be em-

ployed, the designer may be forced to

accept a rather low velocity. However,

if the tube diameter and length may be

varied, the allowable pressure drop can

be better utilized and a higher tubeside

velocity realized.

The following tube diameters are

usually used in the CPI: w, , e, ,

1, 1, and 1 in. Of these, in. and

1 in. are the most popular. Tubes

smaller than in. O.D. should not be

used for fouling services. The use of

small-diameter tubes, such as in.,

is warranted only for small heat ex-

changers with heat-transfer areas less

than 2030 m

2

.

It is important to realize that the

total pressure drop for a given stream

must be met. The distribution of pres-

sure drop in the various heat exchang-

ers for a given stream in a particular

circuit may be varied to obtain good

heat transfer in all the heat exchang-

ers. Consider a hot liquid stream ow-

ing through several preheat exchang-

ers. Normally, a pressure drop of 0.7

kg/cm

2

per shell is permitted for liq-

uid streams. If there are ve such pre-

heat exchangers, a total pressure drop

of 3.5 kg/cm

2

for the circuit would be

permitted. If the pressure drop

through two of these exchangers turns

out to be only 0.8 kg/cm

2

, the balance

of 2.7 kg/cm

2

would be available for

the other three.

Example 1:

Optimizing tubeside design

Consider the heat exchanger ser-

vice specied in Table 1. A TEMA

Type AES exchanger (split-ring pull-

through oating-head construction)

was to be employed. Tubes were to

be either 25 mm O.D. (preferred) or

20 mm O.D., 2 mm thick, and 9 m

long (but could be shorter).

A rst design was produced using

25-mm-O.D. 9-m tubes (Case A in

Table 2). The tubeside pressure drop

was only 0.17 kg/cm

2

even though

0.7 kg/cm

2

was permitted. Further,

the tubeside heat-transfer resistance

was 27.71% of the total, which meant

that if the allowable pressure drop

were better utilized, the heat-transfer

area would decrease. However, when

the number of tube passes was in-

creased from two to four (keeping the

shell diameter the same and decreas-

ing the number of tubes from 500 to

480 due to the extra pass-partition

lanes), the tubeside pressure drop in-

creased to 1.06 kg/cm

2

, which was

unacceptable. (The shellside design

was satisfactory, with the allowable

pressure drop quite well utilized.)

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING PROGRESS FEBRUARY 1998

SHELL- AND- TUBE HEAT EXCHANGERS

Shellside Tubeside

Fluid Crude oil Heavy gas oil circulating reux

Flow rate, kg/h 399,831 277,200

Temperature in/out, C 227 / 249 302 / 275

Operating pressure, kg/cm

2

(abs.) 28.3 13.0

Allowable pressure drop, kg/cm

2

1.2 0.7

Fouling resistance, hm

2

C/kcal 0.0007 0.0006

Heat duty, MM kcal/h 5.4945 5.4945

Viscosity in/out, cP 0.664 / 0.563 0.32 / 0.389

Design pressure, kg/cm

2

(gage) 44.0 17.0

Line size, mm (nominal) 300 300

Material of construction Carbon steel Tubes: Type 410 stainless steel

Other: 5CrMo

Table 1. Heat exchanger service for Example 1.

Since the overdesign in the four-

pass conguration was 28.1%, an at-

tempt was made to reduce the tube-

side pressure drop by decreasing the

tube length. When the tube length

was reduced to 7.5 m, the overdesign

was 5.72%, but the tubeside pressure

drop was 0.91 kg/cm

2

, which was

still higher than that permitted.

Next, a design with 20-mm-O.D.

tubes was attempted (Case B in Table

2). The shell diameter and heat-trans-

fer surface decreased considerably,

from 925 mm to 780 mm, and from

343 m

2

to 300 m

2

, respectively. The

tubeside velocity (2.17 m/s vs. 1.36

m/s earlier), pressure drop (0.51

kg/cm

2

vs. 0.17 kg/cm

2

), and heat-

transfer coefficient (1,976 vs. 1,285

kcal/hm

2

C) were all much higher.

The overall heat-transfer coefficient

for this design was 398 kcal/hm

2

C

vs. 356 for Case A.

Stepwise calculations

for viscous liquids

When the variation in tubeside vis-

cosity is pronounced, a single-point

calculation for the tubeside heat-

transfer coefficient and pressure drop

will give unrealistic results. This is

particularly true in cases where a

combination of turbulent (or transi-

tion) ow and laminar ow exist,

since the thermal performance is very

different in these two regimes.

In such cases, it will be necessary

to perform the calculations stepwise

or zone-wise. The number of steps or

zones will be determined by the vari-

ation in the tubeside viscosity and

thus the Reynolds number.

Example 2:

Stepwise calculations

The principal process parameters

for a kettle-type steam generator in a

renery are shown in Table 3. The

viscosity of the heavy vacuum gas oil

varies from 1.6 cP at the inlet to 6.36

cP at the outlet.

A design was produced without

performing the calculations stepwise

that is, on the basis of a single av-

erage temperature and corresponding

physical properties. Details of this de-

sign are shown in Table 4.

Performing the tubeside calcula-

tions stepwise, in ten equal heat duty

steps, revealed that the original ex-

changer was undersurfaced. The rele-

vant performance parameters for the

single-point and stepwise calculations

are compared in Table 5.

The main reason for the difference

was the variation in Reynolds num-

ber, from 9,813 in the rst zone to

2,851 in the last zone. In addition,

the mean temperature difference

(MTD) decreased drastically, from

138.47C in the rst zone to a mere

FEBRUARY 1998 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING PROGRESS

Case A Case B

Shell I.D., mm 925 780

Tube O.D. Number of tubes 25 500 2 20 540 2

Number of tube passes

Heat-transfer area, m

2

343 300

Tube pitch Tube layout angle 32 90 26 90

Baffle type Single-segmental Single-segmental

Baffle spacing, mm 450 400

Baffle cut, percent of diameter 25 30

Velocity, m/s

Shellside 1.15 1.52

Tubeside 1.36 2.17

Heat-transfer coefficient, kcal/hm

2

C

Shellside 2,065 2,511

Tubeside 1,285 1,976

Pressure drop, kg/cm

2

Shellside 0.86 1.2

Tubeside 0.17 0.51

Resistance, %

Shellside lm 17.24 15.84

Tubeside lm 27.71 21.14

Fouling 50.35 57.66

Metal wall 4.69 4.87

Overdesign 8.29 4.87

Table 2. Details of two designs for Example 1.

Shellside Tubeside

Fluid Boiler feedwater, Steam Heavy vacuum gas oil

Flow rate, kg/h 23,100 (fully vaporized) 129,085

Temperature in/out, C 154 / 154 299 / 165

Allowable pressure drop, kg/cm

2

Negligible 1.4

Fouling resistance, hm

2

C/kcal 0.0002 0.0006

Viscosity in/out, cP 0.176 / 0.176 1.6 / 6.36

Design pressure, kg/cm

2

(gage) 6.5 21.3

Heat duty, kcal/h 11,242,000 11,242,000

Table 3. Process parameters for Example 2.

17.04C in the last. Thus, while the

initial zones (the hot end) had both a

high heat-transfer coefficient and a

high MTD, these decreased progres-

sively toward the outlet (cold) end of

the exchanger. Consequently, while

the rst zone required a length of

only 2.325 m, the last zone required

a length of 44.967 m, even though

the heat duties were the same. The

tubeside pressure drop was only

marginally higher by the stepwise

method, because the tubeside is en-

tirely in the transition regime (Re be-

tween 2,851 and 9,813).

Shellside design

The shellside calculations are far

more complex than those for the

tubeside. This is mainly because on

the shellside there is not just one ow

stream but one principal cross-ow

stream and four leakage or bypass

streams. There are various shellside

ow arrangements, as well as various

tube layout patterns and baffling de-

signs, which together determine the

shellside stream analysis.

Shell conguration

TEMA denes various shell pat-

terns based on the ow of the shell-

side uid through the shell: E, F, G,

H, J, K, and X (see Figure 1).

In a TEMAE single-pass shell, the

shellside uid enters the shell at one

end and leaves from the other end.

This is the most common shell type

more heat exchangers are built to

this conguration than all other con-

gurations combined.

A TEMA F two-pass shell has a

longitudinal baffle that divides the

shell into two passes. The shellside

uid enters at one end, traverses the

entire length of the exchanger

through one-half the shell cross-sec-

tional area, turns around and ows

through the second pass, then nally

leaves at the end of the second pass.

The longitudinal baffle stops well

short of the tubesheet, so that the

uid can ow into the second pass.

The F shell is used for tempera-

ture-cross situations that is, where

the cold stream leaves at a tempera-

ture higher than the outlet tempera-

ture of the hot stream. If a two-pass

(F) shell has only two tube passes,

this becomes a true countercurrent ar-

rangement where a large temperature

cross can be achieved.

A TEMA J shell is a divided-ow

shell wherein the shellside uid en-

ters the shell at the center and divides

into two halves, one owing to the

left and the other to the right and

leaving separately. They are then

combined into a single stream. This is

identied as a J 12 shell. Alterna-

tively, the stream may be split into

two halves that enter the shell at the

two ends, ow toward the center, and

leave as a single stream, which is

identied as a J 21 shell.

A TEMA G shell is a split-ow

shell (see Figure 1). This construction

is usually employed for horizontal

thermosyphon reboilers. There is only

a central support plate and no baffles.

A G shell cannot be used for heat ex-

changers with tube lengths greater

than 3 m, since this would exceed the

limit on maximum unsupported tube

length specied by TEMA typical-

ly 1.5 m, though it varies with tube

O.D., thickness, and material.

When a larger tube length is need-

ed, a TEMA H shell (see Figure 1) is

used. An H shell is basically two G

shells placed side-by-side, so that

there are two full support plates. This

is described as a double-split cong-

uration, as the ow is split twice and

recombined twice. This construction,

too, is invariably employed for hori-

zontal thermosyphon reboilers. The

advantage of G and H shells is that

the pressure drop is drastically less

and there are no cross baffles.

A TEMA X shell (see Figure 1) is

a pure cross-flow shell where the

shellside fluid enters at the top (or

bottom) of the shell, flows across the

tubes, and exits from the opposite

side of the shell. The flow may be

introduced through multiple nozzles

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING PROGRESS FEBRUARY 1998

SHELL- AND- TUBE HEAT EXCHANGERS

Number of kettles 2 (in parallel)

Kettle/port I.D., mm 1,825 / 1,225

Tubes per kettle 790 tubes

Type 316 stainless steel

25 mm O.D. 2 mm thick 9 m long

Number of tube passes 12

Tube pitch 32 mm square (90)

Baffling Full support plates only

Connections, mm (nominal) Shellside: inlet 75, outlet 3 200

Tubeside: 150

Heat-transfer area, m

2

1,104 (2 552)

Table 4. Design produced for Example 2

without stepwise calculations.

Single-point Stepwise

Calculations Calculations

Tubeside heat-transfer coefficient, kcal/hm

2

C 347.9 229.2

Overall heat-transfer coefficient, kcal/hm

2

C 244.7 179.3

Tubeside pressure drop, kg/cm

2

1.28 1.35

Overdesign, % 24.03 9.11

Table 5. Performance parameters for Example 2 using

single-point and stepwise calculations.

located strategically along the length

of the shell in order to achieve a bet-

ter distribution. The pressure drop

will be extremely low in fact,

there is hardly any pressure drop in

the shell, and what pressure drop

there is, is virtually all in the noz-

zles. Thus, this configuration is em-

ployed for cooling or condensing va-

pors at low pressure, particularly

vacuum. Full support plates can be

located if needed for structural in-

tegrity; they do not interfere with the

shellside flow because they are par-

allel to the flow direction.

A TEMA K shell (see Figure 1) is

a special cross-ow shell employed

for kettle reboilers (thus the K). It

has an integral vapor-disengagement

space embodied in an enlarged shell.

Here, too, full support plates can be

employed as required.

Tube layout patterns

There are four tube layout pat-

terns, as shown in Figure 6: triangular

(30), rotated triangular (60), square

(90), and rotated square (45).

A triangular (or rotated triangular)

pattern will accommodate more tubes

than a square (or rotated square) pat-

tern. Furthermore, a triangular pat-

tern produces high turbulence and

therefore a high heat-transfer coeffi-

cient. However, at the typical tube

pitch of 1.25 times the tube O.D., it

does not permit mechanical cleaning

of tubes, since access lanes are not

available. Consequently, a triangular

layout is limited to clean shellside

services. For services that require

mechanical cleaning on the shellside,

square patterns must be used. Chemi-

cal cleaning does not require access

lanes, so a triangular layout may be

used for dirty shellside services pro-

vided chemical cleaning is suitable

and effective.

A rotated triangular pattern sel-

dom offers any advantages over a

triangular pattern, and its use is

consequently not very popular.

For dirty shellside services, a

square layout is typically employed.

However, since this is an in-line

pattern, it produces lower turbu-

lence. Thus, when the shellside

Reynolds number is low (< 2,000),

it is usually advantageous to em-

ploy a rotated square pattern be-

cause this produces much higher

turbulence, which results in a high-

er efficiency of conversion of pres-

sure drop to heat transfer.

As noted earlier, fixed-tubesheet

construction is usually employed for

clean services on the shellside, U-

tube construction for clean services

on the tubeside, and floating-head

construction for dirty services on

both the shellside and tubeside. (For

clean services on both shellside and

tubeside, either fixed-tubesheet or

U-tube construction may be used, al-

though U-tube is preferable since it

permits differential expansion be-

tween the shell and the tubes.)

Hence, a triangular tube pattern may

be used for fixed-tubesheet exchang-

ers and a square (or rotated square)

pattern for floating-head exchangers.

For U-tube exchangers, a triangular

pattern may be used provided the

shellside stream is clean and a

square (or rotated square) pattern if

it is dirty.

Tube pitch

Tube pitch is dened as the shortest

distance between two adjacent tubes.

For a triangular pattern, TEMA

species a minimum tube pitch of

1.25 times the tube O.D. Thus, a 25-

mm tube pitch is usually employed

for 20-mm O.D. tubes.

For square patterns, TEMA addi-

tionally recommends a minimum

cleaning lane of in. (or 6 mm) be-

tween adjacent tubes. Thus, the mini-

mum tube pitch for square patterns is

either 1.25 times the tube O.D. or the

tube O.D. plus 6 mm, whichever is

larger. For example, 20-mm tubes

should be laid on a 26-mm (20 mm +

6 mm) square pitch, but 25-mm tubes

should be laid on a 31.25-mm (25

mm 1.25) square pitch.

Designers prefer to employ the

minimum recommended tube pitch,

because it leads to the smallest shell

diameter for a given number of tubes.

However, in exceptional circum-

stances, the tube pitch may be in-

creased to a higher value, for exam-

ple, to reduce shellside pressure drop.

This is particularly true in the case of

a cross-ow shell.

Baffling

Type of baffles. Baffles are used to

support tubes, enable a desirable ve-

locity to be maintained for the shell-

side uid, and prevent failure of tubes

due to ow-induced vibration. There

are two types of baffles: plate and rod.

Plate baffles may be single-segmental,

double-segmental, or triple-segmen-

tal, as shown in Figure 7.

Baffle spacing. Baffle spacing is

the centerline-to-centerline distance

between adjacent baffles. It is the

most vital parameter in STHE design.

The TEMA standards specify the

minimum baffle spacing as one-fth

of the shell inside diameter or 2 in.,

whichever is greater. Closer spacing

will result in poor bundle penetration

by the shellside uid and difficulty in

mechanically cleaning the outsides of

the tubes. Furthermore, a low baffle

spacing results in a poor stream dis-

tribution as will be explained later.

FEBRUARY 1998 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING PROGRESS

Square

(90)

Rotated

Square

(45)

Triangular

(30 )

Rotated

Triangular

(60)

s Figure 6. Tube layout patterns.

The maximum baffle spacing is

the shell inside diameter. Higher baf-

e spacing will lead to predominantly

longitudinal ow, which is less effi-

cient than cross-ow, and large un-

supported tube spans, which will

make the exchanger prone to tube

failure due to ow-induced vibration.

Optimum baffle spacing. For tur-

bulent ow on the shellside (Re >

1,000), the heat-transfer coefficient

varies to the 0.60.7 power of veloci-

ty; however, pressure drop varies to

the 1.72.0 power. For laminar ow

(Re < 100), the exponents are 0.33 for

the heat-transfer coefficient and 1.0

for pressure drop. Thus, as baffle

spacing is reduced, pressure drop in-

creases at a much faster rate than

does the heat-transfer coefficient.

This means that there will be an

optimum ratio of baffle spacing to

shell inside diameter that will result

in the highest efficiency of conver-

sion of pressure drop to heat transfer.

This optimum ratio is normally be-

tween 0.3 and 0.6.

Baffle cut. As shown in Figure 8,

baffle cut is the height of the segment

that is cut in each baffle to permit the

shellside uid to ow across the baffle.

This is expressed as a percentage of

the shell inside diameter. Although

this, too, is an important parameter for

STHE design, its effect is less pro-

found than that of baffle spacing.

Baffle cut can vary between 15%

and 45% of the shell inside diameter.

Both very small and very large

baffle cuts are detrimental to effi-

cient heat transfer on the shellside

due to large deviation from an ideal

situation, as illustrated in Figure 9. It

is strongly recommended that only

baffle cuts between 20% and 35% be

employed. Reducing baffle cut

below 20% to increase the shellside

heat-transfer coefficient or increas-

ing the baffle cut beyond 35% to de-

crease the shellside pressure drop

usually lead to poor designs. Other

aspects of tube bundle geometry

should be changed instead to achieve

those goals. For example, double-

segmental baffles or a divided-flow

shell, or even a cross-flow shell,

may be used to reduce the shellside

pressure drop.

For single-phase uids on the

shellside, a horizontal baffle cut (Fig-

ure 10) is recommended, because this

minimizes accumulation of deposits

at the bottom of the shell and also

prevents stratication. However, in

the case of a two-pass shell (TEMA

F), a vertical cut is preferred for ease

of fabrication and bundle assembly.

Baffling is discussed in greater de-

tail in (2) and (3).

Equalize cross-ow

and window velocities

Flow across tubes is referred to as

cross-ow, whereas ow through the

window area (that is, through the baffle

cut area) is referred to as window ow.

The window velocity and the

cross-ow velocity should be as close

as possible preferably within 20%

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING PROGRESS FEBRUARY 1998

SHELL- AND- TUBE HEAT EXCHANGERS

Baffle

Baffle

Cut

s Figure 8. Baffle cut.

s Figure 7. Types of baffles.

Double Segmental

Baffles

Triple Segmental

Baffles

Single Segmental

Baffles

Rod Baffle No-Tubes-in-Window Segmental Baffles

of each other. If they differ by more

than that, repeated acceleration and

deceleration take place along the

length of the tube bundle, resulting in

inefficient conversion of pressure

drop to heat transfer.

Shellside stream analysis

On the shellside, there is not just

one stream, but a main cross-ow

stream and four leakage or bypass

streams, as illustrated in Figure 11.

Tinker (4) proposed calling these

streams the main cross-ow stream

(B), a tube-to-baffle-hole leakage

stream (A), a bundle bypass stream

(C), a pass-partition bypass stream

(F), and a baffle-to-shell leakage

stream (E).

While the B (main cross-flow)

stream is highly effective for heat

transfer, the other streams are not as

effective. The A stream is fairly effi-

cient, because the shellside fluid is

in contact with the tubes. Similarly,

the C stream is in contact with the

peripheral tubes around the bundle,

and the F stream is in contact with

the tubes along the pass-partition

lanes. Consequently, these streams

also experience heat transfer, al-

though at a lower efficiency than the

B stream. However, since the E

stream flows along the shell wall,

where there are no tubes, it encoun-

ters no heat transfer at all.

The fractions of the total ow rep-

resented by these ve streams can be

determined for a particular set of ex-

changer geometry and shellside ow

conditions by any sophisticated heat-

exchanger thermal design software.

Essentially, the ve streams are in

parallel and ow along paths of vary-

ing hydraulic resistances. Thus, the

ow fractions will be such that the

pressure drop of each stream is iden-

tical, since all the streams begin and

end at the inlet and outlet nozzles.

Subsequently, based upon the effi-

ciency of each of these streams, the

overall shellside stream efficiency

and thus the shellside heat-transfer

coefficient is established.

Since the ow fractions depend

strongly upon the path resistances,

varying any of the following con-

struction parameters will affect

stream analysis and thereby the shell-

side performance of an exchanger:

baffle spacing and baffle cut;

tube layout angle and tube

pitch;

number of lanes in the ow di-

rection and lane width;

clearance between the tube and

the baffle hole;

clearance between the shell I.D.

and the baffle; and

location of sealing strips and

sealing rods.

FEBRUARY 1998 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING PROGRESS

Horizontal Cut

Vertical Cut

s Figure 10. Baffle cut orientation.

B

B

B

B

F

E

A

B

E

A

C

B

C

A

C

C

s Figure 11. Shellside ow distribution.

s Figure 9. Effect of small and large baffle cuts.

Main Flow

Eddies

Baffle

Shell

Diameter

a. Small Baffle Cut

Eddies

Main

Flow

b. Large Baffle Cut

Baffle

c. Ideal Baffle Cut and Baffle Spacing

Baffle

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING PROGRESS FEBRUARY 1998

SHELL- AND- TUBE HEAT EXCHANGERS

Using a very low baffle spacing

tends to increase the leakage and by-

pass streams. This is because all ve

shellside streams are in parallel and,

therefore, have the same pressure

drop. The leakage path dimensions

are xed. Consequently, when baffle

spacing is decreased, the resistance of

the main cross-ow path and thereby

its pressure drop increases. Since the

pressure drops of all ve streams must

be equal, the leakage and bypass

streams increase until the pressure

drops of all the streams balance out.

The net result is a rise in the pressure

drop without a corresponding increase

in the heat-transfer coefficient.

The shellside uid viscosity also

affects stream analysis profoundly. In

addition to inuencing the shellside

heat transfer and pressure drop per-

formance, the stream analysis also

affects the mean temperature differ-

ence (MTD) of the exchanger. This

will be discussed in detail later. First,

though, lets look at an example that

demonstrates how to optimize baffle

design when there is no signicant

temperature prole distortion.

Example 3:

Optimizing baffle design

Consider the heat exchanger ser-

vice specied in Table 6. Since there

are two independent variables baf-

e spacing and baffle cut we will

rst keep the baffle cut constant at

25% and vary the baffle spacing

(Table 7). Later, the baffle spacing

will be kept constant and the baffle

cut varied (Table 8). In real practice,

both parameters should be varied si-

multaneously, but keeping one pa-

rameter constant and varying the

other will more vividly demonstrate

the inuence of each parameter.

The rst design developed is des-

ignated Design A in Table 7. Here,

the baffle cut is 25% and the baffle

spacing is 300 mm. In Designs B and

C, the baffle spacing was changed to

350 mm and 400 mm, respectively.

There is no temperature prole dis-

tortion problem with these designs.

Notice that as the baffle spacing is

increased from 300 mm to 400 mm,

the main cross-ow, bundle bypass,

and pass-partition bypass streams in-

crease progressively, whereas the

tube-to-baffle-hole leakage and baf-

e-to-shell leakage streams decrease

progressively. The overall heat-trans-

fer efficiency of the shellside stream

increases progressively. Neverthe-

less, since the shellside velocity and

the Reynolds number decrease, both

the shellside heat-transfer coefficient

and the shellside pressure drop de-

crease, but the former at a much

lower rate than the latter. Since the

allowable shellside pressure drop is

1.0 kg/cm

2

, Design A is ruled out, as

its shellside pressure drop far ex-

Shellside Tubeside

Fluid Crude oil Heavy gas oil circulating reux

Flow rate, kg/h 367,647 105,682

Temperature in/out, C 209 / 226 319 / 269

Heat duty, MM kcal/h 4.0 4.0

Density in/out, kg/m

3

730 / 715 655 / 700

Viscosity in/out, cP 0.52 / 0.46 0.27 / 0.37

Specic heat in/out, kcal/kgC 0.63 / 0.65 0.78 / 0.73

Thermal conductivity in/out, kcal/hmC 0.087 / 0.085 0.073 / 0.0795

Allowable pressure drop, kg/cm

2

1.0 0.7

Fouling resistance, hm

2

C/kcal 0.0006 0.0006

Design pressure, kg/cm

2

(gage) 36.6 14.0

Design temperature, C 250 340

Line size, mm (nominal) 300 150

Material of construction Carbon steel 5CrMo

Table 6. Process parameters for Example 3.

Design A Design B Design C

Baffle spacing, mm 300 350 400

Tube-to-baffle-hole leakage (A), fraction 0.157 0.141 0.13

Main cross-ow stream (B), fraction 0.542 0.563 0.577

Bundle bypass stream (C), fraction 0.113 0.116 0.119

Baffle-to-shell leakage stream (E), fraction 0.12 0.109 0.1

Pass-partition bypass stream (F), fraction 0.069 0.072 0.075

Overall shellside heat-transfer efficiency, % 71.3 73.4 74.9

Shellside velocity, m/s

Cross-ow 2.5 2.15 1.87

Window ow 2.34 2.34 2.34

Shellside pressure drop, kg/cm

2

1.34 1.03 0.79

Heat-transfer coefficient, kcal/hm

2

C

Shellside 2,578 2,498 2,372

Tubeside 1,402 1,402 1,402

Overall 401.8 399.8 396.5

Overdesign, % 7.58 7.08 6.21

Table 7. Effects of varying baffle spacing for a constant 25%

baffle cut for Example 3.

ceeds this limit. Designs B and C are

both acceptable. The overdesign

varies marginally. Thus, it would be

prudent to adopt Design C, since it

has a lower pressure drop and a bet-

ter stream analysis.

Now consider the effect of varying

the baffle cut while keeping the baffle

spacing constant at 400 mm, as

shown in Table 8. As the baffle cut is

progressively increased from 25% in

Design D to 36% in Design G, the

following changes are observed:

the main cross-ow stream (B)

fraction increases appreciably;

the tube-to-baffle-hole (A), baf-

e-to-shell (E), and pass-partition (F)

stream fractions decrease steadily;

the bundle bypass (C) stream

fraction remains steady;

the overall heat-transfer effi-

ciency of the shellside stream rst de-

creases and then increases; and

as the window velocity decreas-

es, the shellside heat-transfer coeffi-

cient falls; the pressure drop also de-

creases, but not as fast as the heat-

transfer coefficient.

These observations are reected in

the overdesign values. Design E ap-

pears to be the best choice, since De-

sign D cannot be accepted because of

the excessive shellside pressure drop.

Reducing P

by modifying baffle design

Single-pass shell and single-seg-

mental baffles. The rst baffle alter-

native is the single-segmental baffle

in a single-pass (TEMA E) shell.

However, in many situations, the

shellside pressure drop is too high

with single-segmental baffles in a sin-

gle-pass shell, even after increasing

the baffle spacing and baffle cut to the

highest values recommended. Such a

situation may arise when handling a

very high shellside ow rate or when

the shellside uid is a low-pressure

gas. In these cases, the next alterna-

tive that should be considered is the

double-segmental baffle (Figure 7).

Single-pass shell and double-seg-

mental baffles. By changing the baf-

ing from single-segmental to double-

segmental at the same spacing in an

otherwise identical heat exchanger,

the cross-ow velocity is reduced ap-

proximately to half, because the shell-

side ow is divided into two parallel

streams. This greatly reduces the

cross-ow pressure drop. However,

the window velocity and therefore the

window pressure drop cannot be re-

duced appreciably (assuming that the

maximum recommended baffle cut

was already tried with single-segmen-

tal baffles before switching to double-

segmental baffles). Nevertheless,

since cross-ow pressure drop is in-

variably much greater than window

pressure drop, there is an appreciable

reduction in the total pressure drop.

There is also a decrease in the shell-

side heat-transfer coefficient, but this

is considerably less than the reduction

in the pressure drop. The use of dou-

ble-segmental baffles is covered in

depth in (3).

Divided-ow shell and single-seg-

mental baffles. If the allowable shell-

side pressure drop cannot be satised

even with double-segmental baffles at

a relatively large spacing, a divided-

ow shell (TEMA J) with single-seg-

mental baffles (Figure 1) should be in-

vestigated next. Since pressure drop is

proportional to the square of the veloc-

ity and to the length of travel, a divid-

ed-ow shell will have approximately

FEBRUARY 1998 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING PROGRESS

Design D Design E Design F Design G Design H

Baffle cut, percent of diameter 25 30 33 36 20

Tube-to-baffle-hole leakage (A), fraction 0.13 0.106 0.093 0.08 0.159

Main cross-ow stream (B), fraction 0.577 0.612 0.643 0.674 0.54

Bundle bypass stream (C), fraction 0.119 0.122 0.118 0.117 0.126

Baffle-to-shell leakage stream (E), fraction 0.1 0.091 0.085 0.078 0.114

Pass-partition bypass stream (F), fraction 0.075 0.069 0.062 0.052 0.061

Overall shellside heat-transfer efficiency, % 74.9 73.0 75.7 78.6 72.7

Shellside velocity, m/s

Cross-ow 1.87 1.87 1.87 1.87 1.87

Window ow 2.34 1.86 1.65 1.48 3.09

Shellside pressure drop, kg/cm

2

0.79 0.69 0.65 0.6 0.98

Heat-transfer coefficient, kcal/hm

2

C

Shellside 2,372 2,200 2,074 1,929 2,406

Tubeside 1,402 1,402 1,402 1,402 1,402

Overall 396.5 391.4 387.3 381.9 397.4

Overdesign, % 6.21 4.86 3.76 2.33 6.43

Table 8. Effects of varying baffle cut for a constant 400-mmbaffle spacing for Example 3.

one-eighth the pressure drop in an oth-

erwise identical single-pass exchanger.

The advantage of a divided-ow

shell over double-segmental baffles is

that it offers an even larger reduction

in pressure drop, since not only cross-

ow velocity but even window veloc-

ity can be reduced. The disadvantage

is the increase in cost due to the addi-

tional piping required.

Divided-ow shell and double-

segmental baffles. If even a divided-

ow shell with single-segmental baf-

es is unable to meet the allowable

shellside pressure drop limit, it will

be necessary to adopt a combination

of a divided-ow shell and double-

segmental baffles. With such a com-

bination, a very large reduction in

shellside pressure drop is possible

to as low as 4% of the pressure drop

in a single-pass exchanger with the

same baffle spacing and baffle cut. In

sharp contrast, the heat-transfer coef-

cient will reduce to about 40%.

No-tubes-in-window segmental

baffles. As baffle spacing is increased

to reduce the shellside pressure drop,

an exchanger becomes more prone to

tube failure due to ow-induced vi-

bration. Exchangers with double-seg-

mental baffles are less likely to expe-

rience such problems than those with

single-segmental baffles.

However, a vibration problem may

persist even with double-segmental

baffles. In such cases, a no-tubes-in-

window design (Figure 7) should be

adopted. Here, each tube is supported

by every baffle, so that the unsupport-

ed tube span is the baffle spacing. In

exchangers with normal single-seg-

mental baffles, the unsupported tube

span is twice the baffle spacing.

Should it become necessary to use

a very large baffle spacing to restrict

the shellside pressure drop to the per-

mitted value, intermediate supports

may be used to increase the natural

frequency of the tubes, thus produc-

ing a design that is safe against tube

failure due to ow-induced vibration.

The no-tubes-in-window design

requires a larger shell diameter for a

given number of tubes. This esclates

its cost, typically by about 10%. The

higher cost is offset to some extent by

the higher shellside heat-transfer co-

efficient, since pure cross-ow is

more efficient than the combination

of cross-ow and window ow in

conventional designs.

Cross-ow shell. There are some

services where the pressure drop limi-

tation is so severe that none of the

above shell/baffling congurations can

yield a satisfactory design. A steam

ejector condenser operating at a pres-

sure of 50 mm Hg and having an al-

lowable pressure drop of 5 mm Hg is

an example. Such situations require the

use of a cross-ow shell (TEMAX).

Here, pure cross-ow takes place at

a very low velocity, so there is virtually

no pressure drop in the shell. Whatever

pressure drop occurs is almost entirely

in the nozzles. Support plates will be

needed to meet TEMA requirements

and prevent any possible ow-induced

tube vibration. Since the shellside ow

is parallel to these support plates, shell-

side pressure drop is not increased.

Increasing tube pitch

For a given number of tubes, the

smaller the tube pitch, the smaller the

shell diameter, and therefore the

lower the cost. Consequently, design-

ers tend to pack in as many tubes as

mechanically possible.

As noted earlier, designers gener-

ally set the tube pitch at 1.25 times

the tube O.D. For square or rotated

square pitch, a minimum cleaning

lane of in. or 6 mm is recommend-

ed by TEMA.

As far as thermal-hydraulics are

concerned, the optimum tube-pitch-

to-tube-diameter ratio for conversion

of pressure drop to heat transfer is

typically 1.251.35 for turbulent ow

and around 1.4 for laminar ow.

Increasing the tube pitch to re-

duce pressure drop is generally not

recommended for two reasons. First,

it increases the shell diameter and,

thereby, the cost. Second, reducing

pressure drop by modifying the baf-

fle spacing, baffle cut, or shell type

will result in a cheaper design.

However, in the case of X shells, it

may be necessary to increase the tube

pitch above the TEMA minimum to

meet pressure drop limitations, since

there are no other parameters that can

be modied.

Mean temperature difference

Temperature difference is the driv-

ing force for heat transfer.

When two streams flow in op-

posing directions across a tube wall,

there is true countercurrent flow

(Figure 12). In this situation, the

only limitation is that the hot

stream should at all points be hotter

than the cold stream. The outlet

temperature of the cold stream may

be higher than the outlet tempera-

ture of the hot stream, as shown in

Figure 12.

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING PROGRESS FEBRUARY 1998

SHELL- AND- TUBE HEAT EXCHANGERS

s Figure 13. Cocurrent ow.

T

e

m

p

e

r

a

t

u

r

e

Exchanger Length

s Figure 12. Countercurrent ow.

T

e

m

p

e

r

a

t

u

r

e

Exchanger Length

Since the temperature difference

varies along the length of the heat

exchanger, it has to be weighted to

obtain a mean value for single-point

determination of heat-transfer area.

The logarithmic mean temperature

difference (LMTD) represents this

weighted value.

If the hot and cold streams ow in

the same direction, ow is cocurrent

(Figure 13). The mean temperature

difference is still represented by the

LMTD. However, the LMTD for

cocurrent ow is lower than that for

countercurrent ow for the same ter-

minal differences. This is because al-

though one terminal temperature dif-

ference is very high, the other is far

too low that is, the temperature

differences along the path of heat

transfer are not balanced.

What is even more serious with

cocurrent ow is that the outlet tem-

perature of the cold stream must be

somewhat lower than the outlet tem-

perature of the hot stream, which is a

serious limitation. Consequently,

countercurrent ow is always pre-

ferred to cocurrent ow.

These principles apply only to sin-

gle-pass exchangers. However, as

noted earlier, shell-and-tube heat ex-

changers invariably have two or more

tube passes. Since the shellside uid

ows in one direction, half the tube

passes experience countercurrent

ow and the other half experience

cocurrent ow. The MTD for this sit-

uation is neither the LMTD for coun-

tercurrent ow nor that for cocurrent

ow, but a value between the two.

A correction factor, F

t

, which de-

pends on the four terminal tempera-

tures and the shell style can be deter-

mined from charts in the TEMA stan-

dards. The LMTD for countercurrent

ow is multiplied by this factor to ob-

tain the corrected MTD.

An important limitation for 1-2

shells (one shell pass and two or more

tube passes) is that the outlet tempera-

ture of the cold stream cannot exceed

the outlet temperature of the hot

stream. This is because of the presence

of one or more cocurrent passes. In re-

ality, a very small temperature differ-

ence is possible, but this represents an

area of uncertainty and the credit is

very small, so it is usually ignored.

When there is a temperature cross

(that is, the outlet temperature of the

cold stream is higher than the outlet

temperature of the hot stream), and

pure countercurrent ow is not possi-

ble, multiple shells in series must be

used. This will be discussed in detail

in the followup article scheduled to

be published in the next issue.

An F shell has two passes, so if there

are two tube passes, this is a pure coun-

tercurrent situation. However, if an F

shell has four or more tube passes, it is

no longer a true countercurrent situation

and, hence, the F

t

correction has to be

applied. An F shell having four or more

tube passes is represented as a 2-4 shell.

The F

t

factor for a 2-4 shell is identical

to that for two 1-2 shells in series or two

shell passes. The TEMA F

t

factor chart

for three shell passes really represents

three shells in series, that for four shell

passes four shells in series, and so on.

It is important to realize that the

LMTD and F

t

factor concept assumes

that there is no signicant variation in

the overall heat-transfer coefficient

along the length of the shell. Howev-

er, there are some services where this

is not true. An example of this is the

cooling of a viscous liquid as the

liquid is cooled, its viscosity increas-

es, and this results in a progressive

reduction in the shellside heat-trans-

fer coefficient. In this case, the sim-

plistic overall MTD approach will be

inaccurate, and the exchanger must

be broken into several sections and

the calculations performed zone-wise.

Temperature prole distortion

An important issue that has not

been considered so far is the tempera-

ture prole distortion. As noted earli-

er, the leakage and bypass streams are

less efficient for heat transfer than the

main cross-ow stream.

Consider a case where the shellside

stream is the cold uid. Since the

main cross-ow stream encounters a

very large fraction of the total heat-

transfer surface, it has to pick up a

very large part of the total heat duty.

Assume that the cross-ow stream is

58% of the total shellside stream, but

that it comes in contact with 80% of

the tubes. As a result, its temperature

rises more rapidly than if the entire

shellside stream were to pick up the

entire heat duty. Therefore, its temper-

FEBRUARY 1998 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING PROGRESS

s Figure 14. Temperature prole distortion factor due to bypass and leakage.

T

e

m

p

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r

a

t

u

r

e

Tubeside

M

a

in

C

ro

ss-flo

w

S

tre

a

m

C

S

tream

E Stream

Shellside

L

a

s

t

B

a

f

f

l

e

Exchanger Length

Apparent Temperature Profile

C =Bundle-to-Shell Bypass

E =Baffle-to-Shell Leakage

ature prole will be steeper than that

of the total stream (the apparent tem-

perature prole) without considering

the various ow fractions (Figure 14).

The temperature proles of the

baffle-hole-to-tube leakage, shell-to-

bundle leakage, and pass-partition by-

pass streams will depend on their re-

spective ow fractions and the frac-

tional heat-transfer area encountered.

However, since the shell-to-baffle

leakage stream does not experience

any heat transfer, the remaining four

streams must pick up the entire heat

duty, so that these four streams to-

gether will have a temperature prole

steeper than that of the apparent

stream. Consequently, the temperature

difference between the hot and the

cold streams will be lower all along

the length of the heat exchanger,

thereby resulting in the reduction of

the MTD. This reduction in the MTD

is known as the temperature prole

distortion (or correction) factor.

The temperature prole distortion

factor is more pronounced when the

leakage and bypass streams are high,

especially the shell-to-baffle leakage

stream, and the ratio of shellside tem-

perature difference to the temperature

approach at the shell outlet is high.

The latter is because the closer the

temperature approach at the shell out-

let, the sharper the reduction in MTD. The leakage and bypass streams

tend to be high when the shellside

viscosity is high and when the baffle

spacing is very low. Thus, care has to

be exercised in the design of viscous

liquid coolers such as a vacuum

residue cooler in a crude oil renery.

The minimum recommended tem-

perature prole distortion factor is

0.75. Below this, two or more shells

in series must be employed. By using

multiple shells in series, the ratio of

shellside temperature difference to

the temperature approach at the shell

outlet is reduced. The mixing of the

main cross-ow stream with the by-

pass and leakage streams after each

shell reduces the penalty due to the

distortion of the temperature prole

and hence increases the temperature

prole distortion factor.

In many situations, a temperature

profile distortion factor is unavoid-

able, such as when cooling a viscous

liquid over a large temperature

range, and there is no alternative to

the use of multiple shells in series.

However, in many other situations,

improper baffle spacing unnecessar-

ily imposes such a penalty where it

is easily avoidable. Designers nor-

mally tend to pack baffles as close

as possible to get the maximum

shellside heat-transfer coefficient,

pressure drop permitting. In many

such cases, the use of somewhat

higher baffle spacing will reduce the

shell-to-baffle leakage stream (the

principal culprit) and hence improve

the MTD correction factor appre-

ciably, thereby producing a much

better design.

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING PROGRESS FEBRUARY 1998

SHELL- AND- TUBE HEAT EXCHANGERS

Shell I.D. 500 mm

Tubes 188 tubes, 20 mm O.D. 2 mm thick 6 m long

Number of tube passes 2

Tube pitch 26 mm square (90)

Baffling Single-segmental, 140 mm spacing, 21% cut (diameter)

Connections 75 mm on shellside, 150 mm on tubeside

Heat-transfer area 70 m

2

Table 10. Construction parameters for Example 4.

Nomenclature

c = stream specic heat, kcal/kgC

D = tube inside diameter, m

F

t

= LMTD correction factor,

dimensionless

G = stream mass velocity, kg/m

2

h

h = stream heat-transfer coefficient,

kcal/hm

2

C

k = stream thermal conductivity,

kcal/hmC

Nu = Nusselt number = hD/k,

dimensionless

Pr = Prandtl number = c/k,

dimensionless

Re = Reynolds number = DG/,

dimensionless

Greek Letter

= stream viscosity, kg/mh

Shellside Tubeside

Fluid Naphtha Cooling water

Flow rate, kg/h 9,841 65,570

Temperature in/out, C 114 / 40 33 / 40

Heat duty, MM kcal/h 0.46 0.46

Specic gravity in/out 0.62 / 0.692 1.0 / 1.0

Viscosity in/out, cP 0.254 / 0.484 0.76 / 0.66

Average specic heat, kcal/kgC 0.632 1.0

Thermal conductivity in/out, kcal/hmC 0.092 / 0.101 0.542 / 0.546

Allowable pressure drop, kg/cm

2

0.7 0.7

Fouling resistance, hm

2

C/kcal 0.0002 0.0004

Design pressure, kg/cm

2

(gage) 12.0 6.5

Design temperature, C 150 60

Material of construction Carbon steel Admirality brass

Table 9. Process parameters for Example 4.

Example 4: Temperature

distortion and baffle spacing

Consider an existing naphtha

cooler in a refinery and petrochemi-

cal complex. The process parameters

are listed in Table 9, and the con-

struction parameters in Table 10.

The existing design was undersur-

faced by 21%, mainly because the

temperature profile distortion factor

was 0.6, which is lower than the

minimum recommended value of

0.75. The existing design had a baf-

fle spacing of 140 mm and a baffle

cut of 21% (of the diameter). The

shell-to-baffle leakage stream frac-

tion was 0.24.

To improve the design, the baffle

spacing was progressively increased.

The undersurfacing decreased with

increasing baffle spacing, up to a

spacing of 190 mm; thereafter, per-

formance again started to deteriorate.

Thus, 190 mm is the optimum baffle

spacing.

The detailed results of the vari-

ous iterations are compared in

Table 11.

CEP

FEBRUARY 1998 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING PROGRESS

Existing Design Alternative No. 1 Alternative No. 2 Alternative No. 3 Alternative No. 4

Baffle spacing, mm 140 160 175 190 210

Stream analysis, fraction of stream

Baffle-hole-to-tube leakage (A) 0.189 0.173 0.163 0.154 0.143

Main cross-ow (B) 0.463 0.489 0.506 0.521 0.539

Shell-to-bundle leakage (C) 0.109 0.113 0.116 0.118 0.121

Shell-to-baffle leakage (E) 0.24 0.225 0.215 0.207 0.196

Pass-partition bypass stream (F) 0 0 0 0 0

Overall shellside heat-transfer 62 64.7 66.4 67.9 69.7

efficiency, %

Temperature prole distortion factor 0.6 0.692 0.735 0.766 0.794

Shellside velocity, m/s 0.15 0.14 0.13 0.13 0.12

Shellside heat-transfer coefficient, 614 570 562 550 512

kcal/hm

2

C

Shellside pressure drop, kg/cm

2

0.034 0.029 0.027 0.026 0.023

Overall heat-transfer coefficient,

kcal/hm

2

C 380 362 359 354 338

Mean temperature difference, C 13.73 15.9 16.87 17.58 18.22

Overdesign, % 21.1 12.8 8.26 5.73 6.61

Table 11. Detailed results of Example 4 iterations.

Literature Cited

1. Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers

Association, Standards of the Tubular

Exchanger Manufacturers Associa-

tion, 7th ed., TEMA, New York

(1988).

2. Mukherjee, R., Dont Let Baffling

Baffle You, Chem. Eng. Progress, 92

(4), pp. 7279 (Apr. 1996).

3. Mukherjee, R., Use Double-Segmen-

tal Baffles in Shell-and-Tube Heat Ex-

changers, Chem. Eng. Progress, 88

(11), pp. 4752 (Nov. 1992).

4. Tinker, T., Shellside Characteristics of

Shell-and-tube Heat Exchangers: A

Simplified Rating System for Commer-

cial Heat Exchangers, Trans. ASME,

80, pp. 3652 (1958).

Further Reading

Kakac, S., et al., Heat Exchangers: Ther-

mal-Hydraulic Fundamentals and De-

sign, Hemisphere Publishing Corp.,

New York (1981).

Schlunder, E.V., et al., eds., Heat Ex-

changer Design Handbook, Hemi-

sphere Publishing Corp., New York

(1983).

R. MUKHERJ EE is assistant chief consultant in

the Heat and Mass Transfer Dept. of Engineers

India Ltd., New Delhi (011-91-11-371-6171;

Fax: 011-91-11-371-5059l; e-mail:

shilpi@giasdla.vsnl.net.in), where he has

been employed since 1971. He has over 26

years of experience in the design, revamping,

and troubleshooting of air-cooled and shell-

and-tube heat exchangers (especially for oil

reneries, gas processing plants, and

petrochemical plants), and also has

considerable experience in heat-exchanger-

network synthesis and optimization. He has

written several articles in technical journals

and has presented two papers in the Industrial

Session of the 10th International Heat Transfer

Conference at Brighton in August 1994.

He has served as faculty for several courses in

heat exchanger design, energy conservation,

and heat exchanger network optimization.

He is an honors graduate in chemical

engineering fromJ adavpur Univ., Calcutta,

and is a member of the Indian Institute of

Chemical Engineers and the Indian Society

for Heat and Mass Transfer.

Acknowledgment

The author is grateful to the management of

Engineers India, Ltd., for permission to publish

this article and acknowledges the use of Heat

Transfer Research, Inc.s software for the

worked-out examples and their design

methodology.

HDA Process

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e

cool heat

Why Energy Integration?

(ICI Experience)

20 case studies

In every case, there was a reduction in energy

In almost every case, the energy savings required

less capital

Up to 60% energy savings, up to 25% capital

savings, up to 15% lower product price

Why spend additional capital to waste energy?

Energy Integration

What are the minimum cooling and heating

requirements?

What is the minimum number of heat

exchangers required?

What are the main trade-offs?

An Example

For the two hot streams being cooled and

the two cold streams being heated shown

below, find the minimum heating and

cooling requirements, as well as the

minimum number of heat exchangers if

T

min

= 10 deg F.

250 F 120 F

200 F 100 F

150 F 90 F

190 F 130 F

FC

p

(Btu/F)

1000

4000

3000

6000

Stream

1

2

3

4

Net Energy Required

(First Law Calculation)

250 F 120 F

200 F 100 F

150 F 90 F

190 F 130 F

FC

p

Q

aval

(Btu/F) (MBtu/hr)

1000 130

4000 400

3000 -180

6000 -360

-10

Thus, 10 x10

3

Btu/hr would have to be

supplied from a hot utility if there were

no requirement of T

min

= 10 deg F.

Question: What are the minimum

heating and cooling requirements?

Net Energy Required at

Temperature Intervals

Define hot and cold temperature scales

shifted by 10 deg F and show streams

250

220

190

160

130

100

240

210

180

150

120

90

T

H

(F)

T

C

(F)

Net Energy Required at

Temperature Intervals

Draw in intervals by breaking at

stream starting and ending points

250

220

190

160

130

100

240

210

180

150

120

90

T

H

(F)

T

C

(F)

Net Energy Required at

Temperature Intervals

Compute net available Q for each interval

250

220

190

160

130

100

240

210

180

150

120

90

T

H

(F)

T

C

(F)

FC

p 1000 4000 3000 6000

Q

aval

(MBtu/hr)

50

-40

-80

40

20

Note: Sum of net heat available =-10 MBtu/hr

Same as first law

Cascade Diagram

We satisfy the net requirement for each

interval from an external utility.

250

220

190

160

130

100

240

210

180

150

120

90

T

H

(F)

T

C

(F)

H

O

T

U

T

I

L

I

T

Y

C

O

L

D

U

T

I

L

I

T

Y

H =50

H =40

H =20

H =-40

H =-80

BUT ...

Cascade Diagram

We can always transfer excess heat from

high temperature intervals to lower

temperature intervals without violating

T

min

=10 F

250

220

190

160

130

100

240

210

180

150

120

90

T

H

(F)

T

C

(F)

H

O

T

U

T

I

L

I

T

Y

C

O

L

D

U

T

I

L

I

T

Y

H = 50

H =40

H =20

H =-40

H =-80

50

10

70

40

60

Minimum Heating

and Cooling

250

220

190

160

130

100

240

210

180

150

120

90

T

H

(F)

T

C

(F)

H

O

T

U

T

I

L

I

T

Y

C

O

L

D

U

T

I

L

I

T

Y

H = 50

H =40

H =20

H =-40

H =-80

50

10

70

40

60

Minimum heating = 70 MBtu/hr

Minimum cooling = 60 MBtu/hr

Net = 10 MBtu/hr of heating

Same as first law

Pinch Temperature

250

220

190

160

130

100

240

210

180

150

120

90

T

H

(F)

T

C

(F)

H

O

T

U

T

I

L

I

T

Y

C

O

L

D

U

T

I

L

I

T

Y

H = 50

H =40

H =20

H =-40

H =-80

50

10

70

40

60

The design problem can be decomposed

into two separate problems:

1. A high temperature region where only

heating is requred

2. A low temperature region where only

cooling is required

Relationship to First Law

Minimum Heat in = 70

HOT

COLD

Minimum Heat out = 60

}

Net = -10

Heat in = 70 + Q

E

HOT

Heat out = 60 + Q

E

}

Net = -10

If we put excess heat into the process,

we must also remove this heat!

Excess Heating and Cooling

250

220

190

160

130

100

240

210

180

150

120

90

T

H

(F)

T

C

(F)

H

O

T

U

T

I

L

I

T

Y

C

O

L

D

U

T

I

L

I

T

Y

H = 50

H =40

H =20

H =-40

H =-80

50

10+Q

E

70

40+Q

E

60+Q

E

Q

E

Q

E

Excess steam or furnace capacity

requires excess cooling water.

Dont transfer heat across the pinch!

Multiple Utilities

250

220

190

160

130

100

240

210

180

150

120

90

T

H

(F)

T

C

(F)

H

O

T

U

T

I

L

I

T

Y

C

O

L

D

U

T

I

L

I

T

Y

H = 50

H =40

H =20

H =-40

H =-80

50

10

70

20

40

cooling

water

hot

water

We prefer to add heat at the lowest

possible temperature, and to remove

heat at the highest possible temperature!

Multiple utilities correspond to

multiple pinches.

T-H Diagram

Enthalpy, MBtu/hr

E

n

t

h

a

l

p

y

,

M

B

t

u

/

h

r

250

230

210

190

170

150

130

110

90

0 200 400 600

Hot

T-H Diagram

Enthalpy, MBtu/hr

E

n

t

h

a

l

p

y

,

M

B

t

u

/

h

r

250

230

210

190

170

150

130

110

90

0 200 400 600

Cold

T-H Diagram

Enthalpy, MBtu/hr

E

n

t

h

a

l

p

y

,

M

B

t

u

/

h

r

250

230

210

190

170

150

130

110

90

0 200 400 600

Cold

T-H Diagram

Enthalpy, MBtu/hr

E

n

t

h

a

l

p

y

,

M

B

t

u

/

h

r

250

230

210

190

170

150

130

110

90

0 200 400 600

Hot

T

min

= 10 F

Q

C,min

Q

H,min

Cold

Limitation of the

Procedure

We need to know

FC

p

values of all streams

Inlet and outlet temperatures of all

streams

BUT the design variables that

fix the process flows must be

determined from optimization

which in turn depends on heat-

exchanger network

Solution: Heat-exchanger

network as function of the flows

Some iterations are needed

An Exercise

Given the following stream data

below, find (assume T

min

= 10

deg C)

the minimum amount heat added

the minimum amount of cooling

the pinch temperature

180 C 60 C

150 C 30 C

135 C 20 C

140 C 80 C

FC

p

(kW/C)

3

1

2

5

Stream

1

2

3

4

Minimum Number of

Exchangers

From results of minimum

heating and cooling estimates

Hot Utility

70 MBtu/hr

Stream 1

130 MBtu/hr

Stream 2

400 MBtu/hr

Sources

Stream 3

180 MBtu/hr

Stream 4

360 MBtu/hr

Cold Utility

60 MBtu/hr

Sinks

70

110

20

340

60

Heat loads always balance as

result of first law analysis

Number of exchangers (N

E

) =

Number of streams (N

S

) +

Number of Utilities (N

U

) - 1

N

E

= 4 + 2 - 1 = 5

Minimum Number of

Exchangers

The previous solution is not

always correct. Consider

Hot Utility

230 MBtu/hr

Stream 1

130 MBtu/hr

Stream 2

400 MBtu/hr

Sources

Stream 3

180 MBtu/hr

Stream 4

360 MBtu/hr

Cold Utility

220 MBtu/hr

Sinks

230

180

130

220

We see that if we have an exact

matching between some

streams, we need less exchanger

N

E

= N

S

+ N

U

- N

P

N

P

= number of independent

subproblems

Minimum Number of

Exchangers

The previous solution is still not

always correct. Consider

Hot Utility

70

Stream 1

130 MBtu/hr

Stream 2

400 MBtu/hr

Sources

Stream 3

180 MBtu/hr

Stream 4

360 MBtu/hr

Cold Utility

220 MBtu/hr

Sinks

70-Q

E

340

110+Q

E

60

We see that there are now six

exchangers and there is now a

loop (i.e., HU -> S3 -> S1 -> S4

-> HU)

N

E

= N

S

+ N

U

+ N

L

- N

P

N

L

= number of loops

Q

E

20-Q

E

Effect of Pinch Analysis

The pinch analysis indicates that we only

use heat above the pinch and cooling below

the pinch, so that the design problem can

be decomposed into two subproblems.

250

220

190

160

130

100

240

210

180

150

120

90

T

H

(F)

T

C

(F)

Assume no loops

& no exact matches

N

E

= N

S

+ N

U

- 1

= 4 + 1 - 1 = 4

N

E

= N

S

+ N

U

- 1

= 3 + 1 - 1 = 3

N

TOTAL

= 7

Effect of Pinch Analysis

Minimum Exchangers:

N = 5

Pinch Analysis:

N = 7

(minimum energy)

A trade-off between captial cost

(minimum exchangers) and

utility costs (minimum energy)

We can decrease the number of

exchangers if we transfer some

heat across the pinch, but the

energy usage increases

Design of Minimum-

Energy HENs

250

220

190

160

130

100

240

210

180

150

120

90

T

H

(F)

T

C

(F)

Q = 110

Q = 20

Q = 240

Q = 160

Q = 120

Q = 60

Q = 360

Stream 1 2 3 4

FC

p

1000 4000 3000 6000

Pinch

Above the pinch: Q

tot

= 70 MBtu/hr, heat added

Above the pinch: Q

tot

= 60 MBtu/hr, heat removed

Design above the Pinch

250

220

190

160

130

100

240

210

180

150

120

90

T

H

(F)

T

C

(F)

Q = 110

Q = 240

Q = 60

Q = 360

Pinch

Feasible Pinch Matches:

(FC

p

)

HOT

< (FC

p

)

COLD

We can match stream 1 with either 3 or 4,

and we can only match stream 2 with 4.

Design above the Pinch

250

220

190

160

130

100

240

210

180

150

120

90

T

H

(F)

T

C

(F)

Q = 60

Q=240

Pinch

Transfer the maximum amount of heat

possible for each match to attemp to

eliminate streams from the problem.

Remaining Heat Loads

250

220

190

160

130

100

240

210

180

150

120

90

T

H

(F)

T

C

(F)

Pinch

Q = 110-60

= 50

Q = 360-240

= 120

170 F

200 F

Transfer the remaining heat from

stream 1 to stream 4.

Remaining Heat Loads

250

220

190

160

130

100

240

210

180

150

120

90

T

H

(F)

T

C

(F)

Pinch

Q = 50

Heat from Hot Utility

250

220

190

160

130

100

240

210

180

150

120

90

T

H

(F)

T

C

(F)

Pinch

178 F

H = 70

Design above the Pinch

(Summary)

250

220

190

160

130

100

240

210

180

150

120

90

T

H

(F)

T

C

(F)

Q = 60

Q=240

Pinch

1. Put in the matches at the pinch

2. Maximize the heat loads to eliminate

streams

3. See what is left

Q=50

H=70

Design above the Pinch

(Alternatives)

250

220

190

160

130

100

240

210

180

150

120

90

T

H

(F)

T

C

(F)

Q = 60

Q=240

Pinch

Q=50

H=70

Design below the Pinch

250

220

190

160

130

100

240

210

180

150

120

90

T

H

(F)

T

C

(F)

Q = 20

Q = 160

Q = 120

Pinch

Design below the Pinch

(One Alternative)

250

220

190

160

130

100

240

210

180

150

120

90

T

H

(F)

T

C

(F)

Pinch

Q = 120

C = 20

C = 40

T=120

A Complete Design

250

220

190

160

130

100

240

210

180

150

120

90

T

H

(F)

T

C

(F)

Q = 60

Q=240

Q=50

H=70

Q = 120 C = 20

C = 40

Total Number of Exchangers: 7

Remarks

Minimum approach temperature

So far, we have assumed a value

of 10 deg F

Trade-off: Larger minimum

approach temperature, smaller

heat-exchanger area but larger

minimum heating and cooling

Additional complexities

The design problem is not always

as simple as the example

considered

Stream splitting

Alternatives

Reducing the Number of

Exchangers

The number of exchangers required

for the overall process is always

less than or equal to that for the

minimum energy network

The minimum energy network

normally contains loops across the

pinch

These loops can be broken by

transferring heat across the pinch,

but we will introduce at least one

violation of the specified T

min

T

min

can be restored by shifting

heat along a path, which increases

energy consumption of the process

Loops

250

220

190

160

130

100

240

210

180

150

120

90

T

H

(F)

T

C

(F)

A set of connections that starts from one

stream and returns to the same stream.

Loops

250

220

190

160

130

100

240

210

180

150

120

90

T

H

(F)

T

C

(F)

A set of connections that starts from one

stream and returns to the same stream.

Loops

250

220

190

160

130

100

240

210

180

150

120

90

T

H

(F)

T

C

(F)

A set of connections that starts from one

stream and returns to the same stream.

Loops

250

220

190

160

130

100

240

210

180

150

120

90

T

H

(F)

T

C

(F)

A set of connections that starts from one

stream and returns to the same stream.

Breaking Loops

250

220

190

160

130

100

240

210

180

150

120

90

T

H

(F)

T

C

(F)

Q = 60

Q=240

Q=50

H=70

Q = 120 C = 20

C = 40

Break the loop with exchanger with the

small load

Remove the smallest heat load from loop

Breaking a loop across the pinch

normally violates the 2nd law

250

220

190

160

130

100

240

210

180

150

120

90

T

H

(F)

T

C

(F)

Q = 60

Q=240-20

Q=50+20

H=70

Q = 120

C = 40+20

BUT ...

250

220

190

160

130

100

240

210

180

150

120

90

T

H

(F)

T

C

(F)

Q = 60

Q=220

Q=70

H=70

Q = 120

C = 60

Hot Stream: 200 F to 120 F

Cold Stream: 150 F to 130 F

Impossible according to 2nd Law!

Restoring T

min

Q=60+Q

E

Q=220

Q=70-Q

E

H=70+Q

E

C = 60+Q

E

Shift heat along a path, which is a

connection between a cooler and a heater

Thus, 1000(60+Q

E

) = 3000(150-110)

Q

E

= 60 MBtu/hr

< 110 F

T=120

Q = 120- Q

E

Reducing Number of

Exchangers

Q=120

Q=220

Q=10

H=130

C = 120

T=110

T=250

T=240

T=120

T=90

T=150

T=200

T=145

T=115

T=100

T=190

T=168.4

T=166.6

T=130

Total number of Exchangers: 6

Q = 60

Restoring T

min

(An Alternative Path)

Q=60

Q=220-Q

E

Q=70

H=70+Q

E

C = 60+Q

E

< 110 F

T=120

But this path cant restore T

min

!

Q=120

Breaking Another Loop

Q=120

Q=220

Q=10

H=130

C = 120

Q=60

Heat Engines

Heat

Engine

Q

in

+W

Q

in

W

Energy

Cascade

Q

out

Energy

Cascade

Q

in

Energy

Cascade

Q

out

Energy

Cascade

Pinch

Heat

Engine

Q

out

-W

Q

in

W

Energy

Cascade

Q

out

Energy

Cascade

Heat

Engine

Q

E

-W

Q

in

W

Energy

Cascade

Q

out

+Q

E

-W

Energy

Cascade

Q

E

Efficiency: 100% 100% Sandard Alone

Place Heat Engine either above

or below the pinch (not across)!

Heat Pumps

Heat

Pump

Q

in

- W

Q

E

W

Energy

Cascade

Q

out

Energy

Cascade

Q

in

Energy

Cascade

Q

out

Energy

Cascade

Place heat pump across the pinch!

Q

E

+W

Pinch

Heat

Pump

Q

in

Q

E

W

Energy

Cascade

Q

out

+ W

Energy

Cascade

Q

E

- W

Heat

Pump

Q

in

- (Q

E

+W)

Q

E

W

Energy

Cascade

Q

out

- Q

E

Energy

Cascade

Q

E

+W

Distillation

Column as a heat engine

Column

Heat In (Q

Reb

)

Heat Out (Q

Cond

)

Column either above or below

the pinch

Q

in

Energy

Cascade

Q

out

Energy

Cascade

Column

Q

in

Energy

Cascade

Q

out

Energy

Cascade

Column

HDA Process

Reactor

Flash

compressor

S

t

a

b

i

l

i

z

e

r

P

r

o

d

u

c

t

R

e

c

y

c

l

e

cool heat

Why Energy Integration?

(ICI Experience)

20 case studies

In every case, there was a reduction in energy

In almost every case, the energy savings required

less capital

Up to 60% energy savings, up to 25% capital

savings, up to 15% lower product price

Why spend additional capital to waste energy?

Energy Integration

What are the minimum cooling and heating

requirements?

What is the minimum number of heat

exchangers required?

What are the main trade-offs?

An Example

For the two hot streams being cooled and

the two cold streams being heated shown

below, find the minimum heating and

cooling requirements, as well as the

minimum number of heat exchangers if

T

min

= 10 deg F.

250 F 120 F

200 F 100 F

150 F 90 F

190 F 130 F

FC

p

(Btu/F)

1000

4000

3000

6000

Stream

1

2

3

4

Net Energy Required

(First Law Calculation)

250 F 120 F

200 F 100 F

150 F 90 F

190 F 130 F

FC

p

Q

aval

(Btu/F) (MBtu/hr)

1000 130

4000 400

3000 -180

6000 -360

-10

Thus, 10 x10

3

Btu/hr would have to be

supplied from a hot utility if there were

no requirement of T

min

= 10 deg F.

Question: What are the minimum

heating and cooling requirements?

Net Energy Required at

Temperature Intervals

Define hot and cold temperature scales

shifted by 10 deg F and show streams

250

220

190

160

130

100

240

210

180

150

120

90

T

H

(F)

T

C

(F)

Net Energy Required at

Temperature Intervals

Draw in intervals by breaking at

stream starting and ending points

250

220

190

160

130

100

240

210

180

150

120

90

T

H

(F)

T

C

(F)

Net Energy Required at

Temperature Intervals

Compute net available Q for each interval

250

220

190

160

130

100

240

210

180

150

120

90

T

H

(F)

T

C

(F)

FC

p 1000 4000 3000 6000

Q

aval

(MBtu/hr)

50

-40

-80

40

20

Note: Sum of net heat available =-10 MBtu/hr

Same as first law

Cascade Diagram

We satisfy the net requirement for each

interval from an external utility.

250

220

190

160

130

100

240

210

180

150

120

90

T

H

(F)

T

C

(F)

H

O

T

U

T

I

L

I

T

Y

C

O

L

D

U

T

I

L

I

T

Y

H =50

H =40

H =20

H =-40

H =-80

BUT ...

Cascade Diagram

We can always transfer excess heat from

high temperature intervals to lower

temperature intervals without violating

T

min

=10 F

250

220

190

160

130

100

240

210

180

150

120

90

T

H

(F)

T

C

(F)

H

O

T

U

T

I

L

I

T

Y

C

O

L

D

U

T

I

L

I

T

Y

H = 50

H =40

H =20

H =-40

H =-80

50

10

70

40

60

Minimum Heating

and Cooling

250

220

190

160

130

100

240

210

180

150

120

90

T

H

(F)

T

C

(F)

H

O

T

U

T

I

L

I

T

Y

C

O

L

D

U

T

I

L

I

T

Y

H = 50

H =40

H =20

H =-40

H =-80

50

10

70

40

60

Minimum heating = 70 MBtu/hr

Minimum cooling = 60 MBtu/hr

Net = 10 MBtu/hr of heating

Same as first law

Pinch Temperature

250

220

190

160

130

100

240

210

180

150

120

90

T

H

(F)

T

C

(F)

H

O

T

U

T

I

L

I

T

Y

C

O

L

D

U

T

I

L

I

T

Y

H = 50

H =40

H =20

H =-40

H =-80

50

10

70

40

60

The design problem can be decomposed

into two separate problems:

1. A high temperature region where only

heating is requred

2. A low temperature region where only

cooling is required

Relationship to First Law

Minimum Heat in = 70

HOT

COLD

Minimum Heat out = 60

}

Net = -10

Heat in = 70 + Q

E

HOT

Heat out = 60 + Q

E

}

Net = -10

If we put excess heat into the process,

we must also remove this heat!

Excess Heating and Cooling

250

220

190

160

130

100

240

210

180

150

120

90

T

H

(F)

T

C

(F)

H

O

T

U

T

I

L

I

T

Y

C

O

L

D

U

T

I

L

I

T

Y

H = 50

H =40

H =20

H =-40

H =-80

50

10+Q

E

70

40+Q

E

60+Q

E

Q

E

Q

E

Excess steam or furnace capacity

requires excess cooling water.

Dont transfer heat across the pinch!

Multiple Utilities

250

220

190

160

130

100

240

210

180

150

120

90

T

H

(F)

T

C

(F)

H

O

T

U

T

I

L

I

T

Y

C

O

L

D

U

T

I

L

I

T

Y

H = 50

H =40

H =20

H =-40

H =-80

50

10

70

20

40

cooling

water

hot

water

We prefer to add heat at the lowest

possible temperature, and to remove

heat at the highest possible temperature!

Multiple utilities correspond to

multiple pinches.

T-H Diagram

Enthalpy, MBtu/hr

E

n

t

h

a

l

p

y

,

M

B

t

u

/

h

r

250

230

210

190

170

150

130

110

90

0 200 400 600

Hot

T-H Diagram

Enthalpy, MBtu/hr

E

n

t

h

a

l

p

y

,

M

B

t

u

/

h

r

250

230

210

190

170

150

130

110

90

0 200 400 600

Cold

T-H Diagram

Enthalpy, MBtu/hr

E

n

t

h

a

l

p

y

,

M

B

t

u

/

h

r

250

230

210

190

170

150

130

110

90

0 200 400 600

Cold

T-H Diagram

Enthalpy, MBtu/hr

E

n

t

h

a

l

p

y

,

M

B

t

u

/

h

r

250

230

210

190

170

150

130

110

90

0 200 400 600

Hot

T

min

= 10 F

Q

C,min

Q

H,min

Cold

Limitation of the

Procedure

We need to know

FC

p

values of all streams

Inlet and outlet temperatures of all

streams

BUT the design variables that

fix the process flows must be

determined from optimization

which in turn depends on heat-

exchanger network

Solution: Heat-exchanger

network as function of the flows

Some iterations are needed

An Exercise

Given the following stream data

below, find (assume T

min

= 10

deg C)

the minimum amount heat added

the minimum amount of cooling

the pinch temperature

180 C 60 C

150 C 30 C

135 C 20 C

140 C 80 C

FC

p

(kW/C)

3

1

2

5

Stream

1

2

3

4

Minimum Number of

Exchangers

From results of minimum

heating and cooling estimates

Hot Utility

70 MBtu/hr

Stream 1

130 MBtu/hr

Stream 2

400 MBtu/hr

Sources

Stream 3

180 MBtu/hr

Stream 4

360 MBtu/hr

Cold Utility

60 MBtu/hr

Sinks

70

110

20

340

60

Heat loads always balance as

result of first law analysis

Number of exchangers (N

E

) =

Number of streams (N

S

) +

Number of Utilities (N

U

) - 1

N

E

= 4 + 2 - 1 = 5

Minimum Number of

Exchangers

The previous solution is not

always correct. Consider

Hot Utility

230 MBtu/hr

Stream 1

130 MBtu/hr

Stream 2

400 MBtu/hr

Sources

Stream 3

180 MBtu/hr

Stream 4

360 MBtu/hr

Cold Utility

220 MBtu/hr

Sinks

230

180

130

220

We see that if we have an exact

matching between some

streams, we need less exchanger

N

E

= N

S

+ N

U

- N

P

N

P

= number of independent

subproblems

Minimum Number of

Exchangers

The previous solution is still not

always correct. Consider

Hot Utility

70

Stream 1

130 MBtu/hr

Stream 2

400 MBtu/hr

Sources

Stream 3

180 MBtu/hr

Stream 4

360 MBtu/hr

Cold Utility

220 MBtu/hr

Sinks

70-Q

E

340

110+Q

E

60

We see that there are now six

exchangers and there is now a

loop (i.e., HU -> S3 -> S1 -> S4

-> HU)

N

E

= N

S

+ N

U

+ N

L

- N

P

N

L

= number of loops

Q

E

20-Q

E

Effect of Pinch Analysis

The pinch analysis indicates that we only

use heat above the pinch and cooling below

the pinch, so that the design problem can

be decomposed into two subproblems.

250

220

190

160

130

100

240

210

180

150

120

90

T

H

(F)

T

C

(F)

Assume no loops

& no exact matches

N

E

= N

S

+ N

U

- 1

= 4 + 1 - 1 = 4

N

E

= N

S

+ N

U

- 1

= 3 + 1 - 1 = 3

N

TOTAL

= 7

Effect of Pinch Analysis

Minimum Exchangers:

N = 5

Pinch Analysis:

N = 7

(minimum energy)

A trade-off between captial cost

(minimum exchangers) and

utility costs (minimum energy)

We can decrease the number of

exchangers if we transfer some

heat across the pinch, but the

energy usage increases

Design of Minimum-

Energy HENs

250

220

190

160

130

100

240

210

180

150

120

90

T

H

(F)

T

C

(F)

Q = 110

Q = 20

Q = 240

Q = 160

Q = 120

Q = 60

Q = 360

Stream 1 2 3 4

FC

p

1000 4000 3000 6000

Pinch

Above the pinch: Q

tot

= 70 MBtu/hr, heat added

Above the pinch: Q

tot

= 60 MBtu/hr, heat removed

Design above the Pinch

250

220

190

160

130

100

240

210

180

150

120

90

T

H

(F)

T

C

(F)

Q = 110

Q = 240

Q = 60

Q = 360

Pinch

Feasible Pinch Matches:

(FC

p

)

HOT

< (FC

p

)

COLD

We can match stream 1 with either 3 or 4,

and we can only match stream 2 with 4.

Design above the Pinch

250

220

190

160

130

100

240

210

180

150

120

90

T

H

(F)

T

C

(F)

Q = 60

Q=240

Pinch

Transfer the maximum amount of heat

possible for each match to attemp to

eliminate streams from the problem.

Remaining Heat Loads

250

220

190

160

130

100

240

210

180

150

120

90

T

H

(F)

T

C

(F)

Pinch

Q = 110-60

= 50

Q = 360-240

= 120

170 F

200 F

Transfer the remaining heat from

stream 1 to stream 4.

Remaining Heat Loads

250

220

190

160

130

100

240

210

180

150

120

90

T

H

(F)

T

C

(F)

Pinch

Q = 50

Heat from Hot Utility

250

220

190

160

130

100

240

210

180

150

120

90

T

H

(F)

T

C

(F)

Pinch

178 F

H = 70

Design above the Pinch

(Summary)

250

220

190

160

130

100

240

210

180

150

120

90

T

H

(F)

T

C

(F)

Q = 60

Q=240

Pinch

1. Put in the matches at the pinch

2. Maximize the heat loads to eliminate

streams

3. See what is left

Q=50

H=70

Design above the Pinch

(Alternatives)

250

220

190

160

130

100

240

210

180

150

120

90

T

H

(F)

T

C

(F)

Q = 60

Q=240

Pinch

Q=50

H=70

Design below the Pinch

250

220

190

160

130

100

240

210

180

150

120

90

T

H

(F)

T

C

(F)

Q = 20

Q = 160

Q = 120

Pinch

Design below the Pinch

(One Alternative)

250

220

190

160

130

100

240

210

180

150

120

90

T

H

(F)

T

C

(F)

Pinch

Q = 120

C = 20

C = 40

T=120

A Complete Design

250

220

190

160

130

100

240

210

180

150

120

90

T

H

(F)

T

C

(F)

Q = 60

Q=240

Q=50

H=70

Q = 120 C = 20

C = 40

Total Number of Exchangers: 7

Remarks

Minimum approach temperature

So far, we have assumed a value

of 10 deg F

Trade-off: Larger minimum

approach temperature, smaller

heat-exchanger area but larger

minimum heating and cooling

Additional complexities

The design problem is not always

as simple as the example

considered

Stream splitting

Alternatives

Reducing the Number of

Exchangers

The number of exchangers required

for the overall process is always

less than or equal to that for the

minimum energy network

The minimum energy network

normally contains loops across the

pinch

These loops can be broken by

transferring heat across the pinch,

but we will introduce at least one

violation of the specified T

min

T

min

can be restored by shifting

heat along a path, which increases

energy consumption of the process

Loops

250

220

190

160

130

100

240

210

180

150

120

90

T

H

(F)

T

C

(F)

A set of connections that starts from one

stream and returns to the same stream.

Loops

250

220

190

160

130

100

240

210

180

150

120

90

T

H

(F)

T

C

(F)

A set of connections that starts from one

stream and returns to the same stream.

Loops

250

220

190

160

130

100

240

210

180

150

120

90

T

H

(F)

T

C

(F)

A set of connections that starts from one

stream and returns to the same stream.

Loops

250

220

190

160

130

100

240

210

180

150

120

90

T

H

(F)

T

C

(F)

A set of connections that starts from one

stream and returns to the same stream.

Breaking Loops

250

220

190

160

130

100

240

210

180

150

120

90

T

H

(F)

T

C

(F)

Q = 60

Q=240

Q=50

H=70

Q = 120 C = 20

C = 40

Break the loop with exchanger with the

small load

Remove the smallest heat load from loop

Breaking a loop across the pinch

normally violates the 2nd law

250

220

190

160

130

100

240

210

180

150

120

90

T

H

(F)

T

C

(F)

Q = 60

Q=240-20

Q=50+20

H=70

Q = 120

C = 40+20

BUT ...

250

220

190

160

130

100

240

210

180

150

120

90

T

H

(F)

T

C

(F)

Q = 60

Q=220

Q=70

H=70

Q = 120

C = 60

Hot Stream: 200 F to 120 F

Cold Stream: 150 F to 130 F

Impossible according to 2nd Law!

Restoring T

min

Q=60+Q

E

Q=220

Q=70-Q

E

H=70+Q

E

C = 60+Q

E

Shift heat along a path, which is a

connection between a cooler and a heater

Thus, 1000(60+Q

E

) = 3000(150-110)

Q

E

= 60 MBtu/hr

< 110 F

T=120

Q = 120- Q

E

Reducing Number of

Exchangers

Q=120

Q=220

Q=10

H=130

C = 120

T=110

T=250

T=240

T=120

T=90

T=150

T=200

T=145

T=115

T=100

T=190

T=168.4

T=166.6

T=130

Total number of Exchangers: 6

Q = 60

Restoring T

min

(An Alternative Path)

Q=60

Q=220-Q

E

Q=70

H=70+Q

E

C = 60+Q

E

< 110 F

T=120

But this path cant restore T

min

!

Q=120

Breaking Another Loop

Q=120

Q=220

Q=10

H=130

C = 120

Q=60

Heat Engines

Heat

Engine

Q

in

+W

Q

in

W

Energy

Cascade

Q

out

Energy

Cascade

Q

in

Energy

Cascade

Q

out

Energy

Cascade

Pinch

Heat

Engine

Q

out

-W

Q

in

W

Energy

Cascade

Q

out

Energy

Cascade

Heat

Engine

Q

E

-W

Q

in

W

Energy

Cascade

Q

out

+Q

E

-W

Energy

Cascade

Q

E

Efficiency: 100% 100% Sandard Alone

Place Heat Engine either above

or below the pinch (not across)!

Heat Pumps

Heat

Pump

Q

in

- W

Q

E

W

Energy

Cascade

Q

out

Energy

Cascade

Q

in

Energy

Cascade

Q

out

Energy

Cascade

Place heat pump across the pinch!

Q

E

+W

Pinch

Heat

Pump

Q

in

Q

E

W

Energy

Cascade

Q

out

+ W

Energy

Cascade

Q

E

- W

Heat

Pump

Q

in

- (Q

E

+W)

Q

E

W

Energy

Cascade

Q

out

- Q

E

Energy

Cascade

Q

E

+W

Distillation

Column as a heat engine

Column

Heat In (Q

Reb

)

Heat Out (Q

Cond

)

Column either above or below

the pinch

Q

in

Energy

Cascade

Q

out

Energy

Cascade

Column

Q

in

Energy

Cascade

Q

out

Energy

Cascade

Column

HDA Process

Reactor

Flash

compressor

S

t

a

b

i

l

i

z

e

r

P

r

o

d

u

c

t

R

e

c

y

c

l

e

cool heat

Why Energy Integration?

(ICI Experience)

20 case studies

In every case, there was a reduction in energy

In almost every case, the energy savings required

less capital

Up to 60% energy savings, up to 25% capital

savings, up to 15% lower product price

Why spend additional capital to waste energy?

Energy Integration

What are the minimum cooling and heating

requirements?

What is the minimum number of heat

exchangers required?

What are the main trade-offs?

An Example

For the two hot streams being cooled and

the two cold streams being heated shown

below, find the minimum heating and

cooling requirements, as well as the

minimum number of heat exchangers if

T

min

= 10 deg F.

250 F 120 F

200 F 100 F

150 F 90 F

190 F 130 F

FC

p

(Btu/F)

1000

4000

3000

6000

Stream

1

2

3

4

Net Energy Required

(First Law Calculation)

250 F 120 F

200 F 100 F

150 F 90 F

190 F 130 F

FC

p

Q

aval

(Btu/F) (MBtu/hr)

1000 130

4000 400

3000 -180

6000 -360

-10

Thus, 10 x10

3

Btu/hr would have to be

supplied from a hot utility if there were

no requirement of T

min

= 10 deg F.

Question: What are the minimum

heating and cooling requirements?

Net Energy Required at

Temperature Intervals

Define hot and cold temperature scales

shifted by 10 deg F and show streams

250

220

190

160

130

100

240

210

180

150

120

90

T

H

(F)

T

C

(F)

Net Energy Required at

Temperature Intervals

Draw in intervals by breaking at

stream starting and ending points

250

220

190

160

130

100

240

210

180

150

120

90

T

H

(F)

T

C

(F)

Net Energy Required at

Temperature Intervals

Compute net available Q for each interval

250

220

190

160

130

100

240

210

180

150

120

90

T

H

(F)

T

C

(F)

FC

p 1000 4000 3000 6000

Q

aval

(MBtu/hr)

50

-40

-80

40

20

Note: Sum of net heat available =-10 MBtu/hr

Same as first law

Cascade Diagram

We satisfy the net requirement for each

interval from an external utility.

250

220

190

160

130

100

240

210

180

150

120

90

T

H

(F)

T

C

(F)

H

O

T

U

T

I

L

I

T

Y

C

O

L

D

U

T

I

L

I

T

Y

H =50

H =40

H =20

H =-40

H =-80

BUT ...

Cascade Diagram

We can always transfer excess heat from

high temperature intervals to lower

temperature intervals without violating

T

min

=10 F

250

220

190

160

130

100

240

210

180

150

120

90

T

H

(F)

T

C

(F)

H

O

T

U

T

I

L

I

T

Y

C

O

L

D

U

T

I

L

I

T

Y

H = 50

H =40

H =20

H =-40

H =-80

50

10

70

40

60

Minimum Heating

and Cooling

250

220

190

160

130

100

240

210

180

150

120

90

T

H

(F)

T

C

(F)

H

O

T

U

T

I

L

I

T

Y

C

O

L

D

U

T

I

L

I

T

Y

H = 50

H =40

H =20

H =-40

H =-80

50

10

70

40

60

Minimum heating = 70 MBtu/hr

Minimum cooling = 60 MBtu/hr

Net = 10 MBtu/hr of heating

Same as first law

Pinch Temperature

250

220

190

160

130

100

240

210

180

150

120

90

T

H

(F)

T

C

(F)

H

O

T

U

T

I

L

I

T

Y

C

O

L

D

U

T

I

L

I

T

Y

H = 50

H =40

H =20

H =-40

H =-80

50

10

70

40

60

The design problem can be decomposed

into two separate problems:

1. A high temperature region where only

heating is requred

2. A low temperature region where only

cooling is required

Relationship to First Law

Minimum Heat in = 70

HOT

COLD

Minimum Heat out = 60

}

Net = -10

Heat in = 70 + Q

E

HOT

Heat out = 60 + Q

E

}

Net = -10

If we put excess heat into the process,

we must also remove this heat!

Excess Heating and Cooling

250

220

190

160

130

100

240

210

180

150

120

90

T

H

(F)

T

C

(F)

H

O

T

U

T

I

L

I

T

Y

C

O

L

D

U

T

I

L

I

T

Y

H = 50

H =40

H =20

H =-40

H =-80

50

10+Q

E

70

40+Q

E

60+Q

E

Q

E

Q

E

Excess steam or furnace capacity

requires excess cooling water.

Dont transfer heat across the pinch!

Multiple Utilities

250

220

190

160

130

100

240

210

180

150

120

90

T

H

(F)

T

C

(F)

H

O

T

U

T

I

L

I

T

Y

C

O

L

D

U

T

I

L

I

T

Y

H = 50

H =40

H =20

H =-40

H =-80

50

10

70

20

40

cooling

water

hot

water

We prefer to add heat at the lowest

possible temperature, and to remove

heat at the highest possible temperature!

Multiple utilities correspond to

multiple pinches.

T-H Diagram

Enthalpy, MBtu/hr

E

n

t

h

a

l

p

y

,

M

B

t

u

/

h

r

250

230

210

190

170

150

130

110

90

0 200 400 600

Hot

T-H Diagram

Enthalpy, MBtu/hr

E

n

t

h

a

l

p

y

,

M

B

t

u

/

h

r

250

230

210

190

170

150

130

110

90

0 200 400 600

Cold

T-H Diagram

Enthalpy, MBtu/hr

E

n

t

h

a

l

p

y

,

M

B

t

u

/

h

r

250

230

210

190

170

150

130

110

90

0 200 400 600

Cold

T-H Diagram

Enthalpy, MBtu/hr

E

n

t

h

a

l

p

y

,

M

B

t

u

/

h

r

250

230

210

190

170

150

130

110

90

0 200 400 600

Hot

T

min

= 10 F

Q

C,min

Q

H,min

Cold

Limitation of the

Procedure

We need to know

FC

p

values of all streams

Inlet and outlet temperatures of all

streams

BUT the design variables that

fix the process flows must be

determined from optimization

which in turn depends on heat-

exchanger network

Solution: Heat-exchanger

network as function of the flows

Some iterations are needed

An Exercise

Given the following stream data

below, find (assume T

min

= 10

deg C)

the minimum amount heat added

the minimum amount of cooling

the pinch temperature

180 C 60 C

150 C 30 C

135 C 20 C

140 C 80 C

FC

p

(kW/C)

3

1

2

5

Stream

1

2

3

4

Minimum Number of

Exchangers

From results of minimum

heating and cooling estimates

Hot Utility

70 MBtu/hr

Stream 1

130 MBtu/hr

Stream 2

400 MBtu/hr

Sources

Stream 3

180 MBtu/hr

Stream 4

360 MBtu/hr

Cold Utility

60 MBtu/hr

Sinks

70

110

20

340

60

Heat loads always balance as

result of first law analysis

Number of exchangers (N

E

) =

Number of streams (N

S

) +

Number of Utilities (N

U

) - 1

N

E

= 4 + 2 - 1 = 5

Minimum Number of

Exchangers

The previous solution is not

always correct. Consider

Hot Utility

230 MBtu/hr

Stream 1

130 MBtu/hr

Stream 2

400 MBtu/hr

Sources

Stream 3

180 MBtu/hr

Stream 4

360 MBtu/hr

Cold Utility

220 MBtu/hr

Sinks

230

180

130

220

We see that if we have an exact

matching between some

streams, we need less exchanger

N

E

= N

S

+ N

U

- N

P

N

P

= number of independent

subproblems

Minimum Number of

Exchangers

The previous solution is still not

always correct. Consider

Hot Utility

70

Stream 1

130 MBtu/hr

Stream 2

400 MBtu/hr

Sources

Stream 3

180 MBtu/hr

Stream 4

360 MBtu/hr

Cold Utility

220 MBtu/hr

Sinks

70-Q

E

340

110+Q

E

60

We see that there are now six

exchangers and there is now a

loop (i.e., HU -> S3 -> S1 -> S4

-> HU)

N

E

= N

S

+ N

U

+ N

L

- N

P

N

L

= number of loops

Q

E

20-Q

E

Effect of Pinch Analysis

The pinch analysis indicates that we only

use heat above the pinch and cooling below

the pinch, so that the design problem can

be decomposed into two subproblems.

250

220

190

160

130

100

240

210

180

150

120

90

T

H

(F)

T

C

(F)

Assume no loops

& no exact matches

N

E

= N

S

+ N

U

- 1

= 4 + 1 - 1 = 4

N

E

= N

S

+ N

U

- 1

= 3 + 1 - 1 = 3

N

TOTAL

= 7

Effect of Pinch Analysis

Minimum Exchangers:

N = 5

Pinch Analysis:

N = 7

(minimum energy)

A trade-off between captial cost

(minimum exchangers) and

utility costs (minimum energy)

We can decrease the number of

exchangers if we transfer some

heat across the pinch, but the

energy usage increases

Design of Minimum-

Energy HENs

250

220

190

160

130

100

240

210

180

150

120

90

T

H

(F)

T

C

(F)

Q = 110

Q = 20

Q = 240

Q = 160

Q = 120

Q = 60

Q = 360

Stream 1 2 3 4

FC

p

1000 4000 3000 6000

Pinch

Above the pinch: Q

tot

= 70 MBtu/hr, heat added

Above the pinch: Q

tot

= 60 MBtu/hr, heat removed

Design above the Pinch

250

220

190

160

130

100

240

210

180

150

120

90

T

H

(F)

T

C

(F)

Q = 110

Q = 240

Q = 60

Q = 360

Pinch

Feasible Pinch Matches:

(FC

p

)

HOT

< (FC

p

)

COLD

We can match stream 1 with either 3 or 4,

and we can only match stream 2 with 4.

Design above the Pinch

250

220

190

160

130

100

240

210

180

150

120

90

T

H

(F)

T

C

(F)

Q = 60

Q=240

Pinch

Transfer the maximum amount of heat

possible for each match to attemp to

eliminate streams from the problem.

Remaining Heat Loads

250

220

190

160

130

100

240

210

180

150

120

90

T

H

(F)

T

C

(F)

Pinch

Q = 110-60

= 50

Q = 360-240

= 120

170 F

200 F

Transfer the remaining heat from

stream 1 to stream 4.

Remaining Heat Loads

250

220

190

160

130

100

240

210

180

150

120

90

T

H

(F)

T

C

(F)

Pinch

Q = 50

Heat from Hot Utility

250

220

190

160

130

100

240

210

180

150

120

90

T

H

(F)

T

C

(F)

Pinch

178 F

H = 70

Design above the Pinch

(Summary)

250

220

190

160

130

100

240

210

180

150

120

90

T

H

(F)

T

C

(F)

Q = 60

Q=240

Pinch

1. Put in the matches at the pinch

2. Maximize the heat loads to eliminate

streams

3. See what is left

Q=50

H=70

Design above the Pinch

(Alternatives)

250

220

190

160

130

100

240

210

180

150

120

90

T

H

(F)

T

C

(F)

Q = 60

Q=240

Pinch

Q=50

H=70

Design below the Pinch

250

220

190

160

130

100

240

210

180

150

120

90

T

H

(F)

T

C

(F)

Q = 20

Q = 160

Q = 120

Pinch

Design below the Pinch

(One Alternative)

250

220

190

160

130

100

240

210

180

150

120

90

T

H

(F)

T

C

(F)

Pinch

Q = 120

C = 20

C = 40

T=120

A Complete Design

250

220

190

160

130

100

240

210

180

150

120

90

T

H

(F)

T

C

(F)

Q = 60

Q=240

Q=50

H=70

Q = 120 C = 20

C = 40

Total Number of Exchangers: 7

Remarks

Minimum approach temperature

So far, we have assumed a value

of 10 deg F

Trade-off: Larger minimum

approach temperature, smaller

heat-exchanger area but larger

minimum heating and cooling

Additional complexities

The design problem is not always

as simple as the example

considered

Stream splitting

Alternatives

Reducing the Number of

Exchangers

The number of exchangers required

for the overall process is always

less than or equal to that for the

minimum energy network

The minimum energy network

normally contains loops across the

pinch

These loops can be broken by

transferring heat across the pinch,

but we will introduce at least one

violation of the specified T

min

T

min

can be restored by shifting

heat along a path, which increases

energy consumption of the process

Loops

250

220

190

160

130

100

240

210

180

150

120

90

T

H

(F)

T

C

(F)

A set of connections that starts from one

stream and returns to the same stream.

Loops

250

220

190

160

130

100

240

210

180

150

120

90

T

H

(F)

T

C

(F)

A set of connections that starts from one

stream and returns to the same stream.

Loops

250

220

190

160

130

100

240

210

180

150

120

90

T

H

(F)

T

C

(F)

A set of connections that starts from one

stream and returns to the same stream.

Loops

250

220

190

160

130

100

240

210

180

150

120

90

T

H

(F)

T

C

(F)

A set of connections that starts from one

stream and returns to the same stream.

Breaking Loops

250

220

190

160

130

100

240

210

180

150

120

90

T

H

(F)

T

C

(F)

Q = 60

Q=240

Q=50

H=70

Q = 120 C = 20

C = 40

Break the loop with exchanger with the

small load

Remove the smallest heat load from loop

Breaking a loop across the pinch

normally violates the 2nd law

250

220

190

160

130

100

240

210

180

150

120

90

T

H

(F)

T

C

(F)

Q = 60

Q=240-20

Q=50+20

H=70

Q = 120

C = 40+20

BUT ...

250

220

190

160

130

100

240

210

180

150

120

90

T

H

(F)

T

C

(F)

Q = 60

Q=220

Q=70

H=70

Q = 120

C = 60

Hot Stream: 200 F to 120 F

Cold Stream: 150 F to 130 F

Impossible according to 2nd Law!

Restoring T

min

Q=60+Q

E

Q=220

Q=70-Q

E

H=70+Q

E

C = 60+Q

E

Shift heat along a path, which is a

connection between a cooler and a heater

Thus, 1000(60+Q

E

) = 3000(150-110)

Q

E

= 60 MBtu/hr

< 110 F

T=120

Q = 120- Q

E

Reducing Number of

Exchangers

Q=120

Q=220

Q=10

H=130

C = 120

T=110

T=250

T=240

T=120

T=90

T=150

T=200

T=145

T=115

T=100

T=190

T=168.4

T=166.6

T=130

Total number of Exchangers: 6

Q = 60

Restoring T

min

(An Alternative Path)

Q=60

Q=220-Q

E

Q=70

H=70+Q

E

C = 60+Q

E

< 110 F

T=120

But this path cant restore T

min

!

Q=120

Breaking Another Loop

Q=120

Q=220

Q=10

H=130

C = 120

Q=60

Heat Engines

Heat

Engine

Q

in

+W

Q

in

W

Energy

Cascade

Q

out

Energy

Cascade

Q

in

Energy

Cascade

Q

out

Energy

Cascade

Pinch

Heat

Engine

Q

out

-W

Q

in

W

Energy

Cascade

Q

out

Energy

Cascade

Heat

Engine

Q

E

-W

Q

in

W

Energy

Cascade

Q

out

+Q

E

-W

Energy

Cascade

Q

E

Efficiency: 100% 100% Sandard Alone

Place Heat Engine either above

or below the pinch (not across)!

Heat Pumps

Heat

Pump

Q

in

- W

Q

E

W

Energy

Cascade

Q

out

Energy

Cascade

Q

in

Energy

Cascade

Q

out

Energy

Cascade

Place heat pump across the pinch!

Q

E

+W

Pinch

Heat

Pump

Q

in

Q

E

W

Energy

Cascade

Q

out

+ W

Energy

Cascade

Q

E

- W

Heat

Pump

Q

in

- (Q

E

+W)

Q

E

W

Energy

Cascade

Q

out

- Q

E

Energy

Cascade

Q

E

+W

Distillation

Column as a heat engine

Column

Heat In (Q

Reb

)

Heat Out (Q

Cond

)

Column either above or below

the pinch

Q

in

Energy

Cascade

Q

out

Energy

Cascade

Column

Q

in

Energy

Cascade

Q

out

Energy

Cascade

Column

Radiation Heat Transfer

4 Electromagnetic radiation occurs between all

bo2.4dies

4 The spectrum ranges from 10

-4

to 10

+4

m

4 Our concern is over a narrow spectrum

10

-1

to 10

+2

m

the visible through the infrared

4 Radiation in gases and transparent materials is a

volumetric phenomenon.

4 Our interest is in radiation as a surface phenomenon

4 Radiation originates due to emission by matter |

Transport does not require matter

4 Radiation can be viewed as propagation of photons or

quamta or of electromagnetic waves

Properties of Radiation

Wave properties

- frequency (radians)

- wave length (micron)

c - speed of light (2.998 x 10

8

m/s

= c/

Energy spectrum

spectral distribution

distribution of wace lengths or energy

directionality

directional distribution

Radiation Intensity

Radiation emission from a body

Consider emission in a particular direction from an

area dA

1

Direction is specified in spherical coordinates

by a zenith angle, , and

by an azimuthal angle,

The differential area, dA

n,

subtends a solid angle d

when viewed from a point on dA

1

The area dA

n

is normal to (,) directions, so

Then d = sin d d

d =

dA

n

2

dA

n

= r

2

sin d d

Spectral Intensity

The rate at which emission passes

from dA

1

through dA

n

Formal definition

The spectral intensity, I

,e,

is the rate at which radiant

energy is emitted at wave length, , in the (,)

direction, per unit area of the emitting surface normal

to this direction, per unit solid angle about this

direction, per unit wavelength interval d about

Or in other forms

I

,e

,, =

dq

dA

1

cos d

dq

= I

,e

,, dA

1

cos sin d d

dq

= I

,e

,, dA

1

cos d

Spectral Heat Flux and Emission

Spectral Heat Flux

Total Heat Flux

Spectral Hemispherical Emissive Power

Total Emissive Power

q

"

= I

,e

,, dA

1

cos sin d d

0

/ 2

0

2

q" = q

"

d

0

E = I

,e

,, dA

1

cos sin d d

0

/ 2

0

2

E = E

d

0

Spectral irradiation

All incident radiation from all directions

Radiosity

all the radiant energy leaving a surface

including the reflected radiation

G = I

,e

,, dA

1

cos sin d d

0

/ 2

0

2

G = G

d

0

J = I

,e + r

,, dA

1

cos sin d d

0

/ 2

0

2

J = J

d

0

Definitions

A Black Body is an ideal surface having the

following properties :

A black body absorbs all incident

radiation regardless of wavelength or

direction

For a prescribed temperature and wave

length, no surface can emit more energy

than a black body.

Although radiation emitted by a black

body is a function of wave length and

temperature, itr is independent of

direction; that is, a bl;ack body is a

diffuse emitter

The Planck Distribution

Spectral distribution of black body emission

Planck Distribution (Emissive Power)

Features

Emission is continuous in wave length

Magnitude increases with temperature

More radiation at shorter wave lengths with T+

I

,b

,T =

2hc

0

2

2

e

hc

0

kT

hc

0

kT

1

h is the universal Planck's constant (6.6256 x 10

3 4

Js)

k is Boltzmanns constant (1.3805 x 10

2 3

J / K

E

, b

,T = I

,b

,T =

C

1

2

e

C

2

T

C

2

T

1

Wiens Displacement Law

Black body spectral distribution has a maximum.

The corresponding wavelength

m

= f(T)

If we find the maximum, we obtain

Wiens Displacement Law

m

T = C

3

= 2897.8 m/K

The Stefan-Boltzmann Law

The Planck distribution introduced into the relation for

the total emissive power of a black body becomes

On integration, it becomes the Stefan-Boltzmann Law

where = 5.670 x 10

-8

W/m

2

-K

4

Remember that black body radiation is diffuse so:

E

b

=

C

1

2

e

C2

T

C2

T

1

d

0

E

b

= T

4

I

b

=

E

b

Band Emission

It is often important to know the fraction of energy

emitted from a black body over a certain range of

wavelengths.

For a range from 0 to , the fraction is F

(0-)

Over a specific interval, we might write:

F

0

=

E

,b

d

0

E

,b

d

0

=

E

,b

d

0

T

4

=

E

,b

T

4

d T

0

1

2

=

E

,b

d

2

E

,b

d

0

=

E

,b

d

2

T

4

which is : F

1

2

= F

0

\1

F

0

2

Surface Emission Emission

The black body is an ideal emitting surface. How

can we describe the behavior of real surfaces. For

this we use the black body as a reference!!

The emissivity is defined as the ratio of the radiation

emitted by a real surface to that emitted by a black body

at the same temperature

A real surface may not be a diffuse emitter, so the

emissivity may have different values depending on

wavelength and direction

Spectral directional emissivity

Total directional emissivity

Spectral hemispherical emissivity

,

, , , T =

I

,e

, , , T

I

,b

, , T =

I

e

, , T

I

b

, T =

E

, T

E

,b

Emissivities

We can make the following observations

regarding the values of emissivities

Surface Absorption, Reflection, and

Transmission

4 The Spectral Irradiation G

energy at wavelength per unit d about . The flux

may originate from different sources

4 The source may be reflected, absorbed, or transmitted.

4 Reflection and absorption of radiant energy is what we

might view a s color

Absorptivity

,

=

I

,abs

,,

I

,abis

,,

,

I

,i

,, dA

1

cos sin d d

0

/ 2

0

2

I

,i

,, dA

1

cos sin d d

0

/ 2

0

2

G = I

,i

,, dA

1

cos sin d d

0

/ 2

0

2

=

G

,abs

G

Spectral hemispherical absorptivity

On Absorptivity

=

G

abs

G

Total hemispherical absorptivity

=

d

0

d

0

Reflectivity

,

,, =

I

, i , r e f

,,

I

,i

,,

=

G

,ref

=

G

ref

G

Spectral directional reflectivity

Spectral hemispherical reflectivity

Total hemispherical reflectivity

Transmissivity

Spectral hemispherical transmissivity

Hemispherical transmissivity

=

G

,tr

G

=

G

tr

G

Radiation balances

For semitransparent media

For opaque media

= 1

+ + = 1

= 1

+ = 1

Kirchhoffs Law

Consider a large isothermal enclosure of surface

temperature T

s

, In the enclosure are several small

bodies. These have a negligible influence on the

radiation field,

The surface forms a black body cavity, that is,

G = E

b

(T

s

)

Energy balance on body 1

GA

1

- E

1

(T

s

) A

1

Or

Applied to each body, the relation yields Kirchhoffs

Law

E

1

T

s

= E

b

T

s

E

1

T

s

1

=

E

1

T

s

2

= ..... = E

b

T

s

More on Kirchhoffs Law

From the definition of total hemispherical

emissivity, we obtain an equivalent representation

of Kirchhoffs Law

1

1

=

2

=

3

= .... = 1

=

,

=

,

ChE 333 - First Examination 1 February 28, 2000

Chemical Engineering 333

Heat Transfer

First Examination 28 February , 2000

Part A. (Closed Book)

(25 points)

a) Describe the three mechanisms for Heat Transfer (10)

b) What is Fouriers Law of heat conduction? (5)

c) What is an Local Heat Transfer Coefficient ? (5)

d) What is difference between the Nusselt Number and the Biot Number? (5)

I. (25 points)

A composite structure that is 2 meters wide

is composed of four materials, each of

differing thickness and height.

Estimate the heat flow through the structure if surfaces at constant x are isothermal and

there id no heat transfer normal to the x-direction.

T

1

= 100C ; T

0

= 0C ;

Material A is 5 cm thick and 10 cm high k

A

= 1 W/m-K

Material B is 12 cm thick and 4 cm high k

B

= 0.3 W/m-K

Material C is 12 cm thick and 6 cm high k

C

= 0.6 W/m-K

Material D is 4 cm thick and 10 cm high k

D

= 10 W/m-K

Hint: Develop the equivalent electrical circuit.

x

A

B

C

D

QQ

QQ

T

1

T

0

ChE 333 - First Examination 2 February 28, 2000

ChE 333 Heat Transfer

First Examination

Part B (Open Book)

3. (25 points)

On the flight of Apollo 12, plutonium oxide (PuO

2

) was used to generate electrical power.

Heat was generated uniformly through the loss of kinetic energy from alpha particles

emitted by the Pu

238

. Consider that the sphere of plutonium oxide is 3 cm in diameter and

is covered with thermo-electric elements for converting heat to electricity. The physical

properties of these telluride elements and heat rejection considerations suggest that the

surface temperature must be 200C. The ceramic nature of the PuO

2

allows a maximum

temperature of 1750C, With these constraints, determine the maximum allowable

volumetric heating rate.

4. (25 points)

A cylindrical steel rod is connected to two

steel plates, each at a different temperature,

T

1

and T

2

respectively, The rod is cooled by

air passing past the rod. The convective heat

transfer coefficient is h.

How does the average temperature vary

along the rod ?

The rod is 4 cm in diameter and 50 cm long,

T

1

= 100C ; T

0

= 0C ;

h = 11 W/m

2-

K k

s

= 13 W/m-K

Note and hints

:

If you solve the problem analytically, you will get full credit

If you calculate the numbers in addition, you get extra credit

Make a shell balance for heat flow through and from a differential length of rod x.

Find the corresponding differential equation

State the boundary conditions

Express the equation boundary conditions in dimensionless form

Solve the equation (Incropera & DeWitt section 3.6)

T

a

T

1

T

0

ChE 333 - First Examination 3 February 28, 2000

ChE 333 - First Examination 1 February 28, 2000

Chemical Engineering 333

Heat Transfer

Solution to the First Examination 28 February , 2000

Part A. (Closed Book)

Problem 1 (25 points)

a) Describe the three mechanisms for Heat Transfer (15)

Heat transfer can occur by three distinct mechanisms, conduction, convection, and

radiation, Conduction occurs down a temperature gradient in a material,

Conduction in a gas is occurs by molecular collisions. In solids or liquids, heat is

transferred by vibrations or phonon transport. The process is described best by

Fouriers Law. Convection is process of energy being carried by a fluid. The

details of the convection process are governed by the energy equation and by the

conservation equation for linear momentum. In lieu of knowledge of detailed

temperature field, convection from a surface is governed by Newtons law of

cooling, q

I

n

I

= h(T

s

T

a

). Radiation is the mechanism by which electromagnetic

radiation is transported to a surface. The heat flux from a surface follows

Boltzmanns Law and is a function of the surface temperature to the 4

th

power.

b) What is Fouriers Law of heat conduction?

Fourierss Law states that the heat flux vector is a linear function of the temperature

gradient. The proportionality constant is termed the thermal conductivity.

q = k T

c) What is a Local Heat Transfer Coefficient?

As described above the local heat transfer coefficient is the proportionality constant

in Newtons Law of Cooling.

q n = h T T

b

ChE 333 - First Examination 2 February 28, 2000

Typical Values of Heat Transfer Coefficients

d) What is difference between the Nusselt Number and the Biot Number?

The Nusselt and Biot Numbers are the ratio of resistances of a conductive process to that of

a convective process.

The Nusselt number measures the resistance to convection and conduction in the same

phase. The Biot number is the ratio of the conductive resistance in a solid phase to

convective resistance in the adjacent fluid phase.

h (watts/m

2

-K)

Free Convection 5 - 25

Forced Convection

gases 5-250

liquids 50 - 20,000

Phase Change

(boiling or condensation) 2500-100,000

Nu =

hL

k

; Bi =

hL

k

s

ChE 333 - First Examination 3 February 28, 2000

Solution to Problem 2 (25 points)

A composite structure that is 2 meters wide

is composed of four materials, each of

differing thickness and height.

Estimate the heat flow through the structure if surfaces at constant x are isothermal and

there id no heat transfer normal to the x-direction.

T

1

= 100C ; T

0

= 0C ;

Material A is 5 cm thick and 10 cm high k

A

= 1 W/m-K

Material B is 12 cm thick and 4 cm high k

B

= 0.3 W/m-K

Material C is 12 cm thick and 6 cm high k

C

= 0.6 W/m-K

Material D is 4 cm thick and 10 cm high k

D

= 10 W/m-K

Hint: Develop the equivalent electrical circuit.

Conduction through each element of the composite is described by

These can be rewritten to solve for the overall temperature difference (T

1

T

0

).

The relations are as below:

x

A

B

C

D

QQ

QQ

T

1

T

0

Q

A

=

k

A

L

A

S

A

T

1

T

2

Q

B

=

k

B

L

B

S

B

T

2

T

3

; Q

C

=

k

C

L

C

S

C

T

2

T

3

Q

D

=

k

D

L

D

S

D

T

3

T

0

Q

D

= Q

A

= Q

B

+ Q

C

T

1

T

2

=

Q

A

k

A

L

A

S

A

Q

A

= Q

B

+ Q

C

=

k

B

L

B

S

B

+

k

C

L

C

S

C

T

2

T

3

T

2

T

3

=

Q

A

k

B

L

B

S

B

+

k

C

L

C

S

C

T

3

T

0

=

Q

A

k

D

L

D

S

D

ChE 333 - First Examination 4 February 28, 2000

So that we have

and finally

R

I

= L

i

/(k

i

S

I

) so that R

A

= 0.5 K/W ; R

D

= 0.02 K/W

R

B

= 5.0 K/W ; R

C

= 1.67 K/W ;

R

BC

= (1/R

B

+ 1/R

C

) = 2.6 K/W

R = R

A

+ R

BC

+ R

D

= 3.12 K/W

Then Q = (T

1

T

0

)/R = 312 Watts

T

1

T

0

=

Q

A

k

A

L

A

S

A

+

Q

A

k

B

L

B

S

B

+

k

C

L

C

S

C

+

Q

A

k

D

L

D

S

D

Q

A

=

T

1

T

0

1

k

A

L

A

S

A

+

1

k

B

L

B

S

B

+

k

C

L

C

S

C

+

1

k

D

L

D

S

D

ChE 333 - First Examination 5 February 28, 2000

ChE 333 Heat Transfer

First Examination

Part B (Open Book)

Solution to Problem 3 (25 points)

On the flight of Apollo 12, plutonium oxide (PuO

2

) was used to generate electrical power.

Heat was generated uniformly through the loss of kinetic energy from alpha particles

emitted by the Pu

238

. Consider that the sphere of plutonium oxide is 3 cm in diameter and

is covered with thermo-electric elements for converting heat to electricity. The physical

properties of these telluride elements and heat rejection considerations suggest that the

surface temperature must be 200C. The ceramic nature of the PuO

2

allows a maximum

temperature of 1750C, With these constraints, determine the maximum allowable

volumetric heating rate.

The shell balance on a spherical shell is :

The equation is obtained by taking the limit of r -> 0

\

At r = 0, T is finite , so C

1

= 0 and at r = R, T = T

0

so

The maximum volumetric energy production must

be as below:

For this system, k = 4 W/M-K, then the power maximum is:

4r

2

q

r

r

4r

2

q

r

r + r

+ 4r

2

r R

v

= 0

q

r

= k

dT

dr

d r

2

q

r

dr

+ r

2

R

v

= 0

d

dr

r

2dT

dr

+ r

2

R

v

k

= 0

T T

0

=

R

2

6

r

2

6

R

v

k

R

v

= 6 k

T

1

T

0

R

2

=

6 4 W/ m K 1550 K

0.03m

2

ChE 333 - First Examination 6 February 28, 2000

R

v

= 41.3 MW/m

3

ChE 333 - First Examination 7 February 28, 2000

Solution to Problem 4 (25 points)

A cylindrical steel rod is connected to two

steel plates each at a different temperature, T

1

and T

2

respectively. The rod is cooled by air

at T

a

passing past the rod. The convective

heat transfer coefficient is h.

How does the average temperature vary

along the rod?

The rod is 4 cm in diameter and 50 cm long,

T

1

= 100C ; T

0

= 0C ; T

a

= 20C ;

h = 11 W/m

2-

K k

s

= 13 W/m-K

Note and hints

:

If you solve the problem analytically, you will get full credit

If you calculate the numbers in addition,

You get extra credit

Make a shell balance for heat flow through and from a differential length of rod x.

Find the corresponding differential equation

State the boundary conditions

Express the equation boundary conditions in dimensionless form

Solve the equation (Incropera & DeWitt section 3.6)

The shell balance yields

And the limiting process provides

We apply Fouriers Law

And use the following dimensionless temperature and position :

T

a

T

1

T

0

R

2

q

x

x

Rq

x

x + x

Rx h T T

a

= 0

D

2

4

d q

x

dx

D h T T

a

= 0

=

T T

a

T

0

T

a

; =

x

L

q

x

= k

dT

dx

ChE 333 - First Examination 8 February 28, 2000

The resulting differential equation is as in the fin problems:

The Boundary conditions are

And the modulus m is defined as:

The solution is of the form

So that when we use the boundary conditions, we obtain

The modulus is

m = 2.30

D

2

4

d

2

d

2

+

h D

k

L

D

2

= 0

=

0

at = 0 ; =

1

at = 1

m

2

=

h D

k

L

D

2

=

1

sinh(m)

sinh (m)

+

0

cosh(m)sinh(m) cosh(m)sinh(m)

sinh (m)

= A sinh (m) + B cosh (m)

(0) = A sinh (0) + B cosh (0) =

0

(1) = A sinh (m) + B cosh (m) =

1

m

2

=

h D

k

L

D

2

=

11 (.04)

13

0.5

.04

2

= 5.288

ChE 333 - First Examination 9 February 28, 2000

m = 2.30 cosh(m)= 5.03722

sinhh(m)= 4.93696

sinh(m cosh(m

0 1 0 1

0.1 0.60182 0.23203 1.02657

0.2 0.23563 0.4764 1.10768

0.3 -0.11805 0.74607 1.24765

0.4 -0.478 1.05539 1.4539

0.5 -0.86335 1.42078 1.73741

0.6 -1.29457 1.86166 2.11324

0.7 -1.79458 2.40146 2.60135

0.8 -2.38994 3.06886 3.22768

0.9 -3.11229 3.89932 4.0255

1 -4 4.93696 5.03722

0

= 1 at = 0 ;

1

= 4 at = 1

Temperature Profile

-5

-4

-3

-2

-1

0

1

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

Position

Series1

ChE 333 - Second Examination 1 April 3, 2000

Chemical Engineering 333

Heat Transfer

Second Examination 3 April, 2000

Part A. (Closed Book)

Problem 1 (20 points)

Define and describe the following:

a) Forced Convection

b) Free Convection

c) Rayleigh Number

d) Peclet Number

Problem 2 (20 points)

Your new job at Armour Foods is in the design of the cooking and sterilization system

for canned hams. The current process uses steam at 120C to cook canned hams to a

centerline temperature of 70C in 1 hour. The process heats a can containing a1.5 kg.

Ham. The marketing department believes that 2.5 kg. hams would be a best seller. In

order to estimate the production capacity of the system, you have to estimate the cooking

time for the 2.5 kg ham.

Note:

Condensing steam yield a very high heat transfer coefficient so you can assume that the

Biot number is infinite.

Problem 3 (10 points)

a) In a detailed analysis of conduction problem, what do we mean by short times and

long times. What significance does that have in the physics of the problem?

b) In convection, what does one mean by a developing temperature field?

ChE 333 - Second Examination 2 April 3, 2000

ChE 333 Heat Transfer

Second Examination

Part B (Open Book)

Problem 3 (30 points)

I lived in Texas in the winter of 1962-63. It was a horrible winter, particularly on the

Gulf Coast where the temperature did not go above freezing for 45 days. My house

was a cottage built on piers so that the water piping was exposed under the house to

air at 5C. My wife and I discovered that we had to keep water flowing in the pipes

in order to prevent freezing. The principal exposed copper tubing was not insulated,

2.25 cm in diameter (OD) with and ID of 2,0 cm. In order to estimate the minimum

flow rate, one has to estimate the Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient between the

water and the air.

a) Estimate the mean heat transfer coefficient from the water to the inside

tubing wall for laminar flow in the tubing for a flow of 5 cc/min

b) Estimate the mean transfer coefficient for cross-flow of air past the tubing at

10 km/hr

c) Evaluate the Overall heat transfer coefficient between the water and the air.

In our analysis of heat transfer to a fluid flowing in a pipe, we derived that the

equation for the mixing cup temperature (the average temperature) is :

wC

p

d T

dz

= Dh T

R

T

This equation can be integrated to yield

T T

R

T

1

T

R

= exp

h Dz

wC

p

= exp 4 St

z

D

d) What assumptions were necessary to derive this equation

e) For what flow regimes is it applicable?

f) How can this relation be used to evaluate whether the pipes described above

would freeze? Describe the procedure..

Data

(water) (air)

Prandtl No 12.9 0.69

k 0.556 0.025 W/m-K

1.7 13.9 x10

-6

m

2

/sec

C

p

4217 1009 J/kg-K

1.311 1000 kg/m

3

ChE 333 - Second Examination 3 April 3, 2000

Problem 4 (20 points)

An experiment that was once part of the Senior Laboratory was the measurement of the

temperature history of a point in an acrylic disk. The purpose of the experiment is to

determine the Fourier diffusivity , , of the material. The experiment consisted of the

following steps:

1. Place a uniformly cold (0C) disk in a stirred water bath at 60C

2 Measure the temperature at some point in the disk at 1 minute intervals.

The data they obtained were the following:

Time (minutes) 0 6 10 15 20 25 35 40

Temperature (C) 0 2.1 8.0 16.1 23.3 29.5 38.9 42.4

Time (minutes) 50 60 70 90 100 120

Temperature (C) 47.8 51.6 54.1 57.1 58.0 59.0

The disk is sufficiently thin that it can be treated as an infinitely wide slab of 1.5 cm. thick.

What is the Fourier diffusivity?

The solution for the temperature field is

Nota Bene

If you do not understand the question, ask!!!

If you believe that there is missing information, ask!!!!

T - T

1

T

0

- T

1

=

4 -1

n

2n + 1

n =0

e-

2n+1

2

4t

b

2 cos 2n + 1

x

b

Examination #3 April 28, 2000

ChE 333 1

Chemical Engineering 333 - Heat Transfer

28 April 2000

Open Book and Notes

1. (40 points)

A water-cooled countercurrent heat exchanger is used to condense ammonia in a

refrigeration plant. Superheated ammonia enters the condenser at 50C, cools to 25C,

condenses at 25C, and the condensed liquid ammonia is subcooled to 6C before leaving

the exchanger. Cooling water enters at 5C and leaves at 15C. The water flow rate is 25

kg/min.

a) Plot the ammonia temperature, T

A

, , versus the heat transferred from ammonia,

Q

A

. Also on the same sketch, plot the water temperature, T

W

, versus the heat

transferred to water, Q

W

. (15 points)

b) Describe how you would determine the minimum water rate ? (5 points)

c) What is the condensation rate of the ammonia? (5 points)

d) Determine the condenser area required. (15 points)

Data

Overall Heat Transfer Coefficients

NH

3

vapor to water U = 60 W/m

2

-C

Condensing

NH

3

to water U = 360 W/m

2

-C

NH

3

liquid to water U = 120 W/m

2

-C

Enthalpy data

NH

3

vapor at 50C H = 1537.7 kJ/kg

NH

3

saturated vapor at 25C H = 1465.0 kJ/kg

NH

3

saturated liquid at 25C H = 298.8 kJ/kg

NH

3

subcooled liquid at 6C H = 208.9 kJ/kg

H

2

O liquid at 5C H = 21.0 kJ/kg

H

2

O liquid at 15C H = 63.0 kJ/kg

Hint - Break the condenser up into three parts and calculate the area for each and then

sum for the total area.

Examination #3 April 28, 2000

ChE 333 2

2. (30 points)

Water at a temperature of 195F is used to heat kerosene. The exchanger has to heat 12000

lbm/hr of the kerosene. The temperature of the kerosene is 65 F. The double pipe heat

exchanger consists of 6 feet of 1 1/4 inch Type M copper tubing inside and a 2 inch Type

M copper tubing outside. The water is fed at the rate of 5000 lbm/hr.

a) Determine the minimum water rate which can be used to cool the kerosene.

b) Determine the overall heat transfer coefficient.

c) Determine the outlet temperature of both streams in countercurrent flow.

d) Determine the outlet temperature of both streams in co-current flow.

Data:

Inside diameter of outer pipe - 0.1076 ft.

Outside diameter of inner pipe - 0.1176 ft.

Inside diameter of inner pipe - 0.1674 ft.

water kerosene copper units

conductivity 0.376 0.355 231.0 BTU/hr-ft-F

density 61.464 55.85 557.5 lb

m

/ft

3

heat capacity 1.00 0.555 0.915 BTU/lb

m

-F

kinematic viscosity 0.514 0.421 10

-5

ft

2

/hr

Hint: Firstly, determine the flow regime is the shell and in the tube. Select the appropriate

relations for the Nusselt number. Then determine the Overall Heat Transfer coefficient.

4. (30 points)

A shell-and-tube heat exchanger is used to heat 85,000 lb./hr of water from 187F to

255F with 40 psia steam condensing on the tube side. The exchanger has one shell-side

pass and two tube-side passes. There are 120 tubes with an inside diameter of 1.0 in. and

an outside diameter of 1.125 in. If the overall coefficient based on the inside area is 572

BTU/hr-ft

2

-F, how long must the tubes be?

CHE 333

Solutions to Problem Set 1

Problem 1.2

The conductivity, surface area and thickness of a wall separating a room from the ambient, are known.

Given the temperature in the room, the heat loss can be described by 1-D conduction through the wall.

The given values are used to set up the heat loss rate Q by Fourier's law (see below).

k .. , 0.75 1 1.25 Ti 25 To .. , 15 10 40

S 20 L 0.3

Q , To k

. .

k S

To Ti

L

Q , To 0.75

.

2 10

3

.

1.75 10

3

.

1.5 10

3

.

1.25 10

3

.

1 10

3

750

500

250

0

250

500

750

Q , To 1

.

2.667 10

3

.

2.333 10

3

.

2 10

3

.

1.667 10

3

.

1.333 10

3

.

1 10

3

666.667

333.333

0

333.333

666.667

.

1 10

3

Q , To 1.25

.

3.333 10

3

.

2.917 10

3

.

2.5 10

3

.

2.083 10

3

.

1.667 10

3

.

1.25 10

3

833.333

416.667

0

416.667

833.333

.

1.25 10

3

The heat loss rate is always higher for a wall of higher conductivity.All the curves meet at To=25 C

where there is no heat loss (the room temperature =ambient temperature). The sign of Q changes

where there is no heat loss (the room temperature =ambient temperature). The sign of Q changes

as one crosses 25 C, since below this temperature the room loses heat, whereas it gains heat if the ambient temp

is higher than 25 C.

Problem 1.6

This problem involves comparing the properties of two different materials for the same temperature

difference. For the composite wall:

qc =-kc T/Lc

For the masonry wall:

qm=-km T/Lm (for the same temperature difference)

It is required that qm =0.8 qc

Hence -0.8 kc T/Lc =-km T/Lm

Or

kc 0.25 Lc 0.1 km 0.75

Lm

.

kmLc

.

0.8 kc

= Lm 0.375 m

Obviously, since the masonry wall is more conducting, it will have to be thicker than the composite

wall if one expects it to conduct only 80% of the heat conducted by the composite wall for the same

temperature difference across them.

Problem 1.7

Another problem of 1-D conduction, this time across a chip that is 1 mm thick and with a surface

area S =5 mm square. The heat generated by circuits in the chip is given and must be dissipated at the same

rate to maintain steady-state.

k 150 t 0.001

S 0.005

2

or = S 2.5 10

5

Q 4

Heat loss rate Q =kS T/ t => DT

.

Q

t

.

k S

So = DT 1.067 K

Problem 1.13

This time the heat loss is described by a heat transfer coefficient (i.e.,"Newton's law of cooling"). The heat loss

rate Q =h S T where h is the heat transfer coefficient, S =surface area available for heat transfer, and T is

the temperature difference. The maximum chip power allowed is determined by the heat transfer coefficient,

since all this generated heat must be removed by the coolant.

So Qmax =h T S

For air cooling:

h1 200

DT 85 15 or = DT 70

S 0.005

2

or = S 2.5 10

5

Qmax

. .

h1 DT S

= Qmax 0.35W

Similarly for the dielectric coolant:

h2 3000

Qmax

. .

h2 DT S or

= Qmax 5.25 W

The higher the value of h, the higher the maximum allowed chip power.

Problem 1.29

Water is used for heating a house. The daily water consumption (in volume units) is given, as also the

temperature difference to be achieved (55-15 =40 deg. C). So the energy requirement is

simply E =mCp T where Cp is the specific heat of water.

m

. .

1000 100

365

264.17

or = m 1.382 10

5 kg

year

Cp 4180

J

kgK

DT 40

J

year

E

. .

mCp DT or = E 2.31 10

10

But 1 kWh =3.6 * 10^6 J ==>E =6417 kWh/ year

If an electrical heater is used to directly heat the water, then assuming 100% efficiency and given the cost (C) of

electrical power, the heating cost H will be:

C 0.08

H

.

6417 C or = H 513.36

dollars

year

Alternatively, a heat pump may be used. This device comprises a compressor that takes W units of work from an

external source (eg. electrical power) to circulate compressed refrigerant in the system. The refrigerant takes an

amount of heat Qc from the ground and releases heat Qh in the house to heat the water. The energy balance on

the heat pump gives

W = Qh - Qc (1)

Qh is known since it is the heat requirement (calculated earlier, 6417 kWh). Also the COP (coefficient of

performance) of the heat pump is given.

COP =Qc/W , i.e., the amount of heat it can take in per unit external work provided. In this case, the COP =3

==>Qc =3W (2)

(1) and (2) give W =Qh/4 =1604.25 kWh

However this work requires electrical power and the efficiency with which the electrical power is converted into

work, is 85%. So the electrical power requirement will be W/0.85 =1887.35 kWh

Hence the cost H =1887.35 * 0.08 =151 dollars/year

The heat pump is more economical since it takes part of the energy requirements from the surroundings.

Problem 1.35

Liquid oxygen is stored in a spherical tank of known size. Because of convective and radiative heat transfer from

the surroundings, the oxygen evaporates; and the rate of evaporation is to be evaluated.

h 10 To 298

Ti 263

Emissivity e 0.2

s

.

5.67 10

8

.

Stefan constant

Flux q

.

h To Ti

. .

e s To

4

Ti

4

or = q 385.174

d 0.5

.

tank diameter

The heat loss rate is

Q

. .

q 3.1416 d

2

or = Q 302.516

J

s

The latent heat of vaporization (H) is given , so the evaporation rate is:

H

.

214 10

3

m

Q

H

or = m 1.414 10

3 kg

s

The expression for the flux shows that the evaporation rate is a linear function of the emissivity.

e .. , 0.2 0.3 1

m e

. . .

h To Ti

. .

es To

4

Ti

4

3.1416

d

2

H

kg

s

0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

0.0014

0.0016

0.0018

0.002

m e

e

End

Problem 2.7 Incopera and DeWitt

In this problem we have one-dimensional heat conduction through a wall at steady state. The

physical properties of the material are assumed to be constant. We will use Fourier's law to

calculate the unknown quantities.

"Thermal conductivity of the wall

k

.

25

W

.

mK

W

"Wall thickness

L

.

0.5 m

dT T2 T1

Case 1: We know the temperatures at the two ends of the wall and we have to calculate the

temperature gradient and the thermal flux

T1

.

400 K T2

.

300 K

Temperature gradient calculation: dT_dx

T1 T2

L

= dT_dx 200 m

1

K

Calculation of Heat Flux: q

.

k dT_dx k = q

W

m

2

q

To sketch the temperature distribution we must first solve the Fourier's equation. to do that

we need a boundary condition. We see from the sketch in the book that at x=0 the

Temperature is T=T2. Notice that at x=0 the temperature is T2 and at x=L the temperature is

T1 (see sketch in the book)

q

.

k

dT

dx

T x

.

q x

k

T2

q

k

Distance[m]

T

e

m

p

e

r

a

t

u

r

e

[

K

]

T x

L 0 x

T

Case 2: We know the temperature at one end of the wall and the temperature gradient we have to

calculate the temperature at the other end and the heat flux

1

T1

.

273.15 100 K dT_dx

.

250

K

m

Calculation of T2

T2 T1

.

dT_dx L = T2 498.15 K

Calculation of Heat Flux: q

.

k dT_dx k = q

W

m

2

q

T x

.

q x

k

T2

q

k

Distance[m]

T

e

m

p

e

r

a

t

u

r

e

[

K

]

T x

L 0 x

T

Case 3: We know the temperature at one end of the wall and the temperature gradient we have to

calculate the temperature at the other end and the heat flux

T1

.

273.15 80 K dT_dx

.

200

K

m

T2 T1

.

dT_dx L

Calculation of T2 = T2 253.15 K

Calculation of Heat Flux: q

.

k dT_dx k = q

W

m

2

q

T x

.

q x

k

T2

q

k

Distance[m]

T

e

m

p

e

r

a

t

u

r

e

[

K

]

T x

L 0 x

T

Case 4: We know the temperature at one end of the wall and the heat flux. We have to calculate

the temperature at the other end and the temperature gradient

q

.

4000

W

m

2

W

T2

.

273.15 5 K

2

Calculation of temperature gradient: dT_dx

q

k

q

k

= dT_dx 200 m

1

K

Calculation of T1: T1 T2

.

dT_dx L = T1 368.15 K

T x

.

q x

k

T2

q

k

Distance[m]

T

e

m

p

e

r

a

t

u

r

e

[

K

]

T x

L 0 x

T

Case 5: We know the temperature at one end of the wall and the heat flux. We have to calculate

the temperature at the other end and the temperature gradient

q

.

3000

W

m

2

W

T1

.

273.15 30 K

Calculation of temperature gradient: dT_dx

q

k

q

k

= dT_dx 200 m

1

K

Calculation of T2: T2 T1

.

dT_dx L

= T2 203.15 K

T x

.

q x

k

T2

q

k

Distance[m]

T

e

m

p

e

r

a

t

u

r

e

[

K

]

T x

L 0 x

T

3

Problem 2.11 Incopera and DeWit

In order to solve this problem we have to use Fourier's law in two dimensions. We have to keep in mind

that the direction of the heat flux is always normal to a surface of constant temperature that is called

isothermal temperature. In our problem surfaces A, and B are isothermal so the heat flux will be normal

to them. The normal to surface A is in the y direction, and the normal to surface B is in the x direction.

We further have to assume no heat generation and that the thermal conductivity does not depend on

direction.

q

. .

k A

dT

dx

dT

dy

Area_A

.

2 m

k

.

10

W

.

mK

W

Area_B

.

1 m

dT_dy_A

.

30

K

m

dT_dx_A

.

0

K

m

dT_dy_B

.

0

K

m

qA

. .

k Area_A dT_dy_A dT_dy_B k

Heat rate on Surface A :

= qA

W

m

qA

Heat rate on Surface A = Heat Rate on Surface B

dT_dx_B

qA

.

k Area_B

qA

k

= dT_dx_B dT_dx_B

Problem 2.18 Incopera and DeWit

(a) In order to estimate the thermal conductivity of the test materials we need to know the thermal

conductivity of the reference material. We'll initially assume that the temperature at the point

where the differential thermocouple of the reference material is 350 K. We can make a plot of the

thermal conductivity of the Armco iron from the values given in table A2 of the book.

T

.

100 K

.

200 K

.

300 K

.

400 K

.

600 K

.

800 K

.

1000 K

.

1200 K

.

1500 K

k

.

95.6

W

.

m K

.

80.6

W

.

mK

.

80.2

W

.

mK

.

65.7

W

.

mK

.

53.1

W

.

mK

.

42.2

W

.

mK

.

32.3

W

.

mK

.

28.7

W

.

m K

.

31.4

W

.

mK

W W W W W W W W W

4

Temperature[K]

T

h

e

r

m

a

l

C

o

n

d

u

c

t

i

v

i

t

y

[

W

/

m

/

k

]

k

800 0 T

k

From the graph above we see that at 350 K the thermal conductivity of Armco is ~70 W/m/K

The flux between the three different materials will be equal

L

.

10 mm dTr

.

2.49 K kr

.

70

W

.

mK

W

T_heat_source

.

400 K

dT1

.

3.32 K dT2

.

3.32 K

T_cold_sink

.

300 K

Flux of reference material q

.

kr

dTr

L

kr = q

W

m

2

q

k1

q

dT1

L

q

Thermal conductivity of Sample 1: = k1

W

.

mK

k1

k2

q

dT1

L

q

Thermal conductivity of Sample 2: = k2

W

.

mK

k2

Each value of thermal conductivity can be assigned to the average temperature of the

sample. Knowing the temperatures at the heat source and the cold sink, and the thermal

conductivities of all the materials we can calculate the length of the cylindrical samples.It is

possible then to calculate the average temperature of each cylinder.

.

dT1

L

cylinder_length

.

dTr cylinder_length

L

.

dT2 cylinder_length

L

.

100 K

cylinder_length

. .

100

K

dT1 dTr dT2

L

= cylinder_length 0.11 m

The temperature at the interface between the Test Sample 1 and the Reference material is

T_1_r T_heat_source

.

dT1 cylinder_length

L

= T_1_r 363.636 K

5

The average temperature of sample one:

T_1_ave

T_heat_source T_1_r

2

= T_1_ave 381.818 K

The temperature at the interface between the Test Sample 2 and the reference material is

T_2_r T_1_r

.

dTr

cylinder_length

L

= T_2_r 336.364 K

The average temperature of reference material : T_r_ave

T_2_r T_1_r

2

= T_r_ave 350 K

This justifies our initial selection of the thermal conductivity for the reference material

The average temperature of sample two:

T_2_ave

T_cold_sink T_2_r

2

= T_2_ave 318.182 K

(b) We assume that the differential thermocouples imbedded in the samples have the same

spacing and the three cylinders have the same length.

Then dT1 and dT2 will depend on the thermal conductivity of the samples.

One case where dT1 and dT2 are expected to be different is when the test samples are different

materials. In such a case they will have significantly different thermal conductivities.

When the materials of the test samples are the same:

dT1 is not expected to be equal with dT2 if the thermal conductivity of the material is temperature

sensitive in the temperature range of the experiment.

Problem 2.37 Incopera and DeWit

(a) We use cylindrical coordinates to write the heat diffusion equations for the cable and the

insulation. The system is symmetric the and z directions so the corresponding terms will be

equal to zero.

Cable

.

1

r

d

.

k

r

dT

dr

dr

q_gen 0 (1)

The boundary conditions to eq. 1 are

1.T=Ts1 when r=r1. Outer surface temperature

2. dT/dr=0 at r=0. Symmetry of the problem

6

d

.

k

c

dT

dr

. .

q_gen r dr

dT

dr

.

q_gen

r

.

2 kc

C1

.

kc r

Applying the second boundary condition we find that

C1=0

Applying the first boundary condition we find that

T

.

q_gen r

2

.

2 kc

C2

C2 Ts1

.

q_gen r1

2

.

4 kc

So the temperature profile for the cable is

T r Ts1

.

.

q_gen r1

2

.

4 kc

1

r

2

r1

2

Ts1

q_gen r1

kc

r1

Insulation

Insulation behavior can also be described with the heat diffusion equation in

cylindrical coordinates. The difference with the cable is that there is no heat

generation term.

.

1

r

d

.

k

s

dT

dr

dr

0 (2)

The boundary conditions to eq. 2 are

1.T=Ts1 when r=r1. Inner surface temperature

2.T=Ts1 when r=r2. Outer surface temperature

By solving Eq. 2 we get T

.

C1

ln r

ks

C2

By applying the B.C. we can calculate the constants C1 and C2. After substituting them we get

Ti r Ts1

.

Ts1 Ts2

ln

r

r1

ln

r1

r2

Ts1 Ts1 Ts2

r1

r1

r2

7

Ts1

.

343.15 K Ts2

.

303.15 K r1

.

15 mm

kc

.

200

W

m

W

r2

.

15.5 mm

q_gen

.

100

W

s

W

s

c1 .. ,

.

0 mm

.

1 mm

.

15 mm c2 .. ,

.

15 mm

.

15.05 mm

.

15.5 mm

T r Ts1

.

.

q_gen r1

2

.

4 kc

1

r

2

r1

2

q_gen

kc

Ti r Ts1

.

Ts1 Ts2

ln

r

r1

ln

r1

r2

T c1

15.5 c1

mm

T c1

15 15.2 15.4 15.6

300

320

340

360

Ti c2

c2

mm

Temperature Drop Profile in the cable Temperature Drop Profile in insulation

(b)

The heat transfer is given by Fourier's Law q

. .

k A

dT

dx

The outside area A is equal to A

. .

2 pi r2

dT

dr

. .

Ts1 Ts2

ln

r1

r2

k

1

.

k r

From part (a) we see that for the insulation

Substituting in Fourier's Law we get

8

q

. . .

2 pi k

Ts1 Ts2

ln

r1

r2

We will apply an energy balance to a control surface around the cable, and more

specifically at the interface between the cable and the insulation. The energy balance

at steady state can be written as

Rate of energy in - Rate of energy out +Rate of energy generation=0

There is no energy that is entering the system, so the rate of heat conduction per unit length

out will be equal to the rate of heat generation

q

.

V q_gen

q

. . . .

Unit_Length 2 pi r1 q_gen

q

Unit_Length

. . .

2 pi r1 q_gen

(c) We apply a control volume in the outer surface of the insulation. There is no heat generation in

the insulation layer of the cable. The heat per unit entering is equal to the amount of heat

generated, which was calculated in part b. The heat loss from the outer surface of the insulation

layer is due to convection and radiation. In such a case

q

Unit_Length

. . . .

h 2 pi r1 Ts2 T_inf

. . . . .

esigma Ts2

4

Tsur

4

2 pi r2

Substituting from part b we get

Ts2

4

.

.

h r2

.

esigma

Ts2

.

1

.

e sigma

.

r1

r2

q_gen

. .

r2 h T_inf

. . .

r2 esigmaTsur

4

0

The above equation is 4th order, and it has four possible solutions.

Let B=hr2/e*sigma and C=

.

1

.

esigma

.

r1

r2

q_gen

. .

r2 h T_inf

. . .

r2 e sigmaTsur

4

(3)

Then the equation (3) becomes

x

4

.

B x C 0

The above equations has four solutions. From all the four only one has physical meaning.

9

(d)

R

.

0.005

ohm

m

I

.

250 AA

Energy per unit length generated Power

.

I

2

R I = Power

W

m

Power

Radius of cable: r1

.

15 mm

Radius of cable and insulation: r2

.

15.5 mm

kc

.

200

W

.

mK

W

Thermal conductivity of cable:

Thermal conductivity of insulation: ks

.

0.15

W

.

mK

W

h

.

25

W

.

m

2

K

W

Convective heat transfer coefficient:

Air Temperature: T_inf

.

273.15 25 K

Surface Temperature Tsur

.

273.15 35 K

Emissivity : e 0.9

sigma

. .

5.67 10

8 W

.

m

2

K

4

W

Stefan Boltzmann constant :

C

.

1

.

esigma

.

1

. .

2 3.14 r2

Power

.

h T_inf

. .

esigmaTsur

4

Power T_inf

sigma

Power h

B

h

.

esigma

h

sigma

f x x

4

.

B x C B C

To find the solution we will first plot f(x) over a range of temperatures

temp ..

.

300 K

.

500 K

10

f temp

temp

f

temp

.

400 K

Ts2 root , f temp temp f

So the temperature outside of the insulation is = Ts2 303.15 K

q

. . .

2 pi k

Ts1 Ts2

ln

r1

r2

From (b) we have

solving for Ts1 we get

Ts1 Ts2

.

Power ln

r2

r1

. .

2 3.1415 ks

Ts2

. .

2 3.1415 ks

Power

ks

= Ts1 343.15 K

From part (a) T r Ts1

.

.

Power

.

3.14 r1

2

r1

2

.

4 kc

1

r

2

r1

2

Power

kc

Tcenter Ts1

Power

3.1415

.

4 kc

Ts1

.

4 kc

Power

kc

= Tcenter Tcenter

11

Problem 3.15 Incopera and DeWitt

When we have one-dimensional, steady state conduction in a composite plane wall with no heat

generation the heat flux is constant. In our example we have five thermal resistances in series.

One thermal resistance for convection in the outer wall, three resistances for conduction for each

component of the wall and one resistance for convection for the inner wall.

Ti

.

273.15 20 K

Inside Temperature = Ti 293.15 K

Outside Temperature To

.

273.15 15 K = To 258.15 K

Wall Area A

.

350 m

2

kp

.

0.17

W

.

m K

W

Plaster Board thermal conductivity:

Plaster Board Length

Lp

.

10 mm

Fiber Glass thermal conductivity

(Estimated value from table A3)

kb

.

0.033

W

.

mK

W

Lb

.

100 mm

Fiber Glass Length

ks

.

0.12

W

.

mK

W

Plywood siding thermal conductivity:

Plywood siding Length Ls

.

20 mm

hi

.

30

W

.

m

2

K

W

ho

.

60

W

.

m

2

K

W

The total heat loss through the wall is given by

q

Ti To

1

.

hi A

Lp

.

kp A

Lb

.

kb A

Ls

.

ks A

1

.

ho A

.

hi A

.

kp A hi kp

So the total thermal resistance of the wall is

Rwall

1

.

hi A

Lp

.

kp A

Lb

.

kb A

Ls

.

ks A

1

.

ho A

.

hi A

.

kp A hi kp

12

= Rwall

K

W

Rwall

(b) The total heat loss through the wall is

= q W q ho1 ho ho

(c) I a windy day the convective heat loss increases

ho

.

300

W

.

m

2

K

W

qwind

Ti To

1

.

hi A

Lp

.

kp A

Lb

.

kb A

Ls

.

ks A

1

.

ho A

.

hi A

.

kp A hi kp

The new heat loss is

= qwind qwind

Percentage increase

of Heat Loss

q_percent

.

qwind q

100

q

qwind q

q

= q_percent q_percent %

Percentage increase

of convective heat transfer

coefficient

h_percent

.

ho ho1

100

ho1

ho ho1

ho1

= h_percent h_percent %

We observe that even though the resistance in convective heat loss constant decreased 400%, the

total heat loss increased only by 0.405%.

(d) In the wall of our example the thermal resistances of the different parts are in series. In such a case

the controlling resistnace will be the larger one. In this example the larger resistance is due to the layer

of the glass fiber blanket

Problem 3.102 Incopera and DeWitt

In order to solve this problem we will make the following assumptions:

1. Steady state conditions

13

2. One dimensional conduction along the rod

3. Constant physical properties

4. No heat loss due to radiation

5. There is no heat loss through the insulation

6. The convective heat transfer coefficient isuniform along the exposed surface of the rod

7. There is no heat loss from the end of the rod (rod is adiabatic), since it is insulated

Data given by the problem statement

k

.

60

W

.

mK

W

Diameter of the rod: D

.

25 mm Thermal conductivity of the rod:

Area of the rod:

A

.

3.1415

D

2

4

= A 4.909 10

4

m

2

Temperature of furnace wall: Tw

.

273.15 200 K

Thickness of furnce insulation: Lins

.

200 mm

Maximum operating temperature: Tmax

.

273.15 100 K

Ambient air temperature: Tair

.

273.15 25 K

h

.

15

W

.

m

2

K

W

Convective transfer coefficient:

In the insulated part of the rod we have one dimensional heat conduction. The temparature To

must satisfy the following relation:

To Tw

.

Lins

q

.

k A

Tw

q

.

k A

q

k

1

where q is the heat that is removed from the oven through the rod. This amount will be equal

with the amount of heat that is removed from the rod.

Fin Perimeter: P

.

3.1415 D

m1

.

h P

.

k A

h

k

For an adiabatic fin the heat transfer rate will be given by equation (3.76) of the book:

q

. . . . .

h P k A To Tair tanh

.

m Lo

.

m Lo h k Lo (2)

We can substitue (2) in (1) and solve for To

To Tw

.

Lins

. . . . .

h P k A To Tair tanh

.

m1 Lo

.

k A

To

. .

Tw k A

. . .

Lins

. . .

h P k A tanh

.

m1 Lo Tair

.

k A

. .

Lins

. . .

h P k A tanh

.

m1 Lo

A Tair k h k m1 Lo

14

(b) Lo

.

200 mm

To

. .

Tw k A

. . .

Lins

. . .

h P k A tanh

.

m1 Lo Tair

.

k A

. .

Lins

. . .

h P k A tanh

.

m1 Lo

.

m1 Lo k h k m1

= To 258.15 K

We see that the temperature To is larger than the maximum operating limit. We will examine several

design alternatives to see which parameter has the largest influence on the temperature.

Change Insulation length

L .. ,

.

10 mm

.

100 mm

.

400 mm

T Lins

. .

Tw k A

. . .

Lins

. . .

h P k A tanh

.

m1 Lo Tair

.

k A

. .

Lins

. . .

h P k A tanh

.

m1 Lo

k h k m1

k h k m1

Insulation thickness [mm]

T

o

[

K

]

450

300

T L

.300 .100 L

T L

From the graph above we see that increasing the insulation thickness of the oven makes the

temperature To to decrease. To make To~373K, the insulation thickness has to be increased to

~250mm (about 25%)

= T

.

250 mm T

.

250 mm

Change length of the rod

Lins

.

200 mm

L .. ,

.

10 mm

.

50 mm

.

500 mm

15

T Lo

. .

Tw k A

. . .

Lins

. . .

h P k A tanh

.

.

h P

.

k A

Lo Tair

.

k A

. .

Lins

. . .

h P k A tanh

.

.

h P

.

k A

Lo

k h k

h

k

k h k

h

k

Insulation thickness [mm]

T

o

[

K

]

450

300

T L

.400 .050 L

T L

Increasing the length of the rod will make To decrease but not enough. Even if the exposed part

of the rod is ~1m the temperature will not be below the specified operating limit

= T

.

1000 mm T

.

1000 mm

Changing Material

Lins

.

200 mm

Lo

.

200 mm

k1 .. ,

.

1

W

.

1

.

mK

.

10

W

.

mK

.

1000

W

.

mK

W W W

T k

. .

Tw k A

. . .

Lins

. . .

h P k A tanh

.

.

h P

.

k A

Lo Tair

.

k A

. .

Lins

. . .

h P k A tanh

.

.

h P

.

k A

Lo

h

h

h

h

Thermal conductivity of Material [W/m/K]

T

o

[

K

]

400

300

T k1

100 0 k1

T k1

16

T

o

[

K

]

Another way to decrease To below the 373K is to change the material of the rod. A material

with smaller thermal conductivity can be used. For example different Stailness Steel alloys

have thermal conductivities in the range of ~15 W/m/K and can be used instead.

Problem 3.119 Incopera and DeWitt

In order to calculate the maximum allowable chip power dissipation we have to calculate first

the total heat resistance of the fin and the contact interface with the chip.

Assumptions :

1. Steady-state conditions

2. One-dimension radial conduction fins

3. Constant properties

4. No heat exchange due to radiation

5. Uniform convection coefficient over outer surface

6. The entire fin surface, as well as the exposed base are maintained at the same

temperature

Below you can see a schematic of the thermal circuit:

Characteristic dimensions of fin Physical Properties

Lb

.

3 mm

k

.

400

W

.

mK

W

Lf

.

6 mm

S

.

0.50 mm

w1

.

0.25 mm Wc

.

16 mm

17

Lc Lf

w1

2

Area of one fin Af

. .

2 w1 Lc

Bulk Area Ab

.

Wc Wc

Total Number of fins N

.

Wc Wc

.

S S

= N 1.024 10

3

Total Area At

.

N Af Ab

Interface Contact Resistance : R_tc

. . .

5 10

6

m

2 K

WW

Conductive Resistance of the bulk: R_b

Lb

.

k Wc

2

k

Resistance for covective heat loss from bulk surface and fin

h

.

1500

W

.

m

2

K

W

m1

.

2 h

.

k w1

h

k

nf

tanh

.

m1 Lc

.

m1 Lc

.

m1 Lc m1

no 1

.

.

N Af

At

1 nf nf

R_fin

1

. .

no h At no h

T_hot

.

273.15 85 K T_cold

.

273.15 25 K

q_total

T_hot T_cold

R_fin R_b

R_tc

Ab

R_b

Ab

R_fin R_b

R_tc

= q_total W q_total

18

(b) Substituting the analytical quantities for each parameter in the equation of heat dissipation we

can get

q_t , w1 Lf

T_hot T_cold

R_b

R_tc

Ab

1

. .

h

.

N

. .

2 w1 Lf w1

2

Ab 1

.

.

N

. .

2 w1 Lf w1

2

.

N

. .

2 w1 Lf w1

2

Ab

1

tanh

. .

2

h

.

k w1

Lf

w1

2

. .

2

h

.

k w1

Lf

w1

2

R_b

R_tc

Ab

1

. .

h

.

N

. .

2 w1 Lf w1

2

Ab 1

.

.

N

. .

2 w1 Lf w1

2

.

N

. .

2 w1 Lf w1

2

Ab

1

tanh

. .

2

h

.

k w1

Lf

w1

2

. .

2

h

.

k w1

Lf

w1

2

It is not possible to increase w without increasing S. This is because for we already have (S-w)=0.25

We'll examine the influence of w by trying different values smaller than 0.25 mm

L_fin .. ,

.

6 mm

.

7 mm

.

10 mm

q_t ,

.

0.25 mm L_fin

q_t ,

.

0.20 mm L_fin

q_t ,

.

0.15 mm L_fin

q_t ,

.

0.10 mm L_fin

10 L_fin

mm

q_t

So we see that the dissipated heat is maximum for the maximum allowed value of w, for a specified

value of S. Similarly an increased value of the fin length increase the amount of heat that can be

dissipated.

19

T (x, 0. 5 )

3 0

40

5 0

60

7 0

80

90

1 00

0. 0 0. 5 1 . 0 1 . 5 2 . 0

T (1 , y )

0

20

40

60

80

1 00

1 20

1 40

1 60

0 0. 2 0. 4 0. 6 0. 8 1 1 . 2

100 100 100 100 100

50 85.31857 103.9098 114.9796 121.3088 121.3918 200

50 87.36451 115.3409 134.6999 148.8636 164.2584 200

50 98.79856 135.3895 159.6154 175.1874 186.7784 200

50 122.4403 167.803 193.1847 205.4924 207.6675 200

50 173.1595 220.1976 239.8281 245.93 238.3994 200

300 300 300 300 300

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

S 1

S 5

0

50

100

150

200

250

300

250-300

200-250

150-200

100-150

50-100

0-50

Heat Transfer Coefficients

0

5000

10000

15000

20000

25000

0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8

mass flow rate

H

T

C

hi

ho

Uo

Tco versus mass flow rate

310

315

320

325

330

335

340

345

350

355

5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19

mass flow rate (kg/s)

T

c

o

(

K

)

Rf''=0

Rf''=0.0002

Rf''=0.0005

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