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Ancient Near East

5000 BCE

AKA: Ancient Mesopotamia Modern Middle East/ Iraq & Iran (see map, pg. 32) Early people settle in Fertile Crescent, 5000 BCE

Tigris and Euphrates Rivers Fertile soil Farming, animal husbandry, Specialization allowed time to discover and advance

Sumer: Earliest Civilization in the world!

1 st Urban community 1 st Writing- cuneiforms; Historical documentation

People of Mesopotamia

Sumerian- 1 st to settle; flourished (3000 BCE)

Akkadian- took over Sumer and create Empire

Neo Sumerian- Sumerians regained control

Babylonian- King Hammurabi (1 st written laws)

Assyrian- come to power (Ashur, god of war)

Neo-Babylonian- King Nebuchadnezzar; (Hanging

Gardens of Babylon) Persian Empire- Iranian

333 BCE- Conquered by Alexander the Great (Battle of Issus); becomes part of Roman Empire

Art of Ancient Near East

1. Religious objects (content and/or function)

Gods and goddesses, pg. 35

2. Patronage: rulers and aristocrats commission art

Propaganda (religious and political)

Establishment of government; rise of imperial power; “god-kings”

Canon: accepted rules, standards

What do the works in this chapter have in common?

Warka Vase, Sumerian

3000 BCE

bas relief

registers composite (descriptive) hierarchy of scale

Warka Vase , Sumerian 3000 BCE bas relief • • registers • composite (descriptive) • hierarchy

Warka Vase, Sumerian

3000 BCE

Describe this object in detail. Use proper vocabulary!

Why is this object significant?

Warka Vase , Sumerian 3000 BCE • Describe this object in detail. Use proper vocabulary! •
Warka Vase , Sumerian 3000 BCE • Describe this object in detail. Use proper vocabulary! •

Votive statuettes, 3000 BCE

Describe these figures in detail?

What do these tell us about Sumerian religious practices?

Votive statuettes, 3000 BCE • Describe these figures in detail? • What do these tell us
Votive statuettes, 3000 BCE • Describe these figures in detail? • What do these tell us

Standard of Ur, 3000 BCE

Standard of Ur, 3000 BCE • Explain this object. • Describe the canon. • Who’s the

Explain this object. Describe the canon. • Who’s the patron?

Why is patronage important in understanding a work of art?

Sumerian Cylinder Seals, 3000 BCE

What do these objects have in common with other Sumerian artifacts?

Compare and contrast with Indus seals, pg. 169

Sumerian Cylinder Seals, 3000 BCE • What do these objects have in common with other Sumerian
Sumerian Cylinder Seals, 3000 BCE • What do these objects have in common with other Sumerian
Sumerian Cylinder Seals, 3000 BCE • What do these objects have in common with other Sumerian

Sumerian Temples and ziggurats

White Temple, 3000 BCE, Uruk (mod. Warka, Iraq) Ziggurat, Ur, 2100 BCE (mod. Iraq)

Ziggurat, Ur, 2000 BCE
Ziggurat, Ur,
2000 BCE

Summer Essay Assignment

Describe the religion practiced by ancient Sumerians and explain how it influenced their

art. FULLY identify 2 works to help support your answer.

Victory Stele of Naram-Sin, 2000 BCE

Victory Stele of Naram-Sin, 2000 BCE • Akkadian • Where was this object found? • Explain

Akkadian Where was this object found? Explain propaganda as it relates to this object. (“god-king”) • Compare it to a Sumerian object.

Stele of Hammurabi, 2000 BCE

Stele of Hammurabi, 2000 BCE
Stele of Hammurabi, 2000 BCE

Stele of Hammurabi, 2000 BCE

Stele of Hammurabi, 2000 BCE • Babylonian • stele • cuneiforms • Describe the characteristics. •

Babylonian

stele cuneiforms

Describe the characteristics. Propaganda?

Why is it important to have written laws?

What does this tell us about Babylonian religion and politics?

Citadel of Sargon II, Iraq, 700 BCE

Assyrian citadel Explain the following inscriptions found here:

“I built this city with the labors of people subdued by my hands,… [gods] caused them to lay at my feet and bear my yoke.”

– “Sargon, king of the world, has build a city.”

Citadel of Sargon II, Iraq, 700 BCE • Assyrian • citadel • Explain the following inscriptions

Lamassu, 700 BCE

Lamassu, 700 BCE • Colossal • High relief and bas relief • Descriptive/ composite • What

Colossal High relief and bas relief Descriptive/ composite

What was the purpose of these? (propaganda)

Lamassu, 700 BCE • Colossal • High relief and bas relief • Descriptive/ composite • What

Assyrian archers, 700 BCE

From the palace of Ashurnasirpal II Cycle of narrative bas reliefs celebrating the king and his accomplishments (propaganda) Canon?

Assyrian archers, 700 BCE • From the palace of Ashurnasirpal II • Cycle of narrative bas

Ashurbanipal Hunting Lions

600 BCE

Ashurbanipal Hunting Lions 600 BCE

Ashurbanipal Hunting Lions

600 BCE

Ashurbanipal Hunting Lions 600 BCE

Journal

How were the Assyrians different from the Sumerians? Fully identify examples as

evidence.

Ishtar Gate, 600 BCE

• Neo-Babylonian
• Neo-Babylonian

Summer Essay

How do the Warka Vase, Stele of Naram Sin, Stele of Hammurabi, and Ashurbanipal Hunting Lions reflect changing religious and political ideas of ancient Mesopotamia?