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The Dawn of the Terabit Age

Developments in Photonic Integration and Scaling of the Digital Optical Network

The Service Provider Challenge Scaling to Terabits

Drivers

Video Mobility Cloud


3 2011 Infinera Corporation Confidential & Proprietary

Network Growth

Internet

Terabit Ethernet

Digital Optical Networks

Market requirements..and how to deliver on them


MORE BANDWIDTH Capacity per Wave
100G to Terabit pipes Flexible coherent receivers Rapid Plug & Play deployment

Capacity per System


Higher density Lower power Carrier class reliability

The optimal solution: Photonic Integration


5 2011 Infinera Corporation.

Market requirements..and how to deliver on them


CONVERGENCE WDM + Packet
Integrated packet switching Network simplification Carrier class reliability

WDM + OTN
Integrated digital switching Ease of use Lower overall cost

The optimal solution: Digital Networks


6 2011 Infinera Corporation.

What kind of PIC?


MULTI-CHANNEL

100G WDM-on-a-chip 10 channels 60 components InP

HYBRID

PIC

MONOLITHIC

SINGLE-CHANNEL

Maximum benefit from multi-channel integration Highest reliability & simplest design from monolithic integration

PICs created equal?


LARGE - SCALE

500G WDM-on-a-chip 100G per channel >600 optical functions Active & passive functions

500G 500G Tx PIC Rx PIC

PASSIVE

PIC

ACTIVE

SMALL - SCALE

Large-scale integration maximizes capacity per chip Active PICs enable greatest level of functional integration

PIC Design Decisions Why? (Alternate)


Consolidate expensive functions

ACTIVE MONOLITHIC
Reliability/Simplicity/Cost

Maximize capacity/chip and leverage Moores Law

LARGE-SCALE LONG-REACH
Lower network CapEx

Maximize capacity/fiber

HIGH-DATA-RATE

The Inevitability of Photonic Integration


Photonic integration is the optical industrys best hope for scaling to meet future bandwidth requirements while similarly reducing cost per bit.
Sterling Perrin, Heavy Reading

Optical integration is becoming a necessity because of 40 and 100 Gigabit [transmission]The modulation formats require you to deal with signals in parallel, and using nonintegrated components explodes the complexity.
Joe Berthold, VP Optical Architecture, Ciena

Integration is a key part of our thinking Bandwidth growth is forcing us to consider architectures not considered before.
Sam Bucci, vice president, WDM, Alcatel-Lucents optics activities

The Inevitability of Photonic Integration


Infinera really does stand alone in large-scale optoelectronic integration today, with a PIC that could very well have an astounding lead time of four years over the rest of the optical industry.
Sterling Perrin, Heavy Reading

Infineras History of Photonic Integration


Research & Development
First monolithically integrated 10-ch receiver First monolithically integrated laser / modulator / mux First working 100Gb/s Tx and Rx (10 x 11.1Gb/s) 400Gb/s PIC (10 x 40Gb/s) demonstrating high data-rate scaling 1.6Tb/s PIC (40x40G) scaling to 100s of functions per chip S-band PICs: scaling fiber spectrum

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

Gen 1 PIC

100G DWDM system on a chip

Gen 2 PIC

ULH and submarine reach

Volume Production

Infineras Photonic Integration Roadmap


Research & Development
400G RZ-DQPSK PIC: PIC-based phase modulation 1Tb/s coherent PIC: Enabling technology for FlexChannels

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

2016

2017

2018

Gen 3 PIC 500G DWDM coherent (5 x 100G)

Volume Production

Moving to Gen 3 PICs


500Gb/s WDM System on a Chip

Foundations of 100G Transmission

DP-QPSK Modulation

Coherent Detection

40 nm DSP ASIC Builds on Infinera highgain FEC track record

INDUSTRY-LEADING DEVELOPMENT TEAM

Fiber Capacity Foundation Features


Advanced Modulation Coherent Detection Advanced FEC

Infinera 100G Transmission:

Foundation vs Differentiating Features

3
Differentiators

Pervasive, Switched DWDM FlexCoherent Modulation Large Scale PICs Fiber Capacity

2 1

Foundation Features

Advanced Modulation

Coherent Detection

Advanced FEC

500G, Large Scale, Monolithic PIC Implementation


COST CAPACITY RELIABILITY SIZE
500G Tx PIC 500G Rx PIC

POWER

Number of channels Monolithic InP Chips Optical elements Gold Box Replacements Fiber Replacements

5 x 100G 2 > 600 > 100 > 400

500Gb/s Transmitter PIC


5 x 114Gb/s Transmitter 442 Elements: AWG mux, lasers, modulators, detectors, VOAs, control elements
500 Gb/s Multi-Chip Module 1040 Inputs/Outputs 17 of wire bonds

500G Tx PIC

Control ASIC

RF ASIC

5 x 114Gb/s Tx PIC Module

500Gb/s Receiver PIC


5 x 114Gb/s Receiver 171 Elements: AWG demux, local
laser oscillator, 90deg Hybrid, Balanced detectors, control elements

TIA ASIC 500G Rx PIC Input Fibers

5 x 114Gb/s Rx PIC Module

Infinera 100G Transmission Differentiators


FlexCoherent Modulation

FlexCoherent DSP ASIC


40nm CMOS technology for low power consumption Enhanced compensation of optical impairments: Chromatic Dispersion, PMD

FlexCoherent = Dial-A-Reach
Per-wavelength selection of the optimum coherent modulation

PM-QPSK PM-BPSK 8 QAM 16 QAM


REACH CAPACITY

PIC-Based Coherent 100Gb/s Transmission


Live Network Demo with XO

DENVER

DALLAS

500Gb/s PIC transmitter

500Gb/s PIC receiver

1348 km production fiber route from Denver to Dallas 500G PIC-based transmitter and receiver

Summary
500G PICs integrate over 600 functions 500G PICs have been demonstrated with our customers over
live networks

Infinera 500G PICs will deliver PIC-based economics in 2012

INFINERAS KEY DIFFERENTIATORS:

Large Scale PICs FlexCoherent modulation Pervasive, Switched DWDM

Enabling Technologies for The Terabit Age

Infineras Photonic Integration Roadmap


Research & Development
400G RZ-DQPSK PIC: PIC-based phase modulation 1Tb/s coherent PIC: Enabling technology for FlexChannels

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

2016

2017

2018

Gen 3 PIC 500G DWDM coherent (5 x 100G)

2 Terabit PIC 2Tb/s PIC: scaling for network CapEx and OpEx savings

Volume Production

Terabit PIC 1Tb/s FlexChannel PIC for up to 25Tb/s capacity

Whats changed so far

Since the advent of DWDM

Intensity Modulation Direct Detection ITU Frequency Grid

Phase Modulation Coherent Detection ITU Frequency Grid


now

What Comes Next For Terabit Transport?

Since the advent of DWDM

Intensity Modulation Direct Detection ITU Frequency Grid

Quadrature Amplitude Phase Modulation Modulation Coherent Detection Demultiplexing ITU Frequency Grid-less FlexChannels Grid
so what has to change

Advanced Modulation Formats


Pol-Mux QPSK Pol-Mux 8-QAM Pol-Mux 16-QAM

Capacity * Reach Product

1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0

BPSK

IM-DD 1.6 8 12 16 24

C-Band Capacity (Tb/s)

What Comes Next For Terabit Transport?

Since the advent of DWDM

On-Off Keyed Modulation Direct Detection ITU Frequency Grid

Quadrature amplitude Modulation Coherent Demultiplexing Grid-less FlexChannels


so what has to change

DWDM Direct Detection


Spatially separate the channels using a wavelength demux
Spacing on the fiber needed between waves: Guard Bands

PD

wavelength demux

DWDM Coherent Detection


Spatially separate the channels using a wavelength demux
Spacing on the fiber needed between waves: Guard Bands

LO

PD

ADC

DSP

wavelength demux

Use a local oscillator to choose the color we want to detect matching the filter connected to

Coherent wave combining and separation


Spatially separate the FlexChannels using a wavelength demux
Block of similar-colored waves: a Flex-Channel

LO

PD

ADC

DSP

wavelength demux

Use a local oscillator to choose the color we want to detect within the block

Scaling to Terabits Challenges & Solutions


Conventional paradigm: increase bits per wave
100101010

10Gb/s

100101011 100110010 101101011 100101011

40Gb/s

100101011100110010 101101011100101011 100101011100110010 101101011100101011 100101011100110010 101101011100101011 100101011100110010 101101011100101011

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Baud Rates for 1Tb/s per wave


Commercial Analog/Digital 105GBaud Converters for coherent modulation will only hit PM-32QAM ~64GBaud by 2014
128GBaud

PM-64QAM

OSNR Penalty (dB)

PM-16QAM
160GBaud

PM-8QAM PM-BPSK
640GBaud

PM-QPSK
320GBaud

210GBaud

100Gb/s

1
1 Tb/s per wavelength?

2 4 6 8 10 12 Number of bits per symbol

Single- 1Tb/s requiresvery high level modulation (64QAM)very


36

high OSNR (impacting reach)using electronics that do not yet exist Solution: Multi-carrier 1Tb/s FlexChannels
2011 Infinera Corporation.

How 1Tb/s Might Look


Conventional Per-Channel WDM Filtering
1Tb/s

Conventional WDM vs FlexChannels


Guard bands allow for individual
wavelength demux

Limits channel density and fiber capacity Limits data rates by limiting available
spectrum for modulation bandwidth

Multi-Carrier FlexChannel

Tighter spacing, or higher data rate per


channel ( FlexCoherent)

Up to 25% increase in useable amplifier


1Tb/s

spectrum

Simplified optical switching of


FlexChannels with broader spectrum

The Value of FlexChannels


The result of FlexChannels: more capacity
1.2

Capacity * Reach Product

1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0


0 0 1.6 1 2

PM QPSK

at the same reach for a given modulation type using available electronics

82 4

12 3 6

16 4 8

5 10

24 6 12

C-Band Capacity (Tb/s) Spectral efficiency [b/s/Hz] Bits / Dual -Pol -Symbol

What Comes Next For Terabit Transport?

Since the advent of DWDM

On-Off Keyed Modulation Direct Detection ITU Frequency Grid

Quadrature amplitude Modulation Coherent Wave Separation Grid-less FlexChannels


so what has to change

FlexChannels Increase Total Fiber Capacity More complex modulation more capacity per fiber
PM-QPSK

12 Tb/s
8-QAM

18 Tb/s
16-QAM

1Tb/s

24 Tb/s

Reach, Spectral Efficiency, and Co-Existence


A D B C E

10x100G PM-QPSK

1Tb/s PM-QPSK FlexChannel

1Tb/s PM-8QAM FlexChannel

1Tb/s PM-16QAM FlexChannel

or

The Power of Photonic Integration

AWG
Multi-Carrier 1Tb/s FlexChannel

Key Technologies for 1Tb/s


Photonic Integration ASICs
A/D conversion CD and PMD compensation Non-linear comp. possible Flexibility of electronics

Tx PIC

Rx PIC

Disruptive Technology Integrated multi-carrier 1Tb/s

FEC

Tx DSP

High-gain FEC for max reach

From binary to multi-level Allow spectral shaping FlexCoherent modulation

Summary:

The Key Technologies For 1Tb/s Are Well Understood But the implementation of those technologies will be critical to allowing service providers to differentiate their products and services

3
Differentiators

Pervasive, Switched DWDM FlexCoherent Modulation Large Scale PICs


Coherent Detection Advanced FEC

2 1

Foundation Features

Advanced Modulation

Photonic Integration Enabling the Digital Optical Network

Delivering the Fastest, Most Economical and Easiest to Use Network

PICs Enable Pervasive Digital Switching


100 Gb/s Transmit

Photonic Integration

PICs enable cost-effective


OEO

WDM system on a chip: Affordable OEO provides


access to digital domain 100 Gb/s Receive

100Gb/s to 1Tb/s and more

PICs Enable Pervasive Digital Switching


Optical (O) Electrical (E)
Integrated Photonics Integrated Photonics

Optical (O)

Photonic Integration

100101011101010000101011 100101010101101011010101 110101000010101110010101 001010111011010110010101 1001 0101 Trib 0101 1010 1101 0101 0101 1010 1101 0101

Integrated Switching + WDM

Enables digital functionality Integrated switching at every node High functionality Digital ROADM Dramatic network simplification

PICs Enable Pervasive Digital Switching


10010101110101010000 10010101010110101011

Integrated Photonics

100101011101010000101011 100101010101101011010101 110101000010101110010101 001010111011010110010101


10010101110101010000 10010101010110101011

Integrated Photonics

Photonic Integration

10010101110101010000 10010101010110101011

Integrated Switching + WDM

10010101110101010000 10010101010110101011

Pervasive Digital Switching

Software-enabled Ease-of-Use Digital switching at every node: OTN


evolving to packet/OTN Unconstrained bandwidth everywhere Lowest cost per switched Gb/s

XO "10 Gigs in 10 Days" Guarantee across select major coast-to-coast routes If XO Communications fails to install the service within business 10 days, the customer will be eligible for a one month service credit for each year of the customer's contract.

delivering six 10Gbs wavelengths across 1200km of Europe in just 48 hours

PICs will re-define the network paradigm


Traditional transponder based WDM x-ponders + ROADMs Gb/s per wave Wavelengths Coherent $ per Gb/s (Transponder cost) PIC-based Integrated Switching + WDM
Pervasive, Switched DWDM

Fiber Capacity FlexChannels FlexCoherent $ per switched Gb/s (Network cost)

what THE NETWORK will be


Low Cost Bandwidth in the Cloud Pervasive and Distributed Switching Digital Connectivity to the Cloud Steadfast Reliability

Thank You Q&A