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BENEFITS OF BUILDING WITH MASONRY

presented by International Masonry Institute

International Union of Bricklayers and Allied Craftworkers

International Masonry Institute

LIFELONG LEARNING
Pre-job and apprentice training Journeyman upgrade training Safety, scaffold, OSHA training Craftworker certification training Supervisor certification

Sustainable Masonry Certification Program


Contractor College

International Union of Bricklayers and Allied Craftworkers

International Masonry Institute

BAC CONTRACTORS

IMI-TRAINED CRAFTWORKERS

ILLINOIS STRUCTURAL MASONRY COALTION

BENEFITS OF BUILDING WITH MASONRY


Beauty Versatility of Design Contextual / Relatable Ease of Construction Structural Fire & Impact Resistant Durable / Low Maintenance Economical Sustainable Energy Efficient High Performance Acoustic Qualified Local Labor

BENEFITS OF MASONRY:
DESIGN VERSATILITY BEAUTY

DESIGN VERSATILITY: ARCHITECTURAL STYLES

DESIGN VERSATILITY: ARCHITECTURAL STYLES

DESIGN VERSATILITY: BONDING PATTERNS

RUNNING BOND

STACKED BOND

COMMON BOND (AMERICAN BOND)

ENGLISH BOND

FLEMISH BOND

ENGLISH CROSS BOND

1/3 BOND (UTILITY BRICK)

GARDEN WALL

DESIGN VERSATILITY: BONDING PATTERNS

SOLDIERS

STACKED BOND

DESIGN VERSATILITY: BONDING PATTERNS

DESIGN VERSATILITY: BONDING PATTERNS

HERRINGBONE

BASKETWEAVE

DESIGN VERSATILITY: BONDING PATTERNS

DESIGN VERSATILITY: BONDING PATTERNS

DESIGN VERSATILITY: BONDING PATTERNS

DESIGN VERSATILITY: BONDING PATTERNS

DESIGN VERSATILITY:

RECESSED / PROJECTED COURSES

DESIGN VERSATILITY:

RECESSED / PROJECTED COURSES

DESIGN VERSATILITY: CORBELING

DESIGN VERSATILITY: CORBELING

DESIGN VERSATILITY: RACKING

DESIGN VERSATILITY: QUOIN CORNERS

DESIGN VERSATILITY: ARCHES

CORBELED ARCH

AND IF YOU THINK OF BRICK, FOR INSTANCE

WHAT DO YOU WANT, BRICK?


AND BRICK SAYS TO YOU

AND YOU SAY TO BRICK,

I LIKE AN ARCH

AND IF YOU SAY TO BRICK, LOOK, ARCHES ARE EXPENSIVE. CAN I USE A CONCRETE LINTEL OVER YOU? WHAT DO YOU THINK OF THAT? BRICK?

I LIKE AN ARCH

BRICK SAYS:

- LOUIS I. KHAN

ARCH TYPES

ROMAN (SEMICIRCULAR)

SEGMENTAL

JACK (FLAT)

GOTHIC (POINTED)

ELLIPTICAL

DESIGN VERSATILITY: RADIAL BRICKWORK

DESIGN VERSATILITY: RADIAL BRICKWORK

DESIGN VERSATILITY: RADIAL BRICKWORK

DESIGN VERSATILITY: DENTILS

DESIGN VERSATILITY: DENTILS

DESIGN VERSATILITY: DENTILS

DESIGN VERSATILITY: MORTAR JOINTS


18.00% MORTAR

18%

12.21% MORTAR

12%

ONE SQUARE FOOT MODULAR BRICK, RUNNING BOND BED JOINTS 4 @ 12 x 3/8 = 18.000 SQ. IN. HEAD JOINTS 8 @ 2.3125 x 3/8 = 6.938 SQ. IN. 2 @ 1.3125 x 3/8 = 0.984 SQ. IN. 25.922 SQ. IN. MORTAR

ONE SQUARE FOOT UTILITY BRICK, RUNNING BOND 3 @ 12 x 3/8 = 13.500 SQ. IN. 3 @ 3.625 x 3/8 = 4.078 SQ. IN. 17.578 SQ. IN. MORTAR

ELEVATIONS
DIAGRAM 01.410.0311

MORTAR JOINT MATERIAL TAKEOFF REV. 08/10/09

DESIGN VERSATILITY: MORTAR JOINTS

DESIGN VERSATILITY: MORTAR JOINTS

concave

vee

raked

beaded

flush

grapevine

weathered

struck

weeping

DESIGN VERSATILITY: MORTAR JOINTS

concave

vee

DESIGN VERSATILITY: MORTAR JOINTS

DESIGN VERSATILITY:

MATERIAL COMBINATIONS & JUXTAPOSITIONS

DESIGN VERSATILITY:

MATERIAL COMBINATIONS & JUXTAPOSITIONS

DESIGN VERSATILITY:

MATERIAL COMBINATIONS & JUXTAPOSITIONS

DESIGN VERSATILITY:

MATERIAL COMBINATIONS & JUXTAPOSITIONS

DESIGN VERSATILITY:

MATERIAL COMBINATIONS & JUXTAPOSITIONS

BENEFITS OF MASONRY:
HUMAN SCALE CONTEXTUAL ENHANCES COMMUNITY

BENEFITS OF MASONRY: EASE OF CONSTRUCTION

MODULARITY

MODULARITY

MODULARITY

MODULARITY

MODULARITY

MODULARITY

MODULARITY

EASE OF CONSTRUCTION: ADAPTABILITY OF UNITS

Masonry is adaptable to inconsistencies and field changes

EASE OF CONSTRUCTION: HEIGHT LIMITATIONS

It is generally better to have all the panels nearly the same height, and less than 30 feet high.
-Tilt-Up Concrete Association

With proper support, masonry walls can reach great heights

EASE OF CONSTRUCTION: HEIGHT LIMITATIONS

Masonry can easily accommodate varying wall heights and configurations.

2009 INTERNATIONAL MASONRY INSTITUTE

EASE OF CONSTRUCTION:

WINDOW AND DOOR LIMITATIONS

Openings must be located a minimum distance from the panel edge of 1/8 the eave height or 2 feet, whichever is less.
-Tilt-Up Concrete Association

Place openings virtually anywhere in a masonry wall.

EASE OF CONSTRUCTION: SITE CONSTRAINTS

Tilt-Up concrete requires relatively flat terrain, away from power lines, ditches, other buildings, railroad tracks, and other obstructions that could limit crane access.
-Tilt-Up Concrete Association

Masonry is right at home on sites that are tight and difficult to access

EASE OF CONSTRUCTION: SEQUENCING

Crane access and braces can impede tilt-up construction until roof diaphragm is attached

EASE OF CONSTRUCTION: SEQUENCING

Masonry work can begin as soon as footings are installed

EASE OF CONSTRUCTION: SEQUENCING

Bricklayers work from scaffold outside the building, rarely interfering with other trades

EASE OF CONSTRUCTION:

COLD WEATHER CONSIDERATIONS

Since tilt-up walls are cast outdoors, pouring and curing becomes difficult and expensive when temperatures drop below freezing.

Masonry can easily be constructed when temperatures are below freezing if cold-weather procedures are followed.

EASE OF CONSTRUCTION: SCHEDULE-FRIENDLY

BENEFITS OF MASONRY: STRUCTURAL

STRUCTURAL

STRUCTURAL:

GROUTED & REINFORCED LOADBEARING BLOCK

HYBRID MASONRY & STEEL

HYBRID MASONRY & STEEL

HYBRID MASONRY & STEEL

HYBRID MASONRY & STEEL

Garden Hills Elementary School, Champaign, IL BLDD Architects

DETAIL FEATURES PLATE WELDED TO I-BEAM CUT BLOCK AROUND BEAM

International Masonry Institute

HEAD DETAIL
DETAIL 01.304

PLATE WELDED TO I-BEAM REV. 09/27/07

MASONRY DETAILING SERIES


800-IMI-0988 www.imiweb.org
2007 INTERNATIONAL MASONRY INSTITUTE

BRICK & BLOCK CAVITY WALL

INTERIOR VIEW

EXTERIOR VIEW

International Masonry Institute

HEAD DETAIL
DETAIL 01.301

STEEL LINTEL & BOND BEAM REV. 09/04/07

MASONRY DETAILING SERIES


800-IMI-0988 www.imiweb.org
2007 INTERNATIONAL MASONRY INSTITUTE

BRICK & BLOCK CAVITY WALL

SPANNING OPENINGS

Poly-wrapped steel angles used for temporary support

CAST-IN-PLACE MASONRY LINTEL

SPANNING OPENINGS

Precast masonry lintel fabricated on the ground

PRECAST LINTELS

SPANNING OPENINGS

Lintel is hoisted by lift

PRECAST LINTELS

SPANNING OPENINGS

Precast lintel set into place

PRECAST LINTELS

SPANNING OPENINGS

10-foot span

PRECAST LINTELS

FIRE RESISTANCE

FIRE RESISTANCE

FIRE RESISTANCE

IMPACT RESISTANCE

.38 cal from 15 feet

DURABLE / LOW MAINTENANCE

BUILDING REUSE

DURABLE / LOW MAINTENANCE

DURABLE / LOW MAINTENANCE

Interior masonry partition walls never need painting.

DURABLE / LOW MAINTENANCE

DURABLE / LOW MAINTENANCE

BENEFITS OF MASONRY: COMPETITIVE COSTS

BENEFITS OF MASONRY: SUSTAINABLE

SUSTAINABILITY:

Meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
ASTM E 2114-06a, Standard Terminology for Sustainability Relative to the Performance of Buildings, Vol. 4.12, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2006

MASONRY FOR SUSTAINABILITY

FACILITY LIFE CYCLE


Facility evaluation may identify needs that lead to expansion, remodeling, renovation, or restoration of an existing facility to accommodate growth or changes in function; or may result in abandonment, deconstruction, sale, or adaptive reuse of an existing facility.
Project Resource Manual CSI Manual of Practice

www.aia.org FAQs Q: What topics are considered as Sustainable Design topics? A:


Active Solar Thermal Systems Alternative Energy Alternative Transportation Appropriate Size and Growth Biomimicry Building Form Building Monitoring Building Orientation Carbon Offsets Cavity Walls for Insulating Airspace Co-Generation Conserving Systems and Equipment Contract Documents (related to sustainable design) Construction Waste Management Cool Roofs Deconstruction and Salvage Materials Daylighting Earth Sheltering Efficient Artificial Lighting Efficient Site Lighting Systems Energy Modeling Energy Source Ramifications Energy-Saving Appliances and Equipment Environmental Education Geoexchange Green Roofs High-Efficiency Equipment Indoor Environmental Quality Integrated Project Delivery Life Cycle Assessment Mass Absorption Material Selection and Embodied Energy Natural Ventilation Open, Active, Daylit Space Passive Solar Collection Opportunities Photovoltaics Prefabrication Preservation/Reuse of Existing Facilities Radiant Heating and Cooling Renewable Energy Resources Rightsizing Equipment Safety and Security Systems (defensive planting, innovative design, defensive space) Smart Controls Space Zoning Staff Training (tech. training, only) Sun Shading Systems Commissioning Systems Tune-Up Thermal Bridging Total Building Commissioning Vegetation for Sun Control Walkable Communities Waste-Heat Recovery Water Conservation Windows and Openings Green Specifications Zoning, regulatory, codes

SUSTAINABLE DESIGN TOPICS

www.aia.org FAQs Q: What topics are considered as Sustainable Design topics? A:


Active Solar Thermal Systems Alternative Energy Alternative Transportation Appropriate Size and Growth Biomimicry Building Form Building Monitoring Building Orientation Carbon Offsets Cavity Walls for Insulating Airspace Co-Generation Conserving Systems and Equipment Contract Documents (related to sustainable design) Construction Waste Management Cool Roofs Deconstruction and Salvage Materials Daylighting Earth Sheltering Efficient Artificial Lighting Efficient Site Lighting Systems Energy Modeling Energy Source Ramifications Energy-Saving Appliances and Equipment Environmental Education Geoexchange Green Roofs High-Efficiency Equipment Indoor Environmental Quality Integrated Project Delivery Life Cycle Assessment Mass Absorption Material Selection and Embodied Energy Natural Ventilation Open, Active, Daylit Space Passive Solar Collection Opportunities Photovoltaics Prefabrication Preservation/Reuse of Existing Facilities Radiant Heating and Cooling Renewable Energy Resources Rightsizing Equipment Safety and Security Systems (defensive planting, innovative design, defensive space) Smart Controls Space Zoning Staff Training (tech. training, only) Sun Shading Systems Commissioning Systems Tune-Up Thermal Bridging Total Building Commissioning Vegetation for Sun Control Walkable Communities Waste-Heat Recovery Water Conservation Windows and Openings Green Specifications Zoning, regulatory, codes

SUSTAINABLE DESIGN TOPICS

SUSTAINABLE SITES

LEED v. 3
Potential contribution of masonry 5 points

1 point 1 point 1 point 1 point 1 point

26

24

28

10 points

ENERGY & ATMOSPHERE

LEED v. 3
Potential contribution of masonry

19 points

35 points

33 points 37 points

19 points

MATERIALS & RESOURCES

LEED v. 3
Potential contribution of masonry

3 points 5 points 1 point 2 points 2 points 2 points 2 points

14

13

13

12 points, NC 11 points, SCH 13 points, CS

INDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY

LEED v. 3

Potential contribution of masonry 1 point

1 point 1 point 1 point

1 point 1 point 5 points, NC 6 points, SCHOOLS 4 points, CS

1 point 15 23 12

INNOVATION & DESIGN

LEED v. 3

Potential contribution of masonry 5 points

6 points

5 points

6 points

5 points NC 4 points SCH 5 points CS

ABUNDANT MATERIALS
Example: Project uses clay brick; clay is abundant

Case Study: Walsh Construction Headquarters, Chicago, IL

MATERIALS & RESOURCES

MR CREDIT 1.1, 1.2, 1.3

BUILDING REUSE

MR CREDIT 1.1, 1.2, 1.3

BUILDING REUSE

Walsh Construction Headquarters, Chicago, IL

Common brick facade removed.

New face brick installed on existing concrete structure.

Walsh Construction Headquarters, Chicago, IL

Common brick from facade is preserved and cleaned.

MATERIALS & RESOURCES

MR CREDIT 3.1 & 3.2

MATERIAL REUSE

Walsh Construction Headquarters, Chicago, IL

Common brick used as interior finish at corridor walls and elevator lobbies.

MATERIALS & RESOURCES

MR CREDIT 3.1 & 3.2

MATERIAL REUSE

after

after

before

RECYCLED CONTENT

MATERIALS & RESOURCES

MR CREDIT 4.1 & 4.2

RECYCLED CONTENT
Example: Project uses brick made with fly ash aggregate Recycled Material: 40% fly ash by weight preconsumer

MATERIALS & RESOURCES

MR CREDIT 4.1 & 4.2

ENERGY EFFICIENCY

R-Value Thermal Mass

ENERGY EFFICIENCY

R-Value is the resistance to heat flow. HEAT


heat

Thermal mass, or the heat storage ability of the wall, is not considered in the R-Value.
heat

HEAT

Exterior insul., interior mass

Exterior mass, interior insulation

Exterior mass, core insulation, interior mass

Exterior insul., core mass, interior insulation

Masonry or concrete walls having a mass greater than or equal to 30 lb/ft2 are defined by IECC and ASHRAE 90.1 as massive walls.

MASS WALLS

Interior Insulation

Cavity Insulation

Inserts at CMU

Foamed-in-Place

Granular Fill
DETAIL 08.300

Exterior Insulation
REV. 02/14/09

INSULATING MASONRY WALLS

Insulation at Multiple Locations Within Wall


2009 INTERNATIONAL MASONRY INSTITUTE

6-HR LAG
2-HR LAG

HEAT GAINS

HEAT LOSSES

3AM

6AM

9AM 12PM

3PM

6PM

9PM

12AM

Source: National Concrete Masonry Association

ENERGY & ATMOSPHERE

THERMAL MASS BENEFITS

DAMPING

BENEFIT OF MASONRY: HIGH PERFORMANCE BUILDING ENVELOPE

HIGH PERFORMANCE BUILDING ENVELOPE

HIGH PERFORMANCE BUILDING ENVELOPE

HIGH PERFORMANCE BUILDING ENVELOPE

HIGH PERFORMANCE BUILDING ENVELOPE

HIGH PERFORMANCE BUILDING ENVELOPE

HIGH PERFORMANCE BUILDING ENVELOPE

HIGH PERFORMANCE BUILDING ENVELOPE

HIGH PERFORMANCE BUILDING ENVELOPE

HIGH PERFORMANCE BUILDING ENVELOPE

HIGH PERFORMANCE BUILDING ENVELOPE

HIGH PERFORMANCE BUILDING ENVELOPE

HIGH PERFORMANCE BUILDING ENVELOPE

HIGH PERFORMANCE BUILDING ENVELOPE

HIGH PERFORMANCE BUILDING ENVELOPE

HIGH PERFORMANCE BUILDING ENVELOPE

HIGH PERFORMANCE BUILDING ENVELOPE

HIGH PERFORMANCE BUILDING ENVELOPE

BENEFITS OF MASONRY:

ACOUSTIC PERFORMANCE

ACOUSTIC PERFORMANCE

Acoustic CMUs can provide sound control for a better indoor learning and working environment Much like a car muffler, the closed-end cavities resonate sound waves and convert them harmlessly to heat

ACOUSTIC PERFORMANCE

Homewood Flossmoor High School, Flossmoor, Illinois

ACOUSTIC PERFORMANCE

MASONRY KEEPS JOBS LOCAL

SKILLED BRICKLAYERS AND CONTRACTORS

WE WOULD TAKE THAT DESPISED OUTCAST OF THE BUILDING INDUSTRY THE CONCRETE BLOCK

OUT FROM UNDERFOOT, FROM THE GUTTER


FIND HITHERTO UNSUSPECTED SOUL IN IT

THING OF BEAUTY

MAKE IT LIVE AS A

TEXTURED LIKE THE TREES.

YES, THE BUILDING WOULD BE MADE OF THE BLOCKS


AS A KIND OF TREE ITSELF

STANDING AT HOME AMONG THE OTHER TREES


IN ITS OWN NATIVE LAND.
- FRANK LLOYD WRIGHT

SINGLE WYTHE BLOCK WALL

INSULATED BLOCK

SINGLE WYTHE STRUCTURAL INSULATED CMU

SINGLE WYTHE STRUCTURAL INSULATED CMU

SINGLE WYTHE STRUCTURAL INSULATED CMU

SINGLE WYTHE STRUCTURAL INSULATED CMU

STRUCTURAL BRICK

STRUCTURAL BRICK

AUTOCLAVED AERATED CONCRETE (AAC)

38 lbs

28 lbs

18 lbs

8x8x16 normal weight block (140 pcf)

8x8x16 light weight block (105 pcf)

8x8x16 AAC AC-4 block (31 pcf)

AUTOCLAVED AERATED CONCRETE (AAC)


Firewalls Loadbearing walls Back-up walls Interior partitions Stair enclosures Elevator shafts Column wraps Shafts & chutes Floors & roofs

AUTOCLAVED AERATED CONCRETE (AAC)

Bricklayers route electrical chase in AAC

RAINSCREEN CLADDING

RAINSCREEN CLADDING

CONCRETE BLOCK BACKUP

RAINSCREEN CLADDING

AIR BARRIER

RAINSCREEN CLADDING

ALUMINUM CLIP ANGLES

RAINSCREEN CLADDING

RIGID INSULATION

RAINSCREEN CLADDING

TRACK W/ TULIP GASKET & CLIPS

RAINSCREEN CLADDING

TERRA COTTA PANELS

RAINSCREEN CLADDING

RAINSCREEN CLADDING

RAINSCREEN CLADDING

RAINSCREEN CLADDING

RAINSCREEN CLADDING

RAINSCREEN CLADDING

ADHERED VENEER

LIGHTWEIGHT REINFORCED STONE PANELS

LIGHTWEIGHT REINFORCED STONE PANELS

LIGHTWEIGHT REINFORCED STONE PANELS

BENEFITS OF BUILDING WITH MASONRY


Beauty Versatility of Design Contextual / Relatable Ease of Construction Structural Fire & Impact Resistant Durable / Low Maintenance Economical Sustainable Energy Efficient High Performance Acoustic Qualified Local Labor

THEREFORE WHEN WE BUILD, LET US THINK THAT WE BUILD FOR EVER.

LET IT NOT BE FOR PRESENT DELIGHT, NOR FOR PRESENT USE ALONE; LET IT BE SUCH WORK AS OUR DESCENDANTS WILL THANK US FOR.
AND LET US THINK AS WE LAY STONE UPON STONE, THAT A TIME IS TO COME WHEN THOSE STONES WILL BE HELD SACRED BECAUSE OUR HANDS HAVE TOUCHED THEM, AND THAT MEN WILL SAY AS THEY LOOK UPON THE LABOUR AND WROUGHT SUBSTANCE OF THEM, SEE! THIS OUR FATHERS DID FOR US.
John Ruskin, 1849 The Seven Lamps of Architecture

International Union of Bricklayers and Allied Craftworkers

International Masonry Institute

BAC CONTRACTORS

IMI-TRAINED CRAFTWORKERS