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Dept. of Veterinary Medicine College of Vet. Science & A.H. A.A.U.

, Anand - 388001

AnKiT PaL

PERITONITIS
Inflammation of the peritoneum is accompanied by abdominal pain which varies in degree with the severity and extent of the peritonitis. Peritoneum is a membrane that covers the surface of both the organs that lie in the abdominal cavity and the inner surface of the abdominal cavity itself.

Abdomi nal Pain

Fecal Stasis

Periton itis

Toxemi a

Rigidity of Abdomi nal Wall

Classificatio n
Peritonitis

Acute local

Acute Diffuse

Chroni c

Trauma tic

Etiology

Etiology
Cattle Traumatic reticuloperitonitis Perforation or leakage of abomasal ulcer Rupture of abomasum Rumenitis subsequent to acute carbohydrate indigestion

Etiology
Cattle Hepatic abscess of black disease Injection : Sterile or non-sterile solutions Rupture during parturition or correction of dystocia Tuberculosis, sporadic bovine encephalomyelitis Rupture or erosion caused by larvae of Gastrophilus or Habronema species

Etiology
Specie s Horses Sheep Goats Pigs Dogs Cause

Infectious, chemical or parasitic injury; Caecal, colonic or gastric rupture. Intestinal abscess rupture, Oesophagostomum spp.; serositis caused by Mycoplasma spp. Serositis caused by Mycoplasma spp. Ileal perforation; Secondary to Glassers disease caused by Haemophilus suis. Feline infectious peritonitis; due to surgery, trauma or mild pancreatis; gastrointestinal ulcers, ruptured uterus, ruptured liver or prostatic abscess.

Pathogene sis

Toxemia

Shock and hemorrhage

Paralytic ileus
Rupture of GI tract with spillage of large volume of intestinal contents Reflex inhibition of alimentary tract tone and movement

Paralytic ileus or ruminal stasis or intestinal obstruction

Adhesions

Fluid accumulation
Abdominal distention

Abdominal pain

Interference in respiration

Clinical Acute Peritonitis: Findings 1.Abdominal pain


Stiff gait or recumbent

The animal guards the abdomen

Cautious gait, with a rigid, arched back Grunting - walking or when passing urine orfeces Pain response on deep palpation in cattle Pain responses in all species are mostly evident

Clinical Acute Peritonitis: Findings


2.Fever Feveris common but may be suppressed by prostaglandin inhibitors In dogs fever is a common with peritonitis In Cattle fever is typical during the first 24-36 hr in acute, local peritonitis. High fever suggests acute, diffuse peritonitis

Clinical Findings
3. Abdominal distention Due to accumulation of peritoneal exudate Hemorrhage septicemia toxemia paralytic ileus shock adhesions

4. Fluid transudationsequesters electrolytes and protein in the abdominal cavity and atonic gut, and venous stasis leads to: Hypotension Acid-base disturbances Circulatory collapse

Clinical Findings
5. Shock and Icterus Toxemia and bacteremia in generalized biliary peritonitis Animals with secondary peritonitis may also exhibit signs of the primary illness vomiting and 6.

7. AppetiteAnorexia and depression diarrhea

In large animals, anorexia may be seen in acute, diffuse peritonitis In chronic cases, tympany, ruminal contractions is weak, reduced or absent

Abdominal distention

Rupture of abdomen

Clinical Findings
8. Rectal palpation 9. In Little or no feces Tacky, dry mucosa Fibrinous adhesions between intestinal loops horses Severe colic Intestinal stasis Tachycardia Caecal rupture

Clinical Pathology Paracentesis of peritoneumCollection and examination of the peritoneal fluid

Leucopenia, neutropenia and a degenerative left shift

Diagnosis
Confirmatory diagnosis

ost reliable clinical indicators

Abdominal sonography

Reticular abscess

Abdominal paracentesis

Degenerative left shift

Differential diagnosis
Traumatic reticuloperitonitis Intestinal, splenic or hepatic obstruction Intestinal splenic or hepatic abscess

Ascites

Colic

Treatment
Stabilizing metabolic consequences Aminoglycosides, Quinolones, Cephalosporins

Initial treatment

Fluid therapy electrolyte plasma or blood

Determining nidus

Broad spectrum antibiotic therapy

Treatment

Surgical interference

Exploratory laparotomy

Abdominal drainage

Post operative management

Maintaining serum protein and electrolytes

Nutritional supplement