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CREATOR- W.V.S.RAVI TEJA SAMPATH MAIL : raviteja1901@gmail.com

Zero waste approach from scrap tyre recycling: - A POTENTIAL ENERGY SOURCE

Abstract: Disposal of scrap tyre i.e. end of life of tyre can leads to serious health and environmental problems .In this concern zero waste approach tends to shift the concept towards 3 R principle Reuse, Recycle, Refuse Tyres are rubber base articles with complex structure non bio degradable material it generally consist of rubber 45-47% ( Elastomers),carbon black 20-22%, sometimes it is replaced by silica for silicon tires Metal steel wire 15-20 % textile 5% zinc oxide 1%,Sulphur 1%,Aditives 5-7% A new unique renewable energy that includes uses of scrap tyre as raw material and producing fuel oil volatile combustible gases carbon char, steel wire etc. it has now become necessary to recycle the waste and convert it into new source of fuel which is environmental friendly also it reduces the health & environmental hazards in our study we have found that scrap tyre has potential energy source as it produces 4-45% oil by pyrolysis ,10-12% Volatile combustible gases by gasification 30-35% carbon black char for combustion purpose as coal fuel Key Words: - Scrap tyre, zero waste, pyrolysis, gasification, charing

Introduction :- In excess of 1500 million Tyres are manufactured worldwide every year the average life of a tyre is 50,000 km Internationally after that it must be replaced. More than 650 lakhs scrap tyres are generated in India per if this scrap tyre cannot be properly disposed & results great health & environmental problems. The study of renewable energy sources is an important topic in the field of the combustion science. Fuels obtained from recycling could become a valid alternative to the use of fossil fuels, also in the light of the more and more stringent environmental constraints. In the outline of alternative liquid fuel, oil obtained from the pyrolysis of used tyres, generates steel wire, & Carbon char that appears to be very promising as concerns their use in power plants and rolling mills. However, a commercial use of such "recycled-fuels" requires a systematic study of the most suitable procedures for their handling, storage, and use. Emission of waste from pyrolysis process can meet some of the fuel specifications required by the present standards. In this context, it is necessary to assess the combustion property of such kind of fuels prior to their introduction in the market. Aim of this paper is to report some preliminary results concerning the combustion fundamentals of process of re-cycling of used tyre leading to zero waste approach from scrap tyres In this paper we discuss the fundamental, principals, parameters study of waste tyre after recovery of oil by pyrolysis & gas by gasification is known as waste tyre carbon char in the manufacture process of tyre sulphurisation process will insert the sulphur content in tyre and we work on the de-sulphurisation of the waste tyre carbon char however the large amount of sulphur compounds in the tyres we are using CS2 to recover the sulphur from waste tyre & make it fit for direct burning in the boiler as clear environmental friendly fuel. The Environmental Impact Tires are designed and built to last and as such are not naturally degradable and difficult to treat. This poses a huge problem in recycling them. Traditionally, tires have been stockpiled or illegally dumped or landfilled. However, none of them is a long-term solution. Illegally dumped or stockpiled tires provide convenient breeding grounds for mosquitoes, vermin and snakes. Accidental fires caused in stockpiled sites can rage for months releasing toxic fumes. The oily residue left after tire fires are difficult to eliminate from the environment. Scrap tires present problems even when they are landfilled. Whole scrap tires eventually come up to the top of a landfill and can damage caps and liners of a landfill. As a result of all these reasons, many states in the India and many countries that are part of the Environmental Union have banned whole tires from being accepted at landfills and made recycling compulsory.

The table shows scrap tyre re cycling industries status across the globe

Methodology This paper discusses the fundamental design parameters, principles for the perfect solution Pyrolysis is a thermo chemical decomposition of organic material at elevated temperatures in the absence of oxygen. Pyrolysis typically occurs under pressure and at operating temperatures about 430 C (800 F). Pyrolysis is a special case of thermolysis, and is most commonly used for organic materials, being, therefore, one of the processes involved in charring. In general, pyrolysis of organic substances produces gas and liquid products and leaves a solid residue richer in carbon content. Extreme pyrolysis, which leaves mostly carbon as the residue, is called carbonization.

An entire scrap tyre represents the heating equivalent of approximately 9.5 liters of oil.

A typical commercial operation is described below. 1. Tires delivered to a site are weighed. Tires are introduced to systems whole or else halved, chopped, or shredded; Magnetic separation is often used to remove ferrous metals from size-reduced tires.

2. The feedstock is typically dried and preheated, using tire-derived gas. Oxygen is purged through a combination of the pyrolysis gas preheater and an inert gas system employing nitrogen. 3. Temperature and residence time in the reactor are two key pyrolysis reactor design criteria. Maintaining a positive pressure in the reactor ensures that leaks do not introduce oxygen from the air. 4. The liquid stage, tire-derived oil, is condensed and cooled. Light and heavy oil fractions may be handled separately. A separator removes any remaining water vapor. The product is filtered. The characteristics of tire-derived oil are mentioned below. 5. Solid tire-derived char is cooled, typically using a water-cooled stage. The product may be sized and screened to remove fiber. A magnetic separation stage captures magnetic materials remaining in the char. washing the char and further size reducing it produces the carbon black product. The characteristics of tire-derived char and carbon black are mentioned below. 6. Tire-derived gas maintains operating pressure in the system and provides he at to the system. Vented gases pass through a pollution control train, which may include a gas flare. The characteristics of tirederived gas are mentioned below. 7. Gas can further treated for power generation. It is passes through venturi scrubber to re move particulate matter from gas and then it is passes through water cooled condenser which can help us to bring down the temperature of tire-derived gas and cracking of tar from it. Further it is passes through various filters containing wood waste and sa w dust waste to remove %moisture from gas and finally cleaned through fabric filter. Now our Gas is ultra clean and can directly feed to Gas Driven Generating Set. But for continuous operation of generator we proposed low pressure vessel for the storage o f gas. Through this storage power generation can be done for 24 hours irrespective of gas production rate through pyrolysis of waste tires. 8. Steel shreds are baled for shipment. Separated fibers, when recovery is practical, are baled for shipment. Often, however, fibers are disposed as waste.

Fuel Oil Properties of Scrap Tyre Proximate Analysis Percentage

Moisture Volatile matter Fixed Carbon Ash

1.02 64.92 27.51 6.55

Ultimate Analysis - Moisture, Ash free

Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen Nitrogen Sulfur

84.58 7.33 6.34 0.1 3 1.62

OUT PUT PRODUCTS

The Perfect Solution (Pyrolysis Process): Pyrolysis is the decomposition of organic compoundsunder oxygen free (anaerobic) atmosphere that produces gas, oil, carbon black andsteel. Efficient industrial Pyrolysis is a process to treat the rubber and industrial plastic wastage as well.

As a result of pyrolysis of wastage tyres one obtains, FUEL OIL (45% to 50%)

The main oil product produced by our recycling application is the fuel oil that is wide used for industrial and commercial purposes. The oil has 45% to 50% of the amount of recycled scrap tyres, which will be carried with licensed tanker trucks. CARBON BLACK (30% to 35%)

Carbon Black is the main product recycled by Pyrolysis technology. The amount of recycled carbon black is 30% to 35% (depending on the type of tyres) of the total amount of scrap tyres recycled in the system. Carbon black isused as raw material or main ingredient in many industries and the chemical structure of carbon black strengthens, lengthens the endurance, and improves the coloring features of the materials. Carbon black produced by Pyrolysis process (CBp) ismore economical compared to carbon black produced primarily from petroleum and is more price-efficient to be used as an ingredient in the industries listed; Electric cable jacketing Conveyor band Carrier Bands Hose and doormat Black nylon bag, Plastic pipes Rubber additive Automotive spare parts Black colorant in rubber materials Industrial rubber products Fire fighting

STEEL WIRE (10% to 15%)

Tyres contain steel wires and the amount range of 10% to 15% of the total tyre wastage. All of the steel present in the tyre can be detached after the Pyrolysis recycling process is completed. Valuable steel wires are pressed and sold to steel and scrap dealers. GAS (5% to 8%)

Non-Condensable gases arise during the pyrolysis process. There are some advantages such as.. It has higher calorific value as compared to natural gas. It can be replaced where natural gas and propane are stored. The high energy gas may be utilized as a source of energy for the Pyrolysis process.

The amount of gas generated in the system is 5% to 8% of the total amount of recycled tyres and considering the 10 ton scrap tyre/day recycling capacity, the facility generates 500 - 800 m/day gas, which has an enormous energy potential when evaluated.

ADVANTAGES 100% wastage tyre recycling is achieved (No churn left after the process) No chemical ingredients are used in process (environment friendly) During and after the process; no soil, water or air pollution is observed. Creates economically valuable products out of wastage Tyres (These are an industrial product that have a good market value and demand) The most cost-effective wastage tyre recycling technology in the world. Raw material (wastage tyre) is cheap and easy to provide. These are the by-products of tyre production. Each recycled ton of tyres preserves 10 tons of CO2that is a major greenhouse gas. The process can be applied to all rubber based materials. The system creates an alternate source of energy to replace petroleum products and natural gas. System gives the opportunity to governments and local administrations to deal with the wastage tyre problem to a great extent. The process of Pyrolysis has duration of 4 to 12 hours, depending on the quantity and size of tyre (car tyre, truck tyre, etc.). During the process different vacuum values are applied in pre-determined temperatures and in different phases. Different gases are obtained and the condensed gas is stored as a fuel-oil in tanks

Energy recovery There are several controlled energy recovery methods which are environmentally sound. End-of-life Tyres represent an alternative supplementary non-fossil fuel. End-of-life Tyres provide the same heat energy commonly achieved by coal. Whole or shredded end-of-life Tyres Can be used as a principal or secondary fuel source in the production of steam, electricity, cement, lime, paper, steel and in the incineration of garbage. The addition of end-of-life tyres is environmentally safe and does not release additional emissions in the atmosphere of sulphur oxides & nitrogen oxides when appropriate emission control devices are properly installed and maintained.

Cement kilns

Whole or shredded end-of-life Tyres can be used as an alternative, supplementary fuel in cement kilns, depending on size and method. The high operating temperature in the kiln allows for complete combustion of the Tyres and oxidation of the steel beads without adversely affecting kiln operation. Therefore, the steel reinforcement does not need to be removed. The addition of end-of-life Tyres is environmentally safe and does not produce additional emissions into the atmosphere of sulphur oxides and nitrogen oxides when appropriate emission control devices are properly installed and maintained. Limekilns End-of-life Tyres can be used as fuel, alone or together with other materials (i.e., wood, paper) in kilns for the calcinations ofCaCO3. Kiln operations and facilities are simpler than cement kilns but the type of combustible greatly influences the quality of the CaCO3obtained. Steam Production Incineration with steam recovery is used mainly in the tyre and retreading industries. The steam that is produced can be used for different industrial applications, for example in the rubber industry, steam is used in the vulcanization process. Electric Power Production Some electric power plants are designed to burn end-of-life tyres in order to minimize fuel costs. During combustion, Tyres are supported on a reciprocating stoker grate. This configuration provides for air to flow above and below the tyres which aids the combustion, keeping the grate cool. The grate also allows slag and ash to filter down to the conveyor system which takes them to hoppers for sale off-site. A metal detection system rejects burned tyres with beads. Each incinerator has its own boiler. The boiler produces steam to drive the steam turbine generator. Waste Incineration The incineration of end-of-life tyres in small quantities mixed with household refuse can be practiced where the design characteristics allowed. The operation of the furnace does not seem to be adversely affected provided the tyres do not account for more than 10% of the total weight. Essentially,tyres serve to fill gaps in heat production when the net calorific value of the household refuse drops. When the calorific value is higher than average, tyres should not be added since the furnace temperature would rise above optimum.

By all this advantages and dis advantages we conclude our paper and wish to move ahead in the direction of zero waste approach from the scrap Tyres

References AUTOMOTIVE TYRE MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION ,DELHI SCRAP TYRE RECYCLING- KURT RESCHNER THERMAL CONVERSION OF SCRAP Tyres-MARTIN BAJUS

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