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PROJECT REPORT

SPEED CONTROL OF A DC MOTOR CONNECTED TO A BOOST CONVERTER SUPPLIED BY FUEL CELL BY CONTROLLING THE FLOW RATE OF FUEL SUPPLY IN THE HYDROGEN FUEL CELL

PREPARED BY: SIDDHARTHA JAIN - 10BEE0178 ANKIT BHATT 10BEE0009 BALJINDER PAL SINGH 10BEE0016
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SUBMITTED TO:PROF.VIJAYAKUMAR D FACULTY D.G. SLOT E1

ACKNOWLEGDEMENT
We have taken efforts in this project. However, it would not have been possible without the kind support and help of many individuals and organizations. We would like to extend our sincere thanks to all of them. We are highly indebted to Prof. VijayaKumar D, faculty Distributed generation for his guidance and constant supervision as well as for providing necessary information regarding the project & also for his support in completing the project. We would like to express our gratitude towards our parents & the university management for their kind co-operation and encouragement which help us in completion of this project on SPEED CONTROL OF A DC MOTOR CONNECTED TO A BOOST CONVERTER SUPPLIED BY FUEL CELL BY CONTROLLING THE FLOW RATE OF FUEL SUPPLY IN THE HYDROGEN FUEL CELL. Our thanks and appreciations also go to our peers who helped us in developing the project and people who have willingly helped us out with their abilities. - SIDDHARTHA JAIN - ANKIT BHATT - BALJINDER PAL SINGH

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INDEX
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION CHEMICAL REACTION WORKING METHOD METHOD-1 METHOD-2 SOFT CURRENT MECHANISM BOOST CONVERTER FLOW RATE CONVERTER SPEED CONTROL USING PID: BLOCK-4 METHOD-1: BLOCK-5 METHOD-2: BLOCK-6 GRAPHS TABLE FOR FLOW RATE AT DIFFERENT LOAD RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES 2 4 5 7 8 9 11 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 21 22 23

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ABSTRACT
According to present scenario it is quite clear that we can no longer relay on the conventional energy resources. Sooner or later these have to be substituted by non-conventional or renewable energy resources. One of the non-conventional energy resources is hydrogen fuel cell. A hydrogen fuel cell is locally installed nearby the load and the energy is fed directly. In this project the speed of a DC motor is regulated by controlling the flow rate of the hydrogen fuel supply to the fuel cell. At different torque loads it is observed that the speed of the motor will also change so in order to maintain constant speed the hydrogen flow rate should also be regulated correspondingly.

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INTRODUCTION
A fuel cell is closed system which converts chemical energy to electrical energy through chemical reactions with generally oxygen or with other oxidizing agents. The most commonly used fuel is hydrogen but a fuel cell can also be used with other natural gasses like methane or even with alcohol like methanol. A basic fuel cell consists of three main components anode, cathode and the electrolyte. In this project we choose PEMFC that is proton exchange membrane fuel cell also known as polymer exchange membrane fuel cell. This membrane acts as the electrolyte. The fuel is supplied at the anode which is normally made of very fine platinum powder. Platinum acts as a catalyst in the reaction and is responsible for breaking the hydrogen molecule into hydrogen ion and electron. Instead of platinum iron, nitrogen or carbon can also be used which are far less expensive than platinum but the rate of reaction is far too slow to be used practically. Alkaline based membrane was used in older models of fuel cells but now special polymer membrane is being applied in fuel cells for both transports as well as for stationary purposes. The most commonly used membrane is Nafion which is sulfonatedtetrafloroethylene. The PEMs have longer life span and work at comparatively lower temperature and pressure as that of other membranes. Only hydrogen ions formed at the anode are passed through
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the membrane to the other side and the electrons have to pass through the external circuit connected to the fuel cell in order to reach the cathode. This flow of electrons in the external circuit is used to feed the load, thus the electricity is generated and is utilized as well. The membrane doesnt allow electrons to pass through it as it would result in short circuit of the fuel cell. Also it doesnt allow either of the gasses to crossover to the other side as it would lead to the effect called gas crossover resulting in malfunctioning of the fuel cell and will drastically affect the output and may damage the fuel cell as well. The membrane should also be resistant to reduction action at cathode and the oxidizing environment at anode. Finally, membrane being a key component of the fuel cell water management is very crucial as too much of water will flood the membrane and too little water will dry the membrane in both the conditions the membrane has to be replaced. In order to manage the water electro osmotic pumps are used generally. The hydrogen ions and the electrons recombine with the oxygen at the cathode which is generally made up of nickel but recently nanomaterial based catalysts are being used as they provide better site of reaction and thus increase the efficiency. At cathode the cycle of fuel cell is complete leaving water as byproduct and production of electricity.

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CHEMICAL REACTIONS

At the Anode:

At the cathode:

Overall reaction:

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WORKING METHOD

A DC motor is fed by a fuel cell via a boost converter, the varying speed of the motor can be maintained constant at different loads by precisely changing the flow rate of hydrogen in the fuel cell and the speed can be regained. In order to find the flow rate two methods are used and the new value of regulated fuel supply is cross verified in both the models to confirm the new fuel supply which is to be applied at the corresponding load in order to regain the speed.

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METHOD-1
A 6KW 45V PEMFC fuel cell in simplified model is used. Output of the cell is connected to a boost converter, boosting it to 220V as per the rating of the DC motor connected. [Refer block 5]. External torque load is provided effectively to the motor and the corresponding values of current; voltage, speed etc. are observed. Current from the fuel cell and motor are converted to flow rate of Hydrogen and new flow rate is obtained which is to be implemented in order to maintain the speed constant. The upper and lower limits of flow rate are 50.08 lpm and 85 lpm. At no load the nominal flow rate of hydrogen gas in the fuel cell is 50.08 lpm. The equivalent flow rate of the current from the motor side is subtracted from the nominal flow rate i.e. 50.08 lpm and the corresponding error value is found. [Refer block 3]. At a particular load the current of the motor side changes and so does the flow rate producing a certain error.

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This error is then added to the equivalent flow rate of the current in the fuel cell side. Thus we get the required new flow rate which is to be implemented to regain the speed. A group of resistors is added in series in order to limit the starting current. Each resistor is coupled with a parallel MOSFET which eliminates each resistor one by one by shorting it at a particular instant of time when the pulse is sent to the gate of the MOSFET. [Refer block 1].

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METHOD-2
Another similar arrangement is made as that of Method- 1. The only difference being here is that speed is maintained constant by using PID control. [Refer block 6] A reference speed is set constant to compare the actual speed at different torque loads. Also for reference current from the fuel cell and from motor are again converted to the flow rate and are observed in scope. But here the speed is maintained constant via the PID controller for which the input reference speed to be maintained constant is taken from the lookup table. [Refer block 4] The rated speed of the motor is given in the lookup table which is to be maintained constant. The PID controller arrangement is made in such a way that the switching sequence of the MOSFET is controlled. This pattern controls the supply to the motor and thus the speed is regained. [Refer block 4] A diode is also connected in parallel to the arrangement to stop the reverse flow when the MOSFET is in off state.

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When a certain load is applied to the motor externally the speed and current also get correspondingly changed. Speed is regained by the PID control method and the current is used to determine the flow rate. Similarly another flow rate is obtained by the current in the fuel cell side. Same arrangement is made to determine the new flow rate formed as was used in the previous model. To limit the lower and upper values sample and hold blocks are used with the PID control scheme and also with the flow rate mechanism. The overall new flow rate of the hydrogen gas so obtained is the new required value to be implemented to regulate the speed at the particular load.

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SOFT CURRENT MECHANISM


To limit the high startup current a series arrangement of resisters is made which get shorted by the MOSFET. This is similar to the 3 point starter mechanism. Three resisters are connected in series with values R, R/2, R/4. Each MOSFET connected parallel to these resisters is given a step input after different time interval so that the resisters are shorted and the starting current is limited as the starting resistance in the circuit is maximum and this keeps on decreasing thus slowing building the current and finally all the resistors are eliminated and the resistance is now minimum and by this time the current is at the maximum value. The ripples in speed and armature current are reduced by application of this mechanism.

BLOCK-1

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BOOST CONVERTER
The stack of fuel cell has output voltage of the range 12V, 24V, 45V etc. in order to supply it to the motor this voltage has to be boosted to the voltage equal to the rating of the motor. A separate block is used to step up the DC output voltage of the fuel cell to the required voltage suitable for the DC motor, here 220V. With the changing load and correspondingly varying flow rate of fuel cell the boost converter adjusts the duty cycle such that the output voltage is maintained constant and is fed to the DC motor. The output voltage is maintained constant at 220V even on application of external load here at 2sec the constant value is as shown in fig3.

BLOCK-2

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FLOW RATE CONVERTER


It converts the input current value to the corresponding flow rate value with the addition of the characteristic parameters of fuel cell like temperature of operation, pressure etc. The equation used is: FlowRate=60000*8.3145*(273+T)*Nc*u(1)/(2*96485*(Pf*101 325)*Uf_H2/100*x/100) Where, T= temperature of operation of fuel cell U (1) = input value of the current Pf = operating pressure Uf_H2 = Utilization [Hydrogen] Nc = number of moles of hydrogen ions formed R = 8.3145 J/ (mol K)

BLOCK-3

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SPEED CONTROL USING PID: BLOCK-4

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MODEL 1: BLOCK-5

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MODEL 2: BLOCK-6

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GRAPHS
METHOD-1: graph showing new flow rate which is modified
as per the load so that the speed can be maintained constant.

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METHOD-2: graph showing new flow rate which is modified


as per the load so that the speed can be maintained constant.

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TABLE FOR FLOW RATE AT DIFFERENT LOAD


Table 1: showing corresponding flow rate values at different torque loads along with current.
S no. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Current (amps) 2.0 3.2 6.0 11 16 21.2 22.7 23.8 24 24 Load torque (Nm.) 1 2 5 10 15 20 22 23 25 50 Flow rate (lpm) 52 54 57 62 70 78 81 84 85 85

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RESULTS and CONCLUSION


On comparing the values of flow rate obtained in model 1 and model 2 it can be deduced that the new flow rate required to regulate the speed when an external load is applied to the motor here at 2sec. load applied is 10N-m is found to be 62lpm. Starting current of the motor is limited to avoid any damage or excessive heating. Using feedback based boost converter the output can be maintained constant even at different loads. Similarly this methodology can be applied for any other value of load. Table-1 This new flow rate can be applied using a control mechanism and thus the speed can be regulated. Speed can be maintained constant at different loads using PID controller. Both positive and negative speed changes can be regulated by implementing this speed control method. High precision can be maintained in this method and even a small variation can be regulated.

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REFERENCES

1. Advanced control for fuel cells connected to a DC/DC converter and 2. An electric motor by D. Zumoffen, M. Basualdo 3. Chopper Fed DC Motor Drive -- Speed Control of DC motor ( lab session2) by Syed Abdul Rahman Kashif Department of Electrical Engineering University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore, Pakistan. 4. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fuel_cell 5.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proton_exchange_membrane_f uel_cell 6. Matlab Simulink modeling

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