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Facts about Jaitapur Nuclear Power Plant Jaitapur Nuclear Power Plant derived its name From Jaitapur lighthouse which is mentioned in many international maps. Government of India has decided to promote nuclear power at a large scale in view of rapidly rising demand for electricity, limited and depleting fossil resources, environmentally benign and safe nature of nuclear power etc. Accordingly, Government of India accorded its sanction in October 2005 to set up the Nuclear Power Plant at Jaitapur besides three other locations. Technical and Economic Reasons for Selection of Jaitapur Site The Site Selection Committee recommended setting up a nuclear power plant at Jaitapur, based on the suitability of meeting criteria like which include availability of land vs. population density, available source of cooling water , seismicity, safe-grade elevation at site (flood analysis etc), environment aspects and proper access for transportation of heavy/over-dimensional equipment to plant site. Along with these conditions and based on some other considerations the Government approved Jaitapur site for the establishment of the NPP. The site selection for is carried out by the Site Selection Committee, notified by the Government of India which selects site for setting up a nuclear power plant, revied various parameters as per the requirements laid down in the code of Atomic Energy Regulatory Board and the laid-down criteria. Earthquake-prone Site The Jaitapur site is not considered earthquake-prone. As per seismic zoning map of Government of India, Jaitapursite falls within zone III. The longitude and latitude of the land covered for Jaitapur nuclear power project are given below: Latitude of JNPP site: 16 34 38 N to 16 36 29 N Longitude of JNPP site: 73 19 02 E to 73 20 48 E As per the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) codal requirement, there should not be any active fault within 5 km radius from the proposed site of an NPP. Further, based on the studies carried out by various government institutes/organisations, there is no active fault found up to 30 km radius from JNPP site. Hence, the site is not considered earthquake-prone. This is to further confirm that based on the available data of seismicity prevailing in the geographical region, all the structures, buildings and equipments of JNPP would be designed to qualify the ground motion acceleration Benefits of the Project The benefits of project arei) The project will augment electricity generation in the country, in a benign and environment-

friendly way, which is the need of the hour. ii) Development of areas around project site. iii) Direct and indirect employment opportunities. iv) Contribution of National Power Corporation of India Limited (NPCIL) in social and community development of surrounding areas, especially nearby villages, in the field of education, health and infrastructure facilities. Generation Capacity of JNPP One unit of 1650 MWe plant operating at full capacity shall generate 36-39 million units per day. Presently, generation capacity of six units is 1650 MWe capacity each. Evolutionary Pressurised Reactors (EPR) from AREVA, France is under consideration of the Government of India. Number of Reactor Units There will be six reactor units of 1650 MWe each at JNPP. The distance between each adjacent reactor unit is planned to be 250-300 meters. Completion of Project 5 to 6 months time is required to declare commercial operation after completion of construction. The time required for completion of each unit is approximately six years from the start date. Approximately all the six units of 1650MWe each will be constructed in a twin-unit mode in phased manner and implemented in a period of 15-18 years. Life Span of Each Plant The guaranteed life of the proposed plant is 60 years. Type of Fuel This plant will be PWR-type, based on enriched uranium fuel. Irrespective of the fuel type, all the safety guidelines based on International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)/Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) regulations are strictly adhered to by NPCIL to ensure that there is no adverse effect on environment, health and life of people through air, sea and land as a result of the operation of the NPP.The uranium will be supplied by AREVA, France, which will be also supplying the reactor units. Source of Fresh Water The fresh water requirement of the plant units and the proposed residential complex of JNPP will be met from a desalination plant facility installed by (NPCIL).

http://www.thehindu.com/news/national/cost-of-jaitapur-reactors-could-triple-to-more-than-rs-3lakh-crore/article4168128.ece

Cost of Jaitapur reactors could triple to more than Rs. 3 lakh crore
EDF, the French electricity giant that has built and operated the countrys 58 nuclear reactors, has announced that the bill for the 1,650-MW, third-generation pressurised reactor known as EPR has now gone up to AFP 8.5 billion. At its inception, the reactor, designed by Areva of France, was expected to cost 3.3 billion. This is bad news for India which is slated to buy six EPR reactors for a site in Jaitapur, Maharashtra. Initially expected to cost some 20 billion, the six EPRs India intends to buy will now be in the region of 50 billion nearly Rs. 3,55,000 crore. Delays and cost over-runs have marked the construction of the EPR in Flamanville, Manche, France. In the aftermath of the Fukushima disaster, the French Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN) carried out an audit of the countrys nuclear installations and asked for several reinforcements and design changes. All these added to the price. However, work on the reactor had been badly delayed and it is now expected to go on stream in 2016. Industry insiders predict that date will not be respected and there will be further cost overruns. The development of the boiler design, additional engineering studies, the integration of new regulatory requirements and everything learnt from Fukushima have also been taken into account, EDF said in a statement. There is not a single EPR that is working today. The reactor built in Olkilouto, Finland, by Siemens and Areva is also running four years behind schedule and has yet to begin operating. The reactor may start operating next year. EDF has been rapped on the knuckles several times by the nuclear watchdog ASN for cutting corners, using shoddy materials, and employing workers who do not know their job. The Flamanville plant is the first reactor being built in France in nearly 20 years.

http://www.npcil.nic.in/main/Misconceptions_combine_final.pdf

Is The Jaitapur Nuclear Power Plant A Boon Or A Bane?


After the wide-spread scare the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant has created worldwide, the protests against the proposed Jaitapur nuclear power plant have intensified in Maharashtra. The locals along with several NGOs and opposition parties are rallying to end this issue once and for all. It promises to be the largest nuclear reactor in the world with a production of 9,900 MW of electrical power which will provide electricity to 10 million homes in India. On December 6, 2010, an agreement was signed between AREVA, a French nuclear engineering firm and the Indian government for the construction of two EPR (European Pressurised Reactors) for its first stage which will be operational by 2018. Also, by 2050, the Indian government plans to meet a quarter of the countries electricity requirements through nuclear power projects with 5 being built and 39 under consideration. Nuclear energy is an efficient substitute for fossil fuels which are fast depleting resources now. It is a clean fuel, does not contribute to air pollution expect for the production of radioactive waste whose disposal is a major concern. Nuclear by-products have to be stored for sufficient amount of time to contain the radiations. There is no place in the world which can safely enclose and confine these radiations. With construction of a nuclear power plant, comes the issue of security, safety and protection of the environment. It has long term risks too. Just take a look at the Chernobyl Disaster (1986), the Three Mile Island accident (1979) and the recent Fukushima Disaster (2011).

Madban plateau is a haven for bio-diversity and to rule it out as a barren plateau is equal to blasphemy. Construction of the JPNN will destroy the flora and fauna of the plateau. If the nuclear plant becomes operational it will have tight security around its perimeters and this will disrupt the lives of the fisherman. Moreover, the hot water discharge from the plant will affect the marine life in that area. This will snatch the livelihood of over 20,000 people. Should we overlook the interest of the common man for the sake of common man? Who will benefit from this plant if not them? Nuclear power production is expensive due to the high cost of the fuel and the money it takes to build sturdy reactors. The JPNNs costs calculate up to $9.3 billion. The electrical power produced from the plant will also not be cheap. The area of Madban is prone to earthquakes with over 95 of them being recorded from 1985-2010. This poses as a serious threat as the area

can also be hit by tsunamis. The aftermath is something we all have already witnessed. Do we want to take the risk and go ahead with the plan without worrying about the future? Former president of India and nuclear scientist Dr A.P.J Abdul Kalam recently expressed his concerns over the general safety surrounding the nuclear plants following the Japanese disaster but showed a green flag to continue with its schemes during his Diamond Jubilee Lecture at DEI Deemed University, Dayalbagh. He said and I quote Nuclear plants should and would continue to operate. Accidents did happen but there were always solutions to problems and precautions to be taken. Whether the Indian government carries forward the project which it is planning to with a recent announcement or it is stopped by the opponents, it has to be noted that nuclear power has its fair share of cons and they can outweigh the advantages. If it cannot help the people and they are protesting against it, the government should listen to their grievances too as that is how a democracy functions.

http://envis.maharashtra.gov.in/envis_data/?q=jaitapur_apr11_nws
Power cuts won't disrupt Jaipatur N-plant's working 19 July 2011, Hindustan Times RAWATBHATA (RAJASTHAN): The imported reactors at the proposed 9,900 mega watt Jaitapur Nuclear Power Plant in Ratnagiri district will be able to function smoothly despite an indefinite power failure. To strengthen safety systems, the Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited has asked French company Areva to install additional safeguards in the reactor design -measures to deal with power failure and special diesel generators that can be air-cooled in addition to the existing passive safety systems to counter external events such as floods, tsunami, terrorist attach or an air crash. The company is supplying six European Pressurised Reactors for the Jaitapur plant. France is making special arrangements for Jaitapur, said SK Jain, chairman and managing director, Nuclear Power Corporation, on Monday. These measures are being taken after the Fukushima nuclear accident in March. The Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) sent a five member expert team, headed by former AEC chairman MR Srinivasan, to France and Finland to study EPR technology, delay in constructing the plant in Finland and cost overruns by Areva. We have put down our specifications in a document. One of the requirements is consideration of failure of electricity coming from the grid and also diesel generator plants. We know that our grids fail at times, said SA Bharadwaj, director, technical, Nuclear Power Corp. The French said they would keep a back up for a two hour power failure. But we asked them to consider indefinite failure. The team spoke to regulators in both France and Finland, studied the design and submitted a report to the AEC and supplied reasonable explanation, said Jain. Addressing controversies such as EPR technology as being unproven, Jain said the EPRs in Jaitapur would not be untested by the time the first two units start operating by 2020. By then, there will be four such reactors in operation; two in China, one each in Finland and France, he added. Bharadwaj said that the construction of EPR has been delayed because Finland has not constructed a reactor in the last 15 years. There was a lack of technical know-how. They kept making mistakes and going back to fix them, said Bharadwaj. Other

members of the panel comprised former AEC chairman Anil Kakodkar, former chairman of the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board, SK Sharma and former chairperson of the electricity authority HL Bajaj.

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'Stop work on Jaitapur project' 10 June 2011, Hindustan Times MUMBAI: Trouble is once again brewing in Jaitapur in Ratnagiri district. Local residents opposing the proposed Jaitapur Nuclear Power Plant met the district collector earlier this week demanding that the ongoing work at the plant site in Madban be stopped. We made a representation to the collector asking him to direct a stop-work notice on the construction of the boundary wall. Workers are also digging a bore well, which is a violation of the conditions set during the environmental clearance for the project, said Amjad Borkar who is spearheading the protest by the local fishing community. Work on building the boundary wall restarted in mid-May under heavy police protection, a month after violent protests on the plant site forced workers to flee. We have given the collector 15 day s to stop the work. If that doesn't happen, we will be forced to carry out a demonstration. We are yet to decide our strategy, said Pravin Gavankar, Madban resident. On April 18, 300 locals led by Shiv Sena MLA Rajan Salvi had burned machinery, electronic material and dry grass on the plateau following which police resorted to lathicharge. Subsequently, violent protests also broke out in the neighbouring fishing community of Sakhri Nate where Tabrez Sayekar, 30, was killed in police firing. Collector MB Gaikwad was not available for comment. But confirming that villagers had put forth a stop-work demand, an official from the collector's office requesting anonymity said, Since it is a central government project, we cannot issue orders to stop work. Work will continue.

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Jaitapur farmers to get highest compensation 7 May 2011, Times of India MUMBAI: A week after a successful meeting between prime minister Manmohan Singh and chief minister Prithviraj Chavan in the presence of Union environment minister Jairam Ramesh over the controversial nuclear power project, the highest-ever compensation is on the cards for Jaitapurs farmers. A senior revenue official told TOI on Friday that in view of specific recommendations of the Ratnagiri district administration, a comprehensive package was on cards for the farmers. It has been proposed to offer ` 20-22 lakh per hectare to the farmers. We will place the proposal before the Nuclear Power Corporation of India Ltd (NPCIL) for approval. Since its a prestige issue, we will ensure that the farmers get the highest compensation, he said.

It has been proposed to acquire 938 hectares for the 10,000 mw nuclear power project in Jaitapur. Since the land is barren, as per provisions of the Land Acquisition Act, the farmers are eligible for ` 50,000 to ` 2.5 lakh per hectare. But, in view of the massive agitation launched by local farmers, it was proposed to enhance the amount to ` 8-10 lakh. Now, it has been proposed to offer ` 20-22 lakh. In addition, NPCIL will provide each family member a job or an additional compensation of ` 5 lakh.

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Nuclear body reaches out to TISS on Jaitapur 17 May 2011, Times of India NEW DELHI: The Nuclear Power Corporation of India Ltd (NPCIL) has promised to make a presentation on the proposed Jaitapur nuclear power plant project before the faculty and students of the Tata Institute of Social Sciences. It has suggested that it could give a detailed presentation in June and take TISS students and faculty for a site visit to the Tarapur plant. The students of the Mumbai institute had handed miniature anti-nuclear project placards to Union environment minister Jairam Ramesh recently. NPCIL has also set up a committee under the head of the Bombay Natural History Society (BNHS) to study marine ecology and bio-diversity in a 10kilometre radius of the proposed project site in Jaitapur. The study will not be used to alter the decision to have the project at the site but will submit a comprehensive marine and bio-diversity management plan in one year. The move by NPCIL to engage with TISS comes after Ramesh wrote to the corporation asking it to improve its public communication and talk to its next door neighboursthe premier institute. NPCIL, which has been indirectly blamed by Ramesh for not adequately handling protests, has reacted quickly to the ministers suggestion this time and reached out to TISS.

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Ecology around Jaitapur nuke plant to be studied 17 May 2011, Hindustan Times NEW DELHI: Five months after the 9,990 MW Jaitapur nuclear power plant got environment clearance, its impact on local marine ecology and bio-diversity will be studied. The Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited (NPCIL), on Monday, issued a letter of intent to five public sector institutions for an intensive ecological study prompting critics to ask why the study was not done before the environment clearance. The studies are being conducted as they are among 35 riders placed when environment minister Jairam Ramesh cleared the project in November 2010. These conditions were based on the environment impact assessment (EIA) report by the National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI), which had failed to study the project's

implications on local ecology. It is an admission that the (environment) ministry's environment clearance was faulty, said Praful Bidwai, who runs the Coalition for Nuclear Disarmament and Peace. Impact on marine life can be gauged from the fact that NEERI's report raises the possibility of an up to five degree Celsius rise in sea temperature even though the Bombay Natural History Society, anchoring the study, said even a 0.5 degree Celsius rise can play havoc. Global scientific institutions have found an increase in sea acidity levels because of temperature rise due to gl obal warming. No one knows what the impact of waste generated and radiation on the sea will be, yet the project has got the go-ahead, Bidwai said. The study costing ` 5.86 crore will be completed in a year and will cover a 10-km radius around the plant. The five institutions have also been asked to prepare composite marine and bio-diversity management plans for the area to be studied. The NPCIL has admitted a public relations nightmare and has decided to nominate experts in Social Science and Environment to the corporation's advisory committee. Ramesh claimed NPCIL's communication skills were poor after he faced protest by students of Tata Institute for Social Sciences at Mumbai last week.

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City to host Jaitapur tribunal 17 May 2011, Hindustan Times MUMBAI: An independent people's tribunal will be held in the city this week to record the public's views on the proposed Jaitapur Nuclear Power Plant in Ratnagiri district. Over three days, starting May 19, former chief justices AP Shah and SD Pandit will record the views of villagers, scientists, nuclear experts, social activists and environmentalists at St Xavier's College. The Lokshasan Andolan, organiser of the tribunal, has sent invites to 60 project proponents such as ministers and officials from the government, atomic energy department and the Nuclear Power Corporation of India Ltd. The tribunal will be held almost two months after the two judges were restrained from holding a public hearing, against the 9,900 MW project, in Mithgawane, one of the project-affected villages. We have been charged with not cooperating with the government on discussions about the plant. We have not met the government because they are biased and we will not get a chance to depose, said justice (retired) PB Sawant. Therefore, we decided on an independent commission which will accept and record both viewpoints. But no official has responded yet. The tribunal will examine both the viewpoints and the documents related to the issue. The report will be prepared in two months. Apart from the radiation and safety aspects of nuclear energy, the depositions will cover issues of land acquisition, alleged repression along with safety and viability of the proposed Jaitapur plant. In 2004, the government revoked an emergency clause and started the land acquisition process without listening to villagers' grievances. We are now in 2011 and nothing has happened. What was the need then for an emergency clause, said Vaishali Patil, social activist. While the tribunal will be conducted over three days, there could be another session if more project-affected-people from other nuclear plants or experts want to put forth their viewpoints. If the report is pro-project, we will accept it. But we will decide our strategy on how to take the agitation forward, said justice Sawant.

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CM rules out rethink on Jaitapur plant 21 April 2011, Times of India MUMBAI: Chief minister Prithviraj Chavan on Wednesday ruled out any review of the controversial Jaitapur nuclear power project. Since the state needs the power, there is no question of abandoning the proposal. We are determined to complete the project and that too on schedule, Chavan told TOI. However, he said the state was ready to reconsider its compensation package for affected villagers. Meanwhile, the body of Tabrez Sayekar (30), who was killed in Mondays police fi ring, was buried even as emotions ran high. However, peace returned to Ratnagiri although the Shiv Sena vowed to step up its agitation.

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CM FIRM ON BUILDING JAITAPUR N-PLANTS 21 April 2011, Times of India Chief minister Prithviraj Chavan on Wednesday said that there was absolutely no room for a rethink on the multi-crore, 9,900-mw Jaitapur nuclear power project, despite indications that the Shiv Sena was all set to intensify its agitation against the project. The CMs statement came a day after a bandh crippled Ratnagiri district and two days after a Sakhri Nate villager was killed in police firing. However, the CM said the state was ready to reconsider its compensation package for affected villagers. Sources in the Nuclear Power Corporation of India Ltd (NPCIL) also said the firms compensation could be reconsidered. The Centre granted environmental clearance to the six nuclear power plants in November. We are in possession of the entire land required for the prestigious project. Since the state needs the power, there is no question of abandoning the proposal. We are determined to complete the project and that too on schedule, Chavan told TOI. When asked if he would discuss the proposal with Sena executive president Uddhav Thackeray, Chavan said there was no need for that right now. A week ago he spoke to me. I explained to him why the nuclear plant s were needed. In my opinion, there is no safety threat, since the entire project would be in accordance with international standards. All security aspects would be implemented in letter and spirit, said Chavan. On the rehabilitation package, Chavan said he has already visited Jaitapur and interacted with the villagers, but if it was needed he was ready for fresh discussions. Last month, I was in Jaitapur and met the villagers. Later, I convened two separate meetings to discuss the rehabilitation package. Apparently, they did not turn up. Unless we discuss it, we cant decide the rehabilitation package. In my opinion, there should be no politics involved in developmental works, Chavan said. A senior state official said the government promised a compensation of ` 14.85 crore to 2,035 account holders of whom 168 account holders have accepted compensation totaling ` 1.38 crore. We have acquired 938 hectares of land and are prepared to pay compensation totaling ` 14.85 crore. In addition, NPCIL has

agreed to provide a job to one member of each family or pay ` 5 lakh. Apparently, the farmers demand is for ` 10 lakh per hectare. We feel that the states package can be negotiated to protect the interests of the farmers, he said. Sources said the farmers presently get around ` 3 lakh a heactrae. NPCIL sources also said they were ready to amend their compensation package too. The state official said political parties, particularly the Shiv Sena, stepped up their agitation after Union environment minister Jairam Ramesh granted environmental clearance for the project on November 28, 2010. The Jaitapur decision was taken after considering all aspects, particularly the possibility of an earthquake. In our opinion, the situation in Japan is different and we dont see a repeat of Japan anywhere in India, he said. Ramesh has advised a safety audit of all proposed projects. A senior Congress minister said it appears that the Sena wants to settle scores with former party man Narayan Rane. We are paying the price for a political battle between the Sena and Rane, he said. THE PAYOUT STATE GOVT Land acquired | 938 hectares Compensation | 14.85 cr for 2,035 account holders Already paid | 1.38 cr to 168 account holders NPCIL Compensation | Job for one person in each family or cash of 5 lakh Farmers currently get around 3 lakh a hectare, but want 10 lakh Both state and NPCIL are willing to reconsider.

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Press pause button on new nuclear plants, says Jairam 24 April 2011, Times of India Ludhiana: With the earthquake-tsunami triggering a nuclear crisis in Japan, Union environment and forests minister Jairam Ramesh on Saturday said the government should press the pause button on setting up nuclear power plants. Stating that peoples concerns must be addressed and a transparent nuclear power policy put in place before such plants are set up, he claimed the prime minister too shared his view. The nuclear policy should not be cloaked in secrecy, but made after taking people into confidence. I am not advocating fast forward or reverse mode on the policy, but only pause button for the time being, he said. Criticizing the police firing on antinuclear plant protesters in Jaitapur, where one person was killed, the minister said, In a democracy, people have the right to protest. Their concerns are quite realistic, and after the Japan tragedy, we need to address these concerns. Whatever has happened in Japan should be taken as a wake-up call by the entire world. He, however, clarified that he did not favour abandoning the nuclear power policy altogether. I am not advocating that India should abandon the N-power option. But I want discussion, particularly on safety systems and how to strengthen them. Peoples fears have to be removed.

Cops detain over 100 N-plant protesters Jaitapur Agitators Let Off After Warning Simit Bhagat TNN Thane: The Boisar police on Saturday detained 134 protesters, who had come to participate in the three-day Tarapur to Jaitapur rally, at Kurgaon, to protest their confinement they went on a hunger strike. Later, they were let off with a warning. The police detained the demonstrators mainly students, activists, scientists, former judges and environmentalistsas a preventive measure under section 68 and 69 of the Bombay Police Act. Some of the prominent detainees included Justice PB Sawant, Justice B G Kolse-Patil, H M Desarda, former member of the Maharashtra State Planning Board and activist Vaishali Patil. We told them not to continue with the rally till Jaitapur, said Chandrakant Pawaskar, additional police superintendent, Thane (rural). Activists complained that their drivers were threatened by the police. Even before the rally, we expected them to arrest us and not allow us to protest against the nuclear plant. The police may not allow us to enter Ratnagiri district and we will face similar trouble over the nexttwodays, saidH M Desarda. The government wants citizens to be unaware about the hazards of nuclear energy and will ensure that such rallies do not take place, said Baneshwar Manna, another protester, who had come from West Bengal. Dharampal Sinariya, a resident of Haryana affected by a proposed nuclear plant, added, If the government is so sure that nuclear energy is safe, then why do we need to debate the nuclear liability bill? However, at the rally near Tarapur, activists and former judges criticized the government for dumping unsafe energy on the people of India. Even after the tragedy in Japan, t he government does not want to accept that nuclear energy can be disastrous, said Justice P B Sawant.

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CM TO MEET PM FOR CLARITY ON JAITAPUR 26 April 2011, Times of India The Maharashtra government is literally scrambling for clarity after Union environment minister Jairam Rameshs volte-face on the 9,900 MW nuclear plant at Jaitapur followed by power minister Sushilkumar Shindes plea to go slow on the project. Both these statements have come as a nasty surprise to chief minister Prithviraj Chavan who will be calling on Prime Minister Manmohan Singh on Tuesday to discuss the issue. A senior official said: It is a central project and the state government is acting as a facilitator, particularly for acquiring the land. At this juncture, when the state administration is geared to meet the challenges, the statements of Ramesh and Shinde have created confusion. Now, Chavan will brief the PM on the situation. Chavan held a marathon meeting on Monday with deputy chief minister Ajit Pawar, industries minister Narayan Rane, home minister R R Patil, chief secretary Ratnakar Gaikwad and senior bureaucrats. The official added: The statements made by two Union ministers have created confusion among senior state leaders. Under such circumstances, we expect the Centre, particularly the prime minister, to clarify his stand on the multi-crore nuclear power plant.

At the meeting, senior leaders decided to deploy additional companies of the state reserve police force, and set up education and information centres at Ratnagiri, Sindhudurg and Jaitapur, said officials. They added that the state governments panicked reaction is understandable given that up until a few days ago there were no doubts on the Jaitapur nuclear plant. Barely a fortnight ago, Ramesh had stated that there was no rethinking on the plant, and the Centre would commission the project on schedule. But on April 23, while addressing journalists at Ludhiana, Ramesh had said it would be better of if the Jaitapur project was stayed until the Centre came out with a transparent nuclear power policy. In view of the atmosphere of insecurity, it will be better if we stay the project for some time. We are not withdrawing from the project, but we are not in a hurry to commission it, Ramesh had said. A Congress minister said: We are surprised by Rameshs statements. In November, he granted environmental clearance. But unexpectedly on April 23, he declared the project sho uld be stayed. The minister added that the Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited has agreed to review the compensation packages for affected people. Shifting plant is not a viable option Pune: Atomic Energy Commission chairman Srikumar Banerjee on Monday said Jaitapur was the appropriate site for the proposed nuclear project and that shifting it to some other place would not be a viable option. He said, A lot of research was done before finalizing the site. Years have gone in studying different sites. According to Banerjee, the damage caused to the Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan was being exaggerated. When asked about the nuclear waste likely to be generated at Jaitapur, he said that though waste disposal was an issue, the quantity of nucl ear waste would be very small.

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Hole in Jaitapur backyard to predict quakes 27 April 2011, Times of India NEW Delhi: About 300 km from the proposed Jaitapur nuclear power plant, Indian scientists are all set to drill an 8-km hole in the earths crust for prediction of earthquakes. Announcing this, minister of state for earth sciences Ashwani Kumar on Tuesday, however, denied that the choice of location had anything to do either with the proposed plant or the Fukushima nuclear disaster. The study costing ` 300 crore will be carried out in the quake-prone Koyna region in association with the International Continental Drilling Programme. One of the reasons that make prediction of earthquakes difficult is that both the origin and the timing have to be calculated to perfection. By drilling the hole, scientists will be able to monitor disturbances in the subsoil and thus predict both, a senior official of the ministry said. The entire project will take two-five years but the first findings will start to come in within eight months of commencement of work. The Koyna region, home to a large hydel project, is a highly active seismic zone and would provide scientists an opportunity to study earthquakes real time and also help in identifying its early signs. Provisions for the project will be made in the 12thfive year plan. Explaining the reasons for the choice of Koyna, scientists described the region as unique as very severe earthquakes continue to occur there four decades after the initial spurt in activity.

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Its official: Jaitapur nuke project is on 27 April 2011, Times of India MUMBAI: The Jaitapur nuclear plant will come up, and at the proposed location. This was revealed by CM Prithviraj Chavan on Tuesday after his meeting with the PM and environment and forests minister Jairam Ramesh. Chavan said, The Centre is determined to implement the project in a time-bound manner. But with the Japan crisis leading to fears, each Jaitapur reactor will have its own safety and operation system. Meanwhile, the Centre has decided to introduce a bill in the next session of Parliament to create an independent and autonomous nuclear regulatory body.

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Nothing can stop Jaitapur plant: CM 27 April 2011, Times of India MUMBAI: Chief minister Prithviraj Chavan on Tuesday put to rest all the speculation about the fate of the Jaitapur nuclear power plant, saying that the Centre is determined to implement the project in a time-bound manner. Activists and villagers from Jaitapur as well as surrounding areas are opposed to the plant. Following the Fukushima incident in Japan, it has now been proposed that more safety measures will be put in place for the plant, said Chavan. The CM had a marathon meeting with Prime Minister Manmohan Singh, Union environment and forests minister Jairam Ramesh and minister of state in PMO V Narayanswamy on Tuesday. Chavan had called on the PM after Rameshs flip-flop on the plant, which came close on the heels of Union power minister Sushilkumar Shindes remark that the project should be put on hold. Deputy chief minister Ajit Pawar, industries minister Narayan Rane and home minister R R Patil had expressed their displeasure over the statements made by Ramesh and Shinde. The state government recently organized a special presentation for all the elected representatives in which noted atomic energy expert Anil Kakodkar had a prolonged interaction with the legislators on the issue. Initially, Uddhav Thackeray was in favour of the project provided the farmers were given adequate compensation. We are surprised by the Shiv Senas volte-face. We are prepared for a dialogue with the farmers on compensation and will ensure that they get the best deal, Chavan said. During Tuesdays meeting, said Narayanswamy, the status of the Jaitapur project as well as safety concerns arising out of the nuclear accident at Fukushima were reviewed. Several aspects of Indias nuclear energy programme were discussed. The PM underscored that the safety of nuclear plants is a matter of highest priority and the department of atomic energy as well as the Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited (NPCIL) must improve their communication with the public, he said. On the decisions taken after the meeting, Narayanswamy said, each reactor in Jaitapur will have its own safety system. The Centre will introduce a bill in the next session to create an independent and autonomous nuclear regulatory authority. Preliminary reports of the six committees set up by the Centre after the Fukushima accident to review the safety of Indias nuclear plants will be made public. Experts will be consulted to ensure the highest levels of safety for the nuclear plants and there will be

complete transparency in the implementation of the nuclear power programme. Chavan assur ed the PM that all efforts will be made to engage local communities and address their concerns in a credible manner. It was agreed that livelihood of local fishermen will continue to get the highest priority, said the chief minister.

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Jaitapur plant a bad bargain, says report 4 March 2011, Hindustan Times NEW DELHI: The world's biggest nuclear power generation unit at Jaitapur is a `bad-bargain' for ecology and human safety, claims a report prepared by an anti-nuclear group on Wednesday. The report said British and US regulators have identified 3,000 safety issues with the European Pressurised Reactors (EPR) to be installed at Jaitapur by French company Areva. The non-government organisation, Coalition for Nuclear Disarmament and Peace, issued the report justifying its opposition to the 6,000 MW nuclear plant, which got an environment clearance in November 2010. Chief minister Prithviraj Chavan had alleged last week that international groups opposed to the nuclear power plant had misguided locals. He termed their concerns as totally misconceived. Democratic opposition is being crushed using force at Jaitapur, said activist Vaishali Patil, who has been spearheading the campaign against the project and was denied entry into the region. The coalition claimed the government was determined to proceed with the costly project, without exploring the possibility of renewable energy, which can generate 4,300 MW of power in the Western Ghat region, considered to be among the world's 10 hottest biodiversity hotspots. The six reactors will cost the government Rs2 lakh crore as compared to Rs5 crore for a coal-fired thermal power plant. An EPR reactor being installed in Finland has been delayed by more than 42 months and the cost has increased by 90% of the original $3 three billion. In addition, the Department of Atomic Energy cannot certify that the plant will be safe, said Praful Bidwai, scientist and founder of the coalit ion, while releasing the report. The report also pointed out how the project will destroy the unique bio-diversity of the Western Ghats and termed environment minister Jairam Ramesh's conditions to protect the environment as vague. Most of the conditions imposed (by Ramesh) should have been done by now, said Anil Chaudhury of the coalition. Asking the government to immediately withdraw the project, the coalition said the four villages, whose livelihood will be destroyed because of the project, had not given consent and have refused to take enhanced compensation from the government. WHAT THE REPORT SAYS BRITISH AND US REGULATORS have identified 3,000 safety issues with the European (EPR) to be installed at Jaitapur by French company Areva Pressurised Reactors. THE REPORT CLAIMED the government was determined to proceed with the costly project, without exploring the possibility of renewable energy, which can generate 4,300 MW of power in Western Ghat region THE REPORT POINTED OUT how the project will destroy the unique bio-diversity of the Western Ghats and termed environment minister Jairam Ramesh's conditions to protect the environment as vague TO CHIEF MINISTER had alleged last week that international groups opposed to the nuclear power had misguided locals. He termed their concerns as totally misconceived.

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HC refuses relief for Jaitapur meet 5 March 2011, Times of India MUMBAI: The Bombay high court refused to grant interim relief to the Indian Peoples Tribunal on Environment and Human Rights, which is to hold a public hearing in Jaitapur on the proposed nuclear power plant on Friday. A division bench of Justices B H Marlapalle and U D Salvi declined to pass a formal order for the tribunals unrestricted visit to the village. The court was hearing a petition filed by the tribunal, which includes retired high court judges, former chief justice of the Delhi high court, Justice A P Shah, and former Supreme Court judge Justice P B Sawant. The tribunal is slated to hold a public hearing. The petitioners advocate, Gayatri Singh, said people who were trying to enter the village were being arrested. The police keep checking cars entering and leaving. Just because our views are contrary, we should not be put behind bars, Singh said. If that is so, in such an atmosphere, why do you want to hold a hearing? the court asked. The judges said that one person was killed recently during protests. If the state wants to be cautious, we cannot fault it, the court remarked. The court also observed: What is this tribunal going to do? Retired judges are not experts on nuclear matters. The judges suggested that the tribunal instead request the government to set up a fact-finding committee comprising scientists who are not on the Maharashtra governments rolls. The court also remarked that the tribunals visit was a project-centric exercise and said it must look into issues such as why Naxalism was growing in the state or even malnutrition. Adjourning the matter for two weeks, the court observed that a committee of scientists was better to make the people understand the issue. While it is a prestigious project for any state, we dont want to say it has to be hoisted at the cost of human life or marine life and even ecology, the court observed. Notices to 2 activists, former judge Kolse Patil Mumbai: The Rajapur executive magistrate served chapter notices to two activists and former judge B G Kolse Patil under Section 113 of the Indian Penal Code for unlawful agitation in Jaitapur. Vaishali Patil convener, Konkan Bachao Samiti, said the notice was issued so she could not participate in agitations. Two former HC judges will record grievances of those whose family members were arrested over the last three months, at the public hearing. The office of the district magistrate of Ratnagiri said the state had not issued directions on the tribunals visit, so the question of government officials attending it did not arise. It said the meeting could not be permitted in Mithgavane. Lanco gets eco nod for Wardha power project Union ministry of environment and forests has cleared the 1,320MW project of Lanco Power proposed at Mandwa village near Wardha ignoring strong opposition from the project affected persons (PAPs). Most villagers had strongly opposed the project during the public hearing for environment clearance held on September 17, 2010. However, Maharashtra Pollution Control Board did not mention this. Four farmers challenged the validity of this hearing in Nagpur high court about three months ago. MoEF has cleared the project even as the matter is pending before HC. Tushar Mandlekar, counsel for the

petitioners, condemned the decision. This clearance is illegal. The MoEFs decision to clear the project without answering the allegations raised in the petition is lamentable, he said.

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Safety Fears Cloud Nuclear Sunrise 15 March 2011, Times of India Anew nervousness about nuclear energy has gripped the globe even as Fukushima nuclear power plants reactor No 3 had an explosion on Monday and reactor No 2 was going into a meltdown of the dangerous uranium-plutonium fuel. Governments of nuclear powers across the world went into damage control mode as thousands took to streets in Europe in protest against nuclear power plants. Following its civilian nuclear deal with the US, India plans to set up 22 new reactors. Currently, there are 20 operational reactors with another 6 under construction. Government has indicated that in the coming decades up to 18 more reactors could be built. In Jaitapur in Maharashtra the local people are opposing a plant on safety and displacement fears. Worldwide, there are 443 nuclear reactors supplying electricity to 30 countries. In recent years, there has been a nuclear renaissance of sorts with an additional 17 countries wanting to join the nuclear energy bandwagon. In all, 62 new reactors are under construction, 158 have been ordered and as many as 342 more are proposed. This would push up nuclear energy production by an additional 545 gigawatts in the coming decades. But the grim story from Japan has put paid to these breathless calculations. Japan has 55 nuclear reactors supplying almost 30% of the island nations energy needs. Most were built in the 70s. All of them are on the coast, and had been built to very stringent quake proof standards as Japan is one of the most earthquake-prone places on the earth. Yet two reactors have failed and several others are spluttering. Details coming out now show that Fukushima was built to withstand 7.9 magnitude earthquakes and 6.5 meter high tidal waves. The monster quake on March 11 has now been officially upgraded to 9 magnitude and the tidal wave was over 7 meters by the time it reached Fukushimas reactors. Even more worrying are reports that Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) that runs this facility was caught forging repair and maintenance reports on 29 counts in 2002, and again in 2006, it was found to be using falsified reports from 1985 in inspections till 2005. The Japanese government too is under pressure because Ishibashi Katsuhiko, a well known seismologist, had said in 2007 that Fukushima was highly vulnerable. Nuclear power had gained traction because of another fear haunting humanity global warming. It was suggested that nuclear power could replace massive carbonemitting thermal plants. But as huge demonstrations in Germany and France show, people are equally worried about the nuclear option. US Senator Joe Lieberman, chairman of the homeland security and government affairs committee, has called for putting the brakes on building new nuclear plants in the US for the present. The US has 104 reactors, the most in any country, but it has only recently started thinking about new reactors after a 30-year gap. President Obama has pitched for nuclear energy as a clean option. The biggest expansion plans are Chinas with 27 new reactors already under construction and 50 more on the anvil. Chinas vice minister for environment Zhang Lijuin said after the Japanese temblor that it

would not affect Chinas plans. Xu Mi, a fast reactor expert at China National Nuclear Corporation and China Institute of Atomic Energy, told Xinhua that China would go ahead after drawing proper lessons and improving emergency safety plans. Joseph Cirincione, nuclear material expert and peace exponent told media that Fukushima is already in the worst three nuclear accidents category after Chernobyl and Three Mile Island. But with the meltdown yet to be controlled, fear is stalking the world, especially those committed to a nuclear sunrise. NUCLEAR ENERGY: BOON OR BANE? No of countries producing nuclear energy : 30 No. of reactors : 443 Share of nuclear power in global electricity production : 14% No. of countries planning to use nuclear energy : 17 Reactors under construction : 62 Reactors planned & proposed : 482 Countries planning to join nuclear energy club : 17 More Ahead

Sr. Country No. 1 Russia 2 India 3 China 4 S. Korea 5 Japan


Top Five Nuclear Energy Producer

Reactor Construction in Progress 10 5 27 5 Nil

Reactor Construction plans in pipeline 14 18 50 Nil 12

Sr. Country No. 1 U.S.A. 2 France 3 Japan 4 Russia 5 Germany

(% of total nuclear energy produced) 27 % 17 % 13 % 6% 5%


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WW II radiation maimed 3 generations

16 March 2011, Times of India The spectre of lethal radioactive fallout from the damaged nuclear reactors at Fukushima in Japan continued to haunt the country as ripples of panic spread to distant shores. Fifty workers and technicians quarantined inside the power station complex were fighting a deadly battle to cool the three functional reactors even as cooling pools, where used fuel is stored, started heating up in the other three reactors. An explosion in reactor No. 2 and a fire in No.4 on Tuesday morning led to 822 millirem levels of radiation being detected at the gates of the complex. This is nearly equal to the permissible dose for one year. There was panic in Tokyo, 240 kms away, as radiation levels rose and then fell again. According to experts, if the cooling pools overheat, the water will evaporate and there could be a very high risk of radioactive radiation leaking as the roofs have already blown away. The reactors are on the brink of meltdown, which may cause a radioactive explosion with disastrous consequences. The only other time humanity has experienced full blown radiation effects was in the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945. Over 200,000 people died, mainly by the thermal blast, but thousands continue to suffer and die from the radioactive fallout with deformities, cancers, burns, organ failures and susceptibility to infections. Even more horrifying has been the effect on children born to survivors. The mutilated genes were passed on to them, causing high incidence of cancer and deformities. Third generation children, too, have suffered such effects. The Chernobyl disaster of 1986 was a parallel to the present crisis, though on a much larger scale. Reactors in this plant in Ukraine suffered almost complete meltdowns leading to two massive explosions of radioactive gases. Such was the force that the 2,000-tonne roof of the enclosure was blown away. This cloud of death drifted thousands of kilometres across the western Soviet Union up to what is now Belarus. Sweden and Finland detected high radiation levels in the north, while Bavaria, a province in Germany, also detected high radiation. Only the Iberian peninsula in Europe escaped completely. Wind factors largely determined which region felt how much of a radiation effect. The effect lessens with distance. The gas tragedy at Bhopal, too, had seen a toxic cloud of gases explode out of the Carbide chemical factory in 1984 and drift across the sleeping city, killing 5,000 people and injuring 5 lakh others. Twenty eight people, mostly firefighters, died of acute radiation syndrome in the Chernobyl incident, while another 221 succumbed in subsequent years due to radiation exposure. Nearly 3.7 lakh people were resettled and the neighbouring town of Pripyat still remains uninhabited. Four square kilometers of pine forest around the plant turned red and died. The Pripyat river, which feeds into the Dnieper system, was heavily contaminated, leading to widespread water poisoning. Till today, the Chernobyl complex remains sealed off after a cement layer was poured over the blown reactors. However,the lessons learnt from Chernobyl, in terms of design engineering of the containment structures and processes, have changed the way nuclear reactors are built since then. Fukushima, too, will have a similar effect. But that is for the future. For the present, the battle to control the Frankenstein of nuclear power continues in a tiny coastal town of northern Japan. And millions of Japanese hope that the breeze remains oceanwards rather than turning south or east. Jaitapur redux along Andhras Srikakulam coast Kovvada: Japans nuclear crisis has triggered widespread fears among people living along the Srikakulam coast, site for the proposed 10,000 MW nuclear plant. The Centre on Tuesday assured that the proposed nuclear reactors will have additional environmental safeguards to ensure safety. But people are not convinced. At a meeting, fishermen and farmers passed a unanimous resolution

opposing the `60,000 crore nuclear plant. Members of local government bodies and village heads in and around the proposed plant site at Kovvada Matsyalesam opposed the plant. Congress leaders in Ranasthalam mandal have also decided to join the fight against the nuclear plant. Villagers will hold a rally in Ranasthalam on March 18. After Japans tragedy, we realized that no village within 30-40 km radius of any nuclear plant will survive an accident or leakage, said Mylapalli Police, a fishermen sangham leader.

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Jaitapur clearance may be reviewed, says govt 16 March 2011, Hindustan Times NEW DELHI: On the day environment minister Jairam Ramesh agreed to review the environment clearance to the nuclear plant at Jaitapur in Maharashtra, a German bank withdrew from the project on sustainable management grounds. Since business related to nuclear power by process -definition has to be routed through our Reputational & Sustainability Management (RSM), we were sure that Commerzbank will not invest in this project, said an email from the bank to international NGO Greenpeace, which has been protesting against the project. The NGO, however, refused to reveal who has written the email in response to a query whether the bank has withdrawn from the project. A consortium of 15 banks mainly from France and HSBC of UK had pledged to bear about 70% of the cost of the world's biggest nuclear power plant commissioned by Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited (NPCIL) in collaboration with French company Areva. Commerzbank is the first bank to withdraw its commitment. Environment clearance to the 6,000-MW Jaitapur N-plant in November had evoked protest. The environment impact assessment by a Nagpurbased government organisation did not cover the radiology impacts in its study. The Atomic Energy Board, regulator for nuclear energy in India, is looking at the radiation impact. On Tuesday, Ramesh acknowledged radiation impact has not been studied and said his ministry was looking at adding more environmental safeguards but refused to revoke the clearance. Reacting to Ramesh's statement, Shiv Sena executive president Uddhav Thackeray said that it's just an eye wash. The Sena has been vehemently opposing the nuclear power project coming up in Konkan. He said the same things in case of Navi Mumbai airport and Lavasa but then gave clean chit to both projects, Thackeray said. Referring to reports about chief minister Prithviraj Chavan taking a nap during a seminar on Jaitapur on Monday, Thackeray said: What will you expect from these kind of rulers?

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Jairam firm that cleared N-plants will come up 16 March 2011, Times of India

NEW DELHI: The tsunami and reactor explosions in Japan may have led the government to order a review of the safety of nuclear power sites in India but this will not include the proposed new projects. Sources said the review might lead to new and additional safeguard measures as well as containment measures but there would be no rethink on the nuclear energy programme. The government will continue to move on course, after applying lessons learnt from Japan and taking precautions, to set up six plants in Gujarat, Andhra, West Bengal, Maharashtra and TN. Sources said the locations of new reactors were safe. Speaking on Tuesday, environment minister Jairam Ramesh said the government was open to putting in place additional environmental safeguards to ensure safety of the proposed nuclear reactors in Jaitapur in Maharashtra and other proposed sites. Based on technical reviews Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited, we will certainly be in touch with them and if additional safeguards have to be built in as part of the environmental clearance, we will certainly look at it, Ramesh said on the sidelines of a function in Delhi. The Jaitapur site has been witnessing protests at local levels though the Maharashtra chief minister has been as clear as the Centre that the project will come up. The environment ministry had come under flak from environmentalists and anti-nuclear lobbies for clearing the project in haste. Ramesh, though, has not budged from his position. His position is also bolstered by the fact that the laws were made to keep all nuclear issues out of the domain of environmental legislations. The Environment Protection Act and the environment ministry do not govern the nuclear safety aspects of power plants. Ramesh suggested as much on Tuesday, saying, This is appropriately a subject that has to be dealt with the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board.

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20 years, 92 quakes: Ground trembles beneath Jaitapurs feet 16 March 2011, Times of India MUMBAI: Fukushima has become part of the local lexicon at Jaitapur. As news of the apocalypse-like situation in Japan reaches the far corners of villages in and around the area, residents have increased their agitation against the proposed 9,900 mw nuclear power plant. Jaitapur area falls in the seismic zone 3 category, and data from the Geological Survey of India shows that between 1985 and 2005, there were 92 earthquakes. The biggest earthquake in Jaitapur, recorded in 1993, measured 6.2 on the Richter scale. The ground is unstable, say activists and geologists, and there is no guarantee that the governments safeguards will protect the people and ecologically sensitive Konkan coast from a nuclear disaster should there be another earthquake. Environmental activist Pradeep Indulkar said: The third explosion at the Fukushima plant in Japan on Tuesday confirms that in the event of an earthquake, precautionary measures and safeguards will not avert a disaster. It is better not to have a nuclear power plant in this seismic zone region. At Shivane village, 20 km from Jaitapur, Chandrakant Padkar remembers the day the earth shook and the road outside his house vanished. The unreported earthquake took place two years ago, and the village still bears the scars. Now, with the governments plans to set up the nuclear plant here, the gorge has taken on a more ominous avatar. No rethink on cleared N-plants, says Jairam

Tprompted he crisis in a Japan government may have review of nuclear power sites in India, but environment minister Jairam Ramesh indicated that there would be no rethink on the countrys nuclear energy programme. Jaitapur is not prone to large earthquakes Mumbai: Jaitapur, the site of a proposed 9,900 mw nuclear power plant on the Konkan coast, has witnessed 92 earthquakes between 1985 and 2005 according to the Geological Survey of India. The area falls in the seismic zone 3 category, which means there is more than a moderate risk of earthquakes. Geologist Dr M K Prabhu, who has studied seismic activity in the area for two years, says there are three huge gorges in the area. Shivane had to bear the brunt of micro-seismic activity, due to which cracks have appeared, he said. The plate extends up to Jaitapur, and there is a definite possibility of micro-seismic activity in and around the proposed nuclear plant. The state should think of setting up smaller-sized reactors, said Prabhu, adding that while he is not against nuclear energy, safety concerns cannot be ignored. Madhav Gadgil, chairman of the Western Ghats ecological council, had made a similar suggestion in his report last year. What we need is less ecologically damaging power plants, and tap mini and micro hydro-electricity potential in this area, said the report. Leading nuclear scientist Anil Kakodkar had said that the reactor would be built 25 m above sea level. But environmental activist Indulkar said: According to the environment impact assessment report, there are plans to bring down the height to around 7 m to conserve energy needed for pumping 5,200 crore lit res of cooling water every day. Dr V Subramanyam, former professor of Geology at IIT-Bombay, said that Jaitapur is not prone to large earthquakes like the one that hit Japan. But there is seismic activity, which must indeed be taken seriously, he said. German bank pulls out The international NGO Greenpeace announced on Tuesday that Commerzbank, the second largest bank in Germany, has pulled out of the proposed Jaitapur nuclear project, citing sustainability and reputational risk. The decision was made before Japan was hit by the earthquake SEISMIC ACTIVITY Jaitapur falls in seismic zone 3. A seismic zone map is based on a statistical compilation of the number and the magnitude of past earthquakes. This zone is classified as Moderate Damage Risk Zone. Experts say that the power plant will be able to withstand earthquakes of magnitudes up to 7 on the Richter Scale.

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Jaitapur wont relent 26 February 2011, Times of India MUMBAI: Opposition from local villagers to the Jaitapur nuclear power plant is unlikely to recede even as chief minister Prithviraj Chavan visits the site on Saturday. Despite efforts by the government to win support of the locals for the project, most villagers are united in their demand for its cancellation.

The project, which will have a power generation capacity of 9900 mw after being fully commissioned, is the biggest taken up in the country till now and will be implemented by the Nuclear Power Corporation of India (NPCIL). Locals have been protesting against the project since 2006, when the state government initiated the acquisition of land process. Over 938 hectares from Madban, Niveli, Karel, Mithgavane and Varilwada villages had been acquired. Villagers claimed the acquisition was undemocratic and unjust. Only 126 of the 2,335 -odd families, whose land is under acquisition, have agreed to the compensation offered by the government. The protests gained ground in last year with villagers from neighbouring villages joining in. Concerns regarding loss of livelihood and the impact on health have been raised and fishermen and farmers have joined hands. The Janhit Seva Samiti (JSS) and Konkan Vinashkari Prakalp Bachao Samiti (KVPBS) may hand over a charter of demands to Chavan. The foremost demand will be for the projects cancellation, said Dr Milind Desai, a JSS member. He said, The project is being imposed on villagers even though over 90% people are against it. He demanded a public poll among vi llagers on the issue. NPCIL project director C B Jain said many villagers supported the project, but they are being threatened. Ramesh Kajve, another JSS member and local Congress leader, rubbished Jains contention. Let there be a secret ballot. Let the truth come out, he said. Meanwhile, those who support the project have to face the wrath of locals. Many are being disowned by villages and are not being invited to social functions. Sayli Waghdhare, whose husband Sanjay accepted compensation, said they had to shift from Madban to Mirzod.

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Right info needed to ease nuclear power safety fears 18 January 2011, Times of India MUMBAI: Director-general of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Yukiya Amano on Monday said that if appropriate information were passed to the public, it would go a long way in allaying their fears about safety of nuclear power. Amano made this point during an interaction with the media when he was asked about public opposition at Jaitapur towards the construction of nuclear reactors in the locality. Transparency is needed. Amano was in Mumbai to attend the 21st annual conference of the Indian Nuclear Society and present the Homi Bhabha Lifetime Achievement Award to former atomic energy commission (AEC) chairman Anil Kakodkar. Praising Indias safety standards in the nuclear sector, Amano said at the same time this should not lead to any form complacency. This is the 25th year of the Chernobyl disaster and nuclear safety has been enhanced all over the world. But, I would say that it should not result in complacency. Regarding the controversy surrounding nuclear liability in India, all he would say was that progress is being made. It may be recalled that the US, France and Russia have raised certain issues regarding Indias nuclear liability law and so far efforts to find a common meeting ground have not proved too successful. On global nuclear issues, referring to the report that the US and Israel had teamed up to develop the Stuxnet worm which seriously affected Irans nuclear weapon programme, he said that though there have been a lot of discussions about this worm, the knowledge of IAEA is limited. I welcome the idea of

the P-5 countries planning to have a dialogue with Iran, he said. Regarding China assisting Pakistan in its nuclear programme, he said that the matter came under the purview of the Nuclear Suppliers' Group (NSG). Earlier, addressing the large gathering of atomic scientists, he said that the number of countries using nuclear power was 60 at the moment and it was expanding. About 10 to 25 new reactors will be constructed between now and 2030, he said, while pointing out that the centr e of this massive growth was Asia, particularly in India, China, Japan and the Republic of Korea. According to him, of the 61 reactors under construction, 39 are in Asia. Many of the countries which want nuclear power are developing countries.

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Jaitapur villagers boycott meet with CM, scientists 19 January 2011, Times of India MUMBAI: Project-affected people from Jaitapur boycotted on Tuesday a meeting organized by chief minister Prithviraj Chavan, in coordination with eminent nuclear scientists and the Nuclear Power Corporation of India Ltd (NPCIL), to clear misconceptions about nuclear power. The boycott was mainly because many inhabitants believe the nuclear power plant will make them impotent, or that they will get cancer and their children will have physical deformities. This could be a major hurdle in developing Indias biggest 21st century 10,000 MW nuclear power pla nt. The belief is mainly the result of deep-rooted superstitions due to illiteracy, and has increased anger among the people who are fighting tooth and nail against the project, which has been approved by the Union ministry of environment and forests headed by Jairam Ramesh. Many children in Jaitapur are boycotting schools where the state government had planned to make them aware about the benefits of nuclear power. However, many people from the Konkan region attended the meeting at the Yashwantrao Chavan Centre, besides Jaitapur natives who live in Mumbai. Raja Patwardhan, who hails from Jaitapur, said, The locals think that children with bigger heads or more than one head will be born in the village. He told Chavan and nuclear experts like Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) chairman Srikumar Banerjee and former chairman Anil Kakodkar, who were present at the meeting, to explain the issue. Dr Rajendra Badve, director of the Tata Memorial Centre, on behalf of the nuclear scientists, said the ratio of such diseases was very low among people living near nuclear plants, compared to people in other areas of the country. Chavan said that since he had worked closely with the AEC while he was in the prime ministers office, it was his firm belief that the Jaitapur project would be a boon to the state and the country. Had the project been a threat to people in the area, I would have been the first person to stop it from coming up in the state, he said. On why people had boycotted the meet, Chavan said he could not help it if someone decided to oppose the plant based on ideology. However, he said, he was not averse to holding such meetings whenever needed. Some sarpanchs of villages around Jaitapur had resigned in protest against the plant.

Many people in Jaitapur also believe the area may experience earthquakes daily if the power plant comes up, as it is not far away from the Koyna dam. But scientists like Dr S P Dharne of the NPCIL said there had been seismic activity in Bhuj, near the Kakrapar power plant, and in Almora, near the Narora power plant, but the plants were safe and never contributed to seismic sensitivity. Nuclear scientists Sharad Kale and Shrikumar Apte said there would not be any effect of radiation on agricultural products and marine life in the area.

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EAC clears Jaitapur nuclear plant 19 November 2010, Hindustan Times NEW DELHI: A 10,000 MW controversial nuclear power plant in Maharashtra to be set up by a French company may be a goodwill gesture to French President Nicolas Sarkozy when he arrives in India on December 4. The last hurdle for Indias biggest nuclear power plant in Jaitapur district of Maharashtra was cleared on Monday when an environment ministry committee considered the Department of Atomic Energys environment impact assessment report of the plant being built by French company Areva. Very soon approval will be announced, was the reply of a senior ministry functionary when asked about the EACs decision. The EAC will soon submit its recommendations to environment Minister Jairam Ramesh. You can expect the approval in two weeks and that is well before President Sarkozys visit to India. Sarkozys Indian four-day visit starts in first week of December and the agreement between Areva and Department of Atomic Energy is expected to be signed in his presence. The plant is being set up on 938hectares of land acquired from 2,300 people. Ministry officials told HT that most hurdles for the setting up the plant have been cleared. The Nuclear Power Corporation of India, the project proponent, has been asked to put the revised Environment Impact Assessment report on its website. The EAC headed by AR Reddy had visited the project site on October 27 under heavy security to find whether the green field project would have an adverse ecological impact amid protest by locals and NGOs, who had been claiming that the nuclear plant will destroy aunique plateau in Western Ghats. The Environment Impact Assessment report prepared by Nagpur based National Environment Engineering Research Institute (NEERI) had said that there will be no adverse impact on the ecology. It is a rocky and barren land with no habitation and vegetation. There is no roosting or breeding sites and is not used for saltpans or drying of fish. Therefore, the conversion of this land will have no impact on the flora, fauna and human activities, the report read. But, those opposing the project claim that the plateau, which is unique in Western Ghats, has a seasonal bio-diversity for which NEERI did not collect any scientific data. In addition, the Konkan Bachao Andolan (KBA) had alleged that the information on impact of radio activity from the plant on locals have not been shared with them. The EAC, which did not meet any of the locals during their visit, now appears to have validated the NEERI claim, enough to grant environment clearance to the project. Unlike other environment clearance, the government has been secretive on nuclear plants as none of the minutes of EAC meeting on Jaitapur power plant are in public domain. The environment ministry was apparently under pressure to speed up the environment clearance process for Jaitapur plant as it would be first nuclear plant after Nuclear Supplies Group clearance. France was the first country to sign a civil nuclear deal with India in 2008 ending 34 years of Indian isolation in getting nuclear supply.

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Jaitapur N-unit gets green nod 30 November 2010, Times of India MUMBAI: The Union ministry of environment and forests (MoEF) has given environment clearance to the controversial Jaitapur nuclear power project slated to come up in Madban village (Ratnagiri district) along the Konkan coast. This is the second major project, after the Navi Mumbai airport, to be cleared by Minister Jairam Ramesh in a week. The 9,900-mw Jaitapur nuclear power plant, the countrys largest, will be set up in collaboration with French firm Areva. The final contracts are scheduled to be signed in the first half of 2011. The project has elicited a huge outcry, with mass protests by local fishermen and environmentalists who fear that it will not only kill the rich marine biodiversity of the Konkan belt but also destroy the livelihood of the local fishing community. The true impact of the project of this scale will never be known unless one decides to do a comprehensive biodiversity assessment. The thermal discharge of this scale is bound to cause an eco-system shift in a large area. Even a 0.5 degree of continuous thermal stress will lead to mortality of marine species. And here we are talking about a 5-degree shift, said Deepak Apte, marine biologist and deputy director of the Bombay Natural History (BNHS). Incidentally, the environmental clearance for the Jaitapur project was given in just 80 days from the time the final environment impact assessment (EIA) report was submitted by the Nuclear Power Corporation (NPCIL).

Navi Mumbai Int'l Airport to be commissioned by 2014


MUMBAI: The Navi Mumbai International Airport project is "well on the way of being commissioned by 2014," Maharashtra Legislature was informed here today. The announcement was made by Governor K Sankaranarayanan in his address to the joint sitting of the Legislature. With a proposed capacity of 60 million passengers per year, this airport will be able to absorb the burgeoning air travel demands of the passengers, he said. Considering the traffic and transportation needs of Mumbai city, the Government has taken up Metro Railand Mono- Rail Projects to enhance the public transport system and to provide efficient and commuter-friendly mass transit to commuters, he said.

Preliminary survey for implementing the 32 km elevated Metro Line-2 from Charkop to Mankhurd has also been completed and work will be started very soon, he said. The Government has almost completed the work of all weather road connectivity of villages in the state, the Governor said. The Government has taken an ambitious programme of four laning of the National Highways in the state, he said.

http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/news-by-industry/transportation/airlines-/-aviation/navimumbai-intl-airport-to-be-commissioned-by-2014/articleshow/7702232.cms

Finally, Navi Mumbai airport gets green nod


NEW DELHI: Mumbai will finally have a modern airport. The much-delayed project got the green light on Monday, after the ministries of environment and civil aviationrelented from their respective positions. The 'give-and-take' spirit that facilitated the agreement was evident at the press conference addressed by Union environment minister Jairam Ramesh and Union civil aviation minister Praful Patel. The clearance for the project, given after nearly a year of discussions, comes with 32 specific conditions and safeguards to counter the environmental impact of setting up an airport in the ecologically-sensitive zone. "Today (on Monday), the environmental clearance has been formally given to the Navi Mumbai project. The provisions of building the airport will start today," said Mr Ramesh. One of the conditions is the preparation of a fresh comprehensive post-project environment impact assessment report. This has been suggested as the proposal has undergone several changes after it was first submitted for clearance. The fresh report will be prepared under the airport's approved layout, the new hydrological scenario, altered topography and land use. This revised environmental impact assessment report would also include ecological aspects and provide answers to queries raised by Bombay Natural History Society. The minister said that over the past few months, the environment and civil aviation ministries and the project developer, City and Industrial Development Corporation, or Cidco, "bargained, negotiated and compromised" over the project. "From an environmental point of view, this has been a very major compromise that has been reached," Mr Ramesh said. The "biggest compromise", according to the environment minister, was accepting Navi Mumbai as the project site. As part of the compromise, the non-aeronautical facilities of the proposed airport are being shifted out. This will ensure that 63 hectares of the original 161 hectares of mangrove are protected. In the area, orginally earmarked for non-aeronautical facilities, Cidco will develop a 245-hectare good quality mangrove park. Another new 60-hectare mangrove park will be developed towards the Moha and Panvel Creek area by Cidco. Another 310-hectare area on the northeast side of the airport site, between the Gadhi river, Mankhurd-Panvel railway corridor and NH 4B, will be declared as "no development zone". This area will be developed as a mangrove park or green area by Cidco. As part of the understanding, the

Gadhi river will not be diverted. As part of the conditions of clearance, the plantation and protection of mangroves has to be implemented well before the airport is operational. The first phase of the airport is expected to be operational in 2014-15. To ensure this, the distance between the runways have been reduced to 1,555 metres from 1,800 metres. "I had, after our last meeting, said that 65-70% of our concerns were being met. Today, I can say that 85% of our concerns have been met. I will say, it pays to be dogmatic to begin with," Mr Ramesh said. The environment minister has been seen as obstructing the proposed airport. Contesting the perception, Mr Ramesh said his ministry could have said that "Navi Mumbai was not a good site, but instead we accepted Navi Mumbai as a fait accompli, and worked to ensure that adverse environmental impact of the project is minimised." Mr Patel, who had crossed swords with the environment minister, stressed the importance of the new project and reminded that the "existing airport in Mumbai was heavily constrained." However, the environment ministry was unable to safeguard 98 hectare of mangroves that will have to be cut to make way for the runways. Neither was it able to avoid the recoursing of the tidally-influenced Ulwe river, though "a number of safeguards have been stipulated to minimise the adverse impacts of such recoursing." Among the safeguards is the preparation of a comprehensive master plan for surface drainage and flood protection, keeping in view the recoursing of the Ulwe river. The plan will be submitted to the environment ministry. Cidco will also put in place a contingency plan to avoid flooding of the low-lying areas around the airport. If required, a study will be undertaken for the widening and deepening of the Gadhi river. The ministry had also to compromise on the 90-metre high hillock to enable smooth access to the runways. The ministry acknowledged that the hillock was already being "quarried indiscriminately" to significantly reduce its ecological value. Maharashtra chief minister Prithviraj Chavan said every effort would be made to make the new airport environmentally sustainable. "The material from the hillock which has been quarried will be used as building material for the airport. This will reduce the possibility of environmental pollution," Mr Chavan said. The Maharashtra chief minister said the project would showcase that it is possible to undertake development in an environmentally-sustainable manner. The environment ministry has specified that no property development shall take place in the proposed aeronautical airport zone. It has also stipulated that a high-level advisory and monitoring committee, which includes international experts, be constituted by Cidco. The committee will oversee the implementation of the environmental mitigation measures and ensure compliance to all conditions. As a next step, Cidco will need to apply to the environment ministry for forest clearance for the project and obtain requisite permission from the Bombay High Court to cut the mangrove forests. The project developer will have to rehabilitate 3,000 families spread over 10 settlements in the seven villages falling within the project site. The rehabilitation will have to be done according to terms specified by either the state government or central government policy, whichever is more beneficial to the project-affected people. Cidco is also required to conduct a baseline survey of avian fauna before construction begins. With the environment clearance in place, both Mr Chavan and Mr Patel said the bidding process for the development of the airport would be completed and contracts awarded within 8-12 months. The Navi Mumbai International airport project will be developed through public-private-participation mode in which the private party will hold 74%, Cidco and Airports Authority of India, or AAI, will have 13% stake

each. The facility is expected to handle up to 40 million passengers a year by the time it is fully operational in 2030.

http://www.rpe.org.in/article.asp?issn=09720464;year=2011;volume=34;issue=3;spage=159;epage=163;aulast=Ghate

Fukushima to Jaitapur: Battling fear of unknown


Abstract
After-Fukushima incident, various concerns were raised by public and media about the safety of nuclear installations operating all around the world. All nuclear related eventualities of the past were meshed with the present, adding disproportionate factors, unrealistic conclusions were framed based mostly on notions. Fear of unknown radiation syndrome has played up on the minds of common man. India, on a verge of entering path-breaking nuclear energy arena, obviously could not be isolated from such concerns. Such issues were discussed with ongoing protests at Jaitapur and Kudankulam. This paper discusses various concerns expressed after Fukushima incident, overview on proposed Jaitapur nuclear power plant and justifications to the raised concerns.

1. Introduction

March 11, 2011 disaster caused due to 9.0 Richter earthquake and tsunami wrecked the Fukushima plant on the coast north of Tokyo and resulted in radiation crisis and widespread contamination. About 80 000 residents orderly evacuated a 20-km (12-mile) area. After the incident, the world woke up to numerous issues, mostly misconceptions concerning the radiation levels prevailing in the area and its likely effects. The newspapers and electronic media flooded with the so-called disastrous radiological aftermath. The same references and terms were added with the ongoing protests against Jaitapur Nuclear Power Plant (JNPP). Apart from the obvious fear about radiation, other economical, social, and regional aspects were also added to the radiation concern. This paper discusses various issues with reference to Fukushima incidents and JNPP protests.

2. Fukushima Incident

Units 1, 2, and 3 at the plant site were operating at the time of the earthquake but were automatically shut down due to in-built safety features at the onset of the earthquake. The earthquake also destroyed external power supply, resulting in loss of offsite power. The emergency diesel fired generators and battery backups were severely damaged due to the tsunami wave, resulting in overheating of reactor cores due to insufficient cooling. This grim situation further aggravated with cascading events resulting in core meltdown and hydrogen explosions. The situation was

subsequently brought under control with prolonged and relentless efforts of plant operators and emergency response workers. No one received unduly high doses, namely, more than the dose limits considered safe for such situations. No member of the public exceeded the limits set for such situations. 2.1 Concern raised in the USA In June 2011, an article [1] claimed "Dramatic Increase in Baby Deaths in the US a Result of Fukushima Fallout." The author claimed a statistically significant increase of infant mortality deaths after the Fukushima accident in eight selected cities in the Northwest USA. After the fact finding analysis, it was revealed that the author did not include all cities in the area of survey and omitted two major cities of that area. As per the data given in [Figure 1], the analysis has been carried out starting from two weeks prior to the Fukushima incident. [2]

Figure 1: Infant mortality rate in US (Spring 2011)


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As the analyzed numbers are quite low, the random variations are very sensitive. For example, the drastic increase in San Jose city from a single infant death in week 14 to seven in week 18 does not corroborate the claim. In most of the other cities, the numbers of infant deaths tend to be three or less for the entire time period. It can be concluded that there is no cause-to-effect relationship. Minuscule increase in radioactivity level in fish (much below the set limit for fish consumption in the coastal USA) cannot be attributed to any deleterious effect noticed in wider sections of the U.S. population. The effects attributed to radiation take several years to manifest and not in 14 week's time.

3. Jaitapur

Government of India, for the present, and "in principle" has approved in October, 2005 setting up of six numbers of 1650 MWe pressurized water reactors (PWR) type Nuclear Power Plants at Jaitapur. Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited (NPCIL) is the notified project proponent for establishment of Jaitapur Nuclear Power Park. The total power generating capacity proposed on a narrow strip of coastal land 50 km-90 km wide and 200 km long is around 33 000 MW. It will be the largest nuclear power generating station in the world by net electrical power rating once completed. 3.1 Value additions in reactor design

Heavy Neutron Reflector is a solution adapted to PWRs and featured on the evolutionary power reactor (EPR) designs: achieving ~3% fuel savings and 60 years of reactor pressure vessel lifetime certainty. Core Catcher safety to mitigate and manage a potential core melt.

3.2 Other safety features

Large commercial airplane crash resistance. Optimized level of redundancy, diversity of system, and incremental mitigation of abnormal events.

In addition, nuclear reactors of today are designed and adequately safeguarded against earthquake expected in the region. However, as a result of the combination of earthquake and tsunami severely interrupted emergency power required for safe shutdown of reactor. Future reactor design should consider such eventualities to ensure safety. 3.3 Environmental protection features

Lower volume of final waste Reduced collective dose

3.4 Viability aspects The site offers following parameters and characteristics that are suitable for establishment of any Nuclear Energy Park:

The adequate land required to set up multiunit nuclear power plants (NPPs). Water availability and drawl of condenser cooling water from sea is assured. Foundation conditions are favorable with rocky substrata. The average elevation of the site is about RL +24.5 m above the mean sea level. Power evacuation "in principle" is feasible initially for 3300/2000 MWe power from site depending on the capacity of the units. Average population density within 10 km around the site. The nearest National Highway is NH-17 at 38 km distance from the site. The nearest railway about 60 km from site. The proposed site for the project is rocky and almost barren with no sensitive species, such as mangroves, are present up to 5 km from the site. Nuclear power station does not affect the flora around and release no pollutants to affect the flora. In fact, such barren sites, after setting of nuclear plants, have seen abundant growth of planted vegetation, e.g., the shrubby area. For example, Kudnankulam has now luxuriant growth of vegetations in the plant premises.

3.5 Safety concerns

There were concerns over the safety of JNPP, especially at the backdrop of Chernobyl, Three Mile Island (TMI), and Fukushima accidents. Chernobyl accident took place in the year 1986, about 25 years ago. The plant was of a 1950 vintage design with no multilayered containment structure enclosing the reactor core to prevent release of radioactivity and had little in terms of engineered safety features. The reactor also employed graphite as moderator, contrary to water/heavy water in most of the modern reactors. The Chernobyl reactor, a reactor of world war vintage was an intrinsically unsafe reactor with positive temperature coefficient of reactivity and the graphite used as moderator, a substance intrinsically dangerous due to the stored energy release and catching fire. Nuclear power plant designs have evolved ever since, employing proven reactivity control systems, diverse and redundant safety systems, "double containment" reactor building, and several other advanced features, in line with the philosophy of defence-in-depth, thus assuring highest level of safety. The nuclear power reactors to be set up at Jaitapur, the EPRs (termed as Generation III+ nuclear power reactors) are state-of-the-art in terms of safety. A Chernobyl type of accident is just unlikely in case of these reactors. The safety of each individual reactor and system is ensured and there is no bearing of multiple units or unit size on safety. Also, countries like Japan, France, South Korea, and several others have a far greater density of nuclear power plants relative to the geographical sizes of these nations, many of which are smaller in size than the state of Maharashtra and yet have many times more number of nuclear power plants. France, for example, has 58 nuclear power plants operating, producing close to 80% of the total electricity produced. This corroborates that even far greater density of nuclear power production capacity distributed in the smallest geographical areas has no adverse effect on either environment or population. It is pertinent to mention that till date, there has not been any event in any of the nuclear power plants of India, which has resulted in adverse radiological impact on the environment. Globally, commercial nuclear power has registered over 14 000 reactor-years of safe and reliable operation so far, Chernobyl and Fukushima being an exception. There are 440 nuclear reactors operating worldwide and there has not been any other nuclear accident otherwise. 3.6 Radiation dose apportionment 3.6.1 Water route [3]

Dose limit of each site as per AERB = 1 millisievert per year (from all routes); Dose limit of each unit of JNPP = 0.1 millisievert per year (from all routes); Dose limit of each unit of JNPP from water route = 0.02 millisievert per year; Radionuclide mixture without tritium (H-3) = 0.01 millisievert per year; Tritium (H-3) = 0.01 millisievert per year.

The above data confirm that condenser cooling water (CCW) will not have any adverse effect on the sea water. 3.7 Radiation (Airborne)

The radioactive release due to operation of JNPP is expected to be insignificant and impact would be negligible. The radiation from nuclear power plants to the environment is so little and insignificant. For instance, against an average background radiation level of 2400 microsievert (Sv), the radiation from existing nu clear power plants for years has varied from 1.11 to 26.67 Sv ranging from 0.05% to 1% only. 3.8 Siting considerations for earthquake and tsunami Since Jaitapur [4] being seismically sensitive area, the danger of an accident has been foremost on the minds of people. According to the earthquake hazard zoning of India, Jaitapur is under Zone III. This zone is called the moderate Risk Zone. The details of seismic zones and their classification globally vis--vis Indian classification is given in [Table 1].

Table 1: Seismic Zones and their Classification


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The different regions in the country are categorized in Seismic Zones II-V depending on the severity and frequency of earthquake damaging potential. Nuclear power plants can be set in any zone by having suitable design features and provisions. It is also brought out that there are nuclear power plants located in some of the most earthquake-prone zones of the earth, like Japan (54 reactors are under operation currently) and the west coast of the USA (10 reactors are under operation in this part of the USA currently). These reactors have been designed to withstand earthquakes and have testified the design by withstanding many severe earthquakes already. And thus the adage: Nuclear power plants are the safest places to be during an earthquake. Further, nuclear power plant structures, systems, and equipment are designed and qualified for a maximum possible earthquake at the site. This has been amply demonstrated as Kakrapar Atomic Power Station (KAPS) kept operating during the Bhuj earthquake, which was quite devastating to the town of Bhuj in the nearby Kutch. Narora Atomic Power Station (NAPS) located in Zone IV has withstood several hundred tremors in the last two decades since its commencement of operation in 1989. All nuclear power plants in the country have operated safely during earthquakes. The details are given in [Table 2]. The details of seismic zones of nuclear power plants in some countries are given in[Table 3].

Table 2: World Seismic Zones and Hazard Level


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Table 3: Indian Nuclear Plants and Seismic Zones


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The site at Jaitapur is located in Seismic Zone III as per the Indian Standard IS 1893 (2002), and not in Seismic Zone IV as is being talked about by a section of opponents of this plant. Jaitapur site meets the requirements for sitting as stipulated in the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board's code on safety in nuclear power plant sitting, including absence of any capable faults within 5 km. The Jaitapur project site actually has much greater safety margins in this regard as there is no capable fault within 30 km. Thus, the site is safe and engineerable from seismic criteria. The existing nuclear power plant sites in the country are located in Zones II, III, and IV as shown in [Figure 2].

Figure 2: Existing nuclear power plant sites in India


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There was a concern that likely damages as a result of tsunami have not been taken into account while clearing the site. The average elevation of the site is about RL +24.5 m above the mean sea level. The detailed analysis/studies have been carried out by Central Water and Power Research Station (CWPRS), Pune to arrive at the safe grade elevation for proposed JNPP due to flood/tsunami. Safe grade elevation of +7.0 m with respect to Chart Datum has been recommended for proposed JNPP site. This safe grade elevation has been estimated considering the highest astronomical tidal level of +3.3 m, 2.5 m of tsunami, or the 1000-year return period storm surge of 2.7 m, maximum wave setup of 0.5 m, and the free-board of 0.5 m. Hence, the site is considered to be safe from flooding/tsunami view point. However, further studies will be carried out to fix grade level elevation at the design stage, taking into account the need to reduce pumping head. 3.9 Radioactive waste disposal It is not clear where the nuclear waste emanating from the site will be dumped. The plant is estimated to generate 300 tonnes of waste each year. The EPR waste will have about four times as much radioactive bromine, iodine, cesium, etc., compared to ordinary PWR. 3.10 Biological environment

The project area is occupied by barren land with grasses and scrub vegetation. Thus development of JNPP would not affect the green cover of the area. On the contrary, JNPP has extensive developmental plan for green belt and plantation in plant and residential complex area resulting in increase in green cover and biodiversity of plants and birds in the area, apart from creation of beautiful landscape. There is no discharge of conventional pollutants into the aquatic environment; so marine fauna and flora would not be affected.

4. Conclusion

Post Fukushima, law makers, social activists, and scientific communities strived to bring forward unbiased facts before the local population. Fear of unknown must not be encouraged to be exploited by the opportunistic movements. Nuclear power generation and safety records demonstrated in France, Japan, and the USA undoubtedly attribute to success of nuclear energy. We must recognize its existence, importance, relevance, and nurture it for the posterity.

Nuclear power is green and clean source of energy and very much necessary for India to complement the electricity production in the country which is mostly by thermal power plants (with 63.95% share) & are responsible for release of conventional pollutants, global warming, depletion of conventional sources of energy and associated impacts. The present share of nuclear power in total generation of electricity in the country is only 2.83% as on 31st July 2008. India is poised to go largely for peaceful use of nuclear energy in generating electricity, which resulted in the waiver from Nuclear Supplier Group, enabling India to have nuclear trade with other countries in the field of peaceful use of nuclear energy. India, thus, aims at increasing the share of nuclear energy to reach from the present 4120 MWe to 23000 MWe by the end of XIIth National Plan. The electricity genegrated by Jaitapur Nuclear Power Park (JNPP) will be supplied to the beneficiary states in westerns region with possibility of inter regional transfer.