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CHAPITRE 12 LES TAPES DE LA VIE Un(e) adolescent(e) Un(e) adulte Le baptme Le bb Le divorce Le divorc/la divorce Une enfance Un/Lenterrement

Un vnement Les fianailles (fem) Le fianc/la fiance La fille Le garon Le Jeune homme La jeune femme La jeune fille La jeunesse Le mariage La mort La naissance Prendre sa retraite Le/la retrait(e) La retraite La vie La vieillesse Le vieux (le vieil homme) La vieille (femme) Le vieillissement

Adolescent, teenager. Adult baptism baby divorce divorcee childhood burial event engagement fiance girl boy young man young lady young girl youth wedding death birth to retire retiree, retired person retirement life old age old man. Old lady ageing, growing old

LES MDIAS (the media) Les actualits (fem) La bande dssine Le carnet du jour La chane (tlvision) Le courrier des lecteurs Le dessin anim Le documentaire Un ditorial/des ditoriaux Le Feuilleton Le gros titre Les informations (fem. Pl) Le jeu (x) Le journal/des journaux La mto Le magazine Les mots (m) croiss Les avis (m) de dcs La publicit La rubrique La srie La station (de radio) news, news program comic strip society column station, network letters to the editor animated cartoon documentary soap opera, a serie headline news, news program game newspaper weather report magazine crossword puzzle orbituary column) commercial, advertisement section, column serie station (radio)

STRUCTURE 36 LIMPARFAIT (imperfect) Limparfait is used to describe emotions, conditions, states of mind, habitual actions and ongoing actions. 1.To form the imparfait, drop the er ending of the regular verb and add the following endings: ais, ais, ait, ions, iez, aient to the stem. REGARDER (to watch) Je Tu Il/elle/on Nous Vous Ils / elles regardais regardais regardait regardions regardiez regardaient

Example: Yasmine partait pour lcole 9.00 h. Yasmine left for school at 9.00 2. In imparfait, the of the verb commencer in the first person plural (nous form) changes into c. The verb manger in the third person plural (nous form) drops it e. Example: Nous commencions une nouvelle anne. We started a new year. Nous mangions du pain. We were eating (ate) bread.

3. VERBE AVOIR ET TRE

AVOIR (to have) J Tu Il/ elle /on Nous Vous Ils / elles avais avais avait avions aviez avaient

tre (to be) J Tu Il/ elle / on Nous Vous Ils / elles tais tais tait tions tiez taient

Example : Ctait une belle histoire. It was a good story. Bruno avait une belle voiture. Bruno has had nice car. 4. The imparfait is used to describe conditions, emotions, and states of mind. Example: Nora tait trs jeune. Nora was very young. Yasmine tait silencieuse. Yasmine was quiet. STRUCTURE 37 IMPARFAIT NARRATING IN THE PAST. The imparfait is also used to express an action in progress in the past and it has the meaning of was/were doing Example : Ses parents pensaient lenvoyer en Europe. Her parents were thinking of sending her to Europe. To express habitual past action, imparfait is also used and it corresponds to used to in English. Example : Dina faisait la lessive tous les jours. Dina used to do the laundry every day. EXPRESSIONS OF TIME AND FREQUENCY They may be used for the present or past tense.

Autrefois Toujours Tous les jours Dhabitude Souvent Quelquefois Parfois De temps en temps Rarement

Formerly, in the past Always Every day usually, normally Often Sometimes Sometimes From time to time Rarely.

Tous les jours, dhabitude, quelquefois and de temps en temps can be placed at the beginning of a sentence. Toujours, souvent, parfois and rarement usually follow the conjugated verb. Example: Quelquefois je commence le travail 10h Sometimes, I start working at 10.00. Je rends visite Linda souvent. I visit Linda often. STRUCTURE 38 LES VERBES DIRE, LIRE ET CRIRE (prsent). DIRE (to say, to tell) LIRE (to read) CRIRE (to write) Je Tu Il/elle/on Nous Vous Ils dis dis dit disons dites disent Je Tu Il/elle/on Nous Vous Ils lis lis lit lisons lisez lisent J Tu Il/elle/on Nous Vous Ils / elles cris cris crit crivons crivez crivent

Pass compos: Jai dit

Pass compos: Jai lu

Pass compos: Jai crit

1.The verbs dire, lire et crire deal with communication.

The verb dcrire (to describe) is conjugated like crire. Example: Rachid dit quil est journaliste. Rachid says that he is a journalist. Nathan lit son livre. Nathan reads his book. Jcris une lettre. I write a letter. Rachid a dit quil est journaliste. Rachid said that he is a journalist. 2. Dire means to say or to tell. Parler means to speak. Raconter means to tell in the sense of recounting a story or an event. Example: Il dit la vrit. He is telling the truth. Nous parlons franais. We speak French. Elle raconte lhistoire. She is telling the story.

CHAPITRE 13 COMMENT COMMUNIQUER? (How to communicate?)

La lettre Le technophile

the letter the person who likes using the technology Le texto the text message Composer le numro to dial a number Laisser un message to leave a message La bote vocale the voice mail Le bavard the talkative Rver to dream Se connecter to go online Linternaute the internet user Naviguer sur le web to surf La page perso personal page. Le ml/courrier lectronique The electronic mail Cliquer sur licne to click the icon Garder contact avec to keep in touch with La bote aux lettres lectronique the electronic mailbox Une page daccueil the home page Le signet the bookmark Le site web the website Le/la technophobe the person who is afraid of technology Tlcharger to download

LES TUDES UNIVERSITAIRES Se spcialiser to major La note the grade chouer un examen to fail

Scher le cours Passer un examen Le diplme Russir un examen Suivre un cours

to skip classes to take an exam the diploma to pass, to succeed an exam. to take a course

STRUCTURE 39 NERIEN (nothing) ET NE PERSONNE (nobody) Various expression such as nepas (not), nejamais (never), ne plus (no longer), ne pas encore (not yet), ne pas du tout (not at all) are used to express the negative form; besides these we have the expressions ne rien (nothing, not anything) and nepersonne (nobody, no one, not anyone). Nerien and ne personne can be used as the subject or the object of a verb or as the object of a preposition in a sentence. The position of the two parts of these expressions depends on how they are being used. 1. As the subject of a sentence, rien and personne precedes ne directly just before the verb. Example: rien ne le change. Nothing can change. Personne ne lui parle. Nobody is talking to him.

2. As an object of a verb, the negations work just like nepas, with ne before the verb and rien, personne after the verb. Example: il ny a rien dans le frigo. There is nothing in the fridge Je ne vois personne dans la classe. I dont see anybody in the classroom. As the object of a verb in the pass compos: -Ne rien surrounds the auxiliary verb; -However, ne personne places personne after the past participle Example: Il na rien mang. He did not eat anything Vous navez trouv personne. You did not find anyone. 3. Ne is before the verb and rien and personne follow the preposition when a verb is followed by a preposition. Example : nous navons envie de rien. We dont want anything. Vous ne tlphonez personne. You dont call anybody. 4. Personne and rien can be used alone to answer a question.

Example: Qui voyage avec toi? Who is travelling with you? - Personne. Nobody Quest-ce que vous mangez? - Rien 5. Nothing

Ne Personne and ne rien are related to the affirmative

expressions quelquun (someone) quelque chose (something). Example: Quelquune a tlphon? Did somebody call? Non, personne na tlphon. No, nobody called Avez-vous mang quelque chose? Did you eat something? Non, nous navons rien mang. No, we did not eat anything.

STRUCTURE 40 LES VERBES SAVOIR ET CONNATRE SAVOIR (to know) CONNATRE (to know)

Je sais Tu sais Il / elle / on sait Nous savons Vous savez Ils / elles savent Pass compos : Jai su

Je connais Tu connais Il / elle / on connat Nous connaissons Vous connaissez Ils / elles connaissent Pass compos : Jai connu

In French two verbs have the meaning of the verb to know, each has its own special use. 1. Savoir means to know as a result of having learned or studied. 2. Savoir can take a direct object. Example: Je sais mes leons de franais. I know my French lessons. Savoir can also be followed by a subordinate clause introduced by: qui, que, quand, comment, pourquoi, combien de, o Example: Bruno sait o se trouve la maison de Camille. Bruno knows where the camilles house is located. Camille sait que louise est morte. Camille knows that louise is dead. Mado ne sait pas comment son pre est mort. Mado doesnt know how her dad died. Rachid, tu sais quelle heure il est ? Rachid, do you know what time it is? 3. Savoir can be followed by an infinitive verb, in this case, savoir means to know how to do something. Example: Je sais prparer le riz chinois. I know how to cook the chinese rice.

4. Connatre means to know in the sense of to be acquainted with somebody or something. It is also used when referring to people or places. Example: Je connais bien le quartier. I know the area quite well.. Ils connaissent Paul et Lucie. They know paul and Lucie. 5. Connatre always takes a direct object: a person, a place or something else that we are familiar with, such as a song, a story, a road Example: Je connais la ville. I know the city. Je connais la chanson. I know that song. 6. The verbs reconnatre (to recognize), paratre (to appear, seem), apparatre (to appear) and disparatre (to disappear) are conjugated like connatre. Example: Tu reconnais la dame? Do you recognize the lady.

STRUCTURE 41 LE PASS COMPOS ET LIMPARFAIT. The pass compos and imparfait are past tenses. Their choice and use depend on the context and the message the speaker wants to

convey.They are used to express different aspects of past time and we have the summary in the following chart. PASS COMPOS Past event What happened? Eg: jai prpar lexamen. Sequence of events. What happened next? Eg: Jai mang aprs jai regard la tl. IMPARFAIT Descriptions in the past Eg: Elle travaillait bien. On going past actions What was happening? Eg: Le professeur parlait aux tudiants Habitual past event What used to happen? Eg:Quand jtais jeune, je visitais mon oncle. People (emotion, state of mind, age condition, place, things, scene in the past). Eg:- Louise tait jeune en 1944 (age) What was someones state of mind? -Elle tait triste (emotion, state of mind) -La chambre de Louise sentait bon (condition) What were the circumstances ? - Paris tait sous loccupation des Allemands (place).