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Salts & Revision Naming salts The name of a salt has two parts.

The first part comes from the metal in the base or carbonate, or the metal itself if a reactive metal like magnesium or zinc is used. compound metal compound soluble in water insoluble in water

The second part of the name comes from the acid used to make it. The names of salts made from hydrochloric acid end in -chloride, while the names of salts made from sulfuric acid end in -sulfate. Formation of salts Metal sodium hydroxide copper oxide sodium hydroxide zinc oxide

reacts with reacts with reacts with reacts with

Acid hydrochloric acid hydrochloric acid sulfuric acid sulfuric acid

to make to make to make to make

Salt sodium chloride copper chloride sodium sulfate zinc sulfate

Ammonia forms ammonium salts when it reacts with acids. Therefore: ammonia reacts with hydrochloric acid to make ammonium chloride Making salts If the base dissolves in water, you need to add just enough acid to make a neutral solution check a small sample with universal indicator paper - then evaporate the water. You get larger crystals if you evaporate the water slowly. Copper oxide, and other transition metal oxides or hydroxides, do not dissolve in water. If the base does not dissolve in water, you need an extra step. You add the base to the acid until no more will dissolve and you have some base left over (called an excess). You filter the mixture to remove the excess base, then evaporate the water in the filtrate to leave the salt behind. Preparation and solubility: Salts are prepared by reacting an acid with a metal or a base, such as a metal carbonate, hydroxide or oxide. The acid provides the non-metal ion for the salt, e.g. chloride or sulphate or nitrate ions. The metal or base provides the metal ion for the salt, e.g. sodium or copper. The method used to produce a particular salt depends on two factors (i) the solubility of the base used and (ii) the solubility of the salt to be made. Since all acids are aqueous solutions the acid needed does not directly affect the method of preparation.

The following table summarises the solubilities of the various bases and salts, There are three main methods of preparing salts

Salts & Revision hydroxide oxide carbonate nitrate sulphate chloride (i) sodium, potassium, ammonium, calcium sodium, potassium, calcium (all dissolve to give hydroxide) sodium, potassium, ammonium all possible all others all others all others all others all others none lead, barium silver, lead

(ii) (iii)

for a metal or insoluble base reacting with an acid to produce a soluble salt filtration is used, e.g. reacting copper(II) oxide with sulphuric acid to make copper(II) sulphate. for a soluble base reacting with an acid to produce a soluble salt titration is used, e.g. reacting sodium hydroxide with hydrochloric acid to make sodium chloride. for an insoluble base reacting with an acid to produce an insoluble salt a two stage process involving filtration and then precipitation is used, e.g. reacting lead(II) oxide firstly with nitric acid to produce lead(II) nitrate and then reacting the lead(II) nitrate with aqueous iodide ions to produce lead(II) iodide.

Example: To prepare sodium chloride Reagents used: sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid 1. Using a pipette, transfer 25 cm3 of hydrochloric acid into a conical flask. 2. Add 2 or 3 drops of phenolphthalein indicator into the conical flask. 3. Fill a burette with sodium hydroxide. Add the sodium hydroxide dropwise into the conical flask until a pink colour is observed. Stop titration and note the volume of sodium hydroxide used. 4. Repeat the experiment again using the exact volume of hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide but this time without the indicator 5. The sodium chloride solution is heated until all the water evaporates.. 6. Crystals of sodium chloride will be formed. Method 2: For non-SPA salts, 1. Acid + Metal (Zinc, Iron and Magnesium only) Salt + Hydrogen gas 2. Acid + Insoluble Carbonate Salt + Carbon dioxide gas + water 3. Acid + Insoluble oxide Salt + water Example: Preparation of copper(II)sulfate CuCO3 (s) + H2SO4 (aq) CuSO4 (aq) + H2O (l) + CO2 (g) Reagents used: Copper(II)carbonate and sulfuric acid Step 1: Add excess copper (II) carbonate to warmed sulfuric acid [Excess solid was added to use up all the acid.] Step 2: Filter the mixture. [Filtration was carried out to remove excess unreacted solid, copper (II) carbonate] Residue: excess unreacted copper (II) carbonate Filtrate: soluble salt solution, copper (II) sulfate solution Step 3: Transfer the filtrate into an evaporating dish.Heat the solution until one-third its original volume. [Evaporation was done to remove excess water to obtain a saturated solution.]

Salts & Revision Step 4: Cool the saturated solution of copper (II) sulfate. Step 5: Filter to collect crystals and rinse with distilled water. Dry the copper (II) sulfate crystals between a few sheets of filter paper. 1. The table below lists the chemicals required to make four insoluble salts. Complete the table by adding names of suitable chemicals. Reaction No. 1 Reactants Zinc nitrate + __________________ Salt formed Zinc carbonate

______________ + potassium chloride

Silver chloride

Sodium carbonate + _______________

Copper (II) chloride

_______________ + ______________

Barium sulfate

2. A chemist sets out to prepare lead (II) chloride in the laboratory. a) Is lead (II) chloride a soluble or insoluble salt?

b) What starting chemicals would be used?

c) Describe briefly the procedure in steps he would use to obtain pure dry crystals of lead (II) chloride. Step 1 ____________________________________________________________

Step 2 ____________________________________________________________

Step 3 ______________________________________________________________

d) Write a balanced chemical equation for the reaction above.

Salts & Revision 3. Sodium chloride is a soluble salt, which can be prepared by dilute hydrochloric acid with aqueous potassium hydroxide. a) Name a suitable method to prepare potassium chloride.

b) Explain why this method is used.

c) Describe the steps involved to prepare a sample of dry and pure potassium chloride.

4. The following is an outline of one method for the preparation of calcium sulfate from calcium carbonate.

a) Name the chemicals that can be used in the reactions X and Y.

b) Explain why there is very little reaction if an attempt is made to prepare lead(II) sulphate by adding lead(II) carbonate to dilute sulphuric acid.

c) Describe how a pure dry sample of calcium sulphate can be obtained the reaction mixture formed in Y.

Salts & Revision 5. Aqueous sodium chloride can be prepared in the laboratory by titrating aqueous sodium hydroxide with dilute hydrochloric acid. (a) Write the equation, with state symbols, for the reaction.

(b) Name two pieces of apparatus used to accurately measure the volumes of the solutions used in this titration.

(c) An indicator is needed to find the volumes of acid and alkali that react together. Name a suitable indicator and give its expected colour change.

(d) Name one other salt, prepared from a different acid and alkali that can be prepared by the same method.

6. Explain the purpose of each of the five underlined instructions. Instruction heat the acid until no more dissolves filter the mixture about half its volume do not heat Purpose

7. The melting points of the oxides of the Period 3 elements are gien below: Compound Na2O Melting 1275 point/ MgO 2800 Al2O3 2045 SiO2 1800 P2O3 26 SO2 -75 Cl2O -23

(a) Briefly explain why the melting points of Al2O3 and P2O3 are so different.

Salts & Revision (b) Which oxides(s) would conduct an electric current in the liquid state?

(c) SiO2 is sometimes described to have a macromolecular structure. Explain the meaning of macromolecule.

(d) Explain, in terms of structure, why the melting points of SiO2 and P2O3 are so different.

(e) Using the dot and cross to represent the outermost electrons, draw an electronic diagram to show the bonding in Al2O3.

Salts & Revision 8. An alloy which was known to be a mixture of two metals was divided into two samples. The first sample dissolved completely in an excess of dilute acid to form a blue solution. The second sample was added to an excess of dilute sulfuric acid. A reddish brown solid and a colourless solution were formed. Addition of aqueous ammonia to this colourless solution gave a white precipitate which was soluble in an excess of aqueous ammonia. (a) Name the reddish brown solid and the blue solution. Reddish brown solid: _____________________________ Blue solution: ________________________________ (b) Explain why aluminium cannot be present in the alloy.

(c) (i) Name the white precipitate.

(ii) Write the equations for the reactions which lead to its formation.

9. Woody studied the effect of concentration on the formation of sulfur when dilute hydrochloric acid is reacted with aqueous sodium thiosulfate, Na2S2O3. In the chemical reaction, water and sulfur dioxide are also produced. The following is abrief procedure of his study. Na2S2O3 + 2HCl SO2 + H2O + 2NaCl + S 80 cm3 of 0.200 mol/dm3 aqueous sodium thiosulfate is added to a beaker and then placed on a piece of paper marked with a cross X. 10 cm3 of 2.00 mol/dm3 of dilute hydrochloric acid is added to the beaker. The stopwatch is immediately started and the mixture is stirred for approximately 10 seconds. As soon as the cross X disappears from view, the stopwatch is stopped and the time taken is recorded.

Salts & Revision

The experiment is repeated six more times using different volumes of 0.200 mol/dm3 aqueous sodium thiosulfate. The results of the experiments are tabulated in the table shown.

(a) Calculate the concentration of sodium thiosulfate, Na2S2O3 used in experiment 3. Show your working clearly.

(b) Explain the significance of 1/time (

Salts & Revision (c) Draw on graph paper, a graph of 1/time Na2S2O3 used (in mol/dm3). against concentration of

(d) Use your graph to calculate the time taken for the cross X to disappear when the concentration of Na2S2O3 is 0.075 mol/dm3. (e) From your graph, what conclusion can you draw about the effect of concentration on the formation of sulfur when dilute hydrochloric acid reacts with aqueous sodium thiosulfate?

(f) Explain using the collision theory, your answer to (e).

10. (a) The table below shows some properties of elements in Period 2 of the Periodic Table. Element Electrical conductivity of solid Boiling point/ Li Good 1342 C (graphite) Good 4000 N Poor -196

Explain theses properties in terms of bonding and structure.

(b) Explain the following observations. Write equation for any reactions that occur. (i) Little reaction occurs when an iron bar is heated to 1000 whereas iron filings immediately ignite when placed in a Bunsen flame.


When hydrogen and oxygen are mixed at room temperature there is no reaction, but if a flame is applied there is a violent explosion.

Salts & Revision 11. Complete the following table for salt preparations. (a) Name of salt Copper(II) nitrate Names of reactants Copper (II) carbonate and __________________ Barium nitrate and ___________________ Iron and ___________________ Other products (if any)

Barium sulfate

Anhydrous iron(II) chloride

(b) In a displacement reaction, 1.30g of a metal M was reacted with excess aqueous silver nitrate. After removing, washing and drying, the silver produced was found to weigh 4.32g. The equation for the reaction is M(s) + 2AgNO3(aq) M(NO3)2(aq) + 2Ag(s) (i) Explain why the silver must be washed.


Calculate the relative atomic mass of M.

12. Silver oxide reacts with dilute hydrochloric acid to produce silver chloride. (a) (i) Construct a full chemical equation for the reaction.


Explain why the above reaction will not produce a good yield of silver chloride.

Salts & Revision

(b) Starting with silver carbonate and other suitable reagents found in the laboratory, describe how a pure sample of silver chloride can be prepared

13. Study the reaction shown below which shows how crystals of a compound, commercially sold as Epsom salts, can be prepared and answer the questions that follow.

potassium Add water Alkali A + gas B

magnesium Add dilute HCl Salt C + gas B

Insoluble base D Add dilute H2SO4 and warm Salt solution E Process X Epsom salts
i) Suggest the chemical name of Epsom salts.

ii) Identify the substances A, B, C and D. iii) Write a balanced chemical equation for the reaction between potassium and water. iv) Write an ionic equation for the formation of insoluble base D. v) Epsom salts is finally obtained from solution E by Process X. Briefly describe the Process X. vi) Suggest the chemicals you would use to prepare Epsom Salts in the laboratory by a more direct method. b) You are given two white powders. Using only one other reagent, describe briefly a test that will distinguish between the powders zinc oxide, ZnO and calcium oxide, CaO.

Salts & Revision 14. a) An atom of carbon was once described by Sir James Jeans (a great populariser of science) as being like six bees buzzing around a space the size of a football stadium. i) What did the six bees in this description represent?

______________________________________________________________ ii) In terms of an atom of carbon, what stopped the bees from flying away from the space of the football stadium?

______________________________________________________________ iii) Draw a electron-in-box diagram to represent the electronic configuration of a carbon atom.


The table below gives the melting points of three fluorides. Fluoride Boron trifluoride Hydrogen fluoride Aluminium fluoride Formula BF3 HF AlF3 Melting point/C -144 -83 1291

i) Draw a dot-and-cross diagram to show the arrangement of electrons in aluminium fluoride.

ii) In terms of structure and bonding, explain why the melting points of the three fluorides are different.

________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________

Salts & Revision 15. A student thought that he could obtain two pure salts, lead (II) chloride (PbCl2) and sodium nitrate (NaNO3), from the precipitation method. The paragraphs below are the descriptions written by the student of the laboratory preparation of the two salts.

1st paragraph Aqueous lead (II) nitrate was poured into a beaker containing an equal volume of aqueous sodium chloride. After 5 minutes, the mixture was filtered. The residue left in the filter paper was transferred to another piece of filter paper and press till dryness.

2nd paragraph The filtrate was heated until it was concentrated. Crystals of sodium nitrate were formed when the solution was cooled down. The crystals were filtered off, washed and then dried by pressing them between pieces of filter paper.
a) State two omissions in the 1st paragraph description, that should be included if the experiment were to be properly conducted.

b) For one of the omissions stated in (a), give reasons why its inclusion will produce better results.

c) If the student had added 20.0 cm3 of 0.500 mol/dm3 of lead (II) nitrate to excess aqueous sodium chloride, calculate the maximum mass of lead (II) chloride that can be obtained. Include a balanced equation in your calculation. d) The first line of the 2nd paragraph shows a misconception that the student had. Correct the sentence by rewriting the sentence and replacing one word with the correct term.

e) After the experiment, the student realized that the labels had fallen off from the reagent bottles containing lead (II) nitrate and sodium chloride respectively. He looked around the laboratory desperately and managed to find these reagents: aqueous potassium manganate (VII), dilute nitric acid, aqueous barium nitrate, aqueous potassium iodide and methyl orange. Suggest how he can use one of the reagents he found to identify the unlabelled bottles.

Salts & Revision 16. a) The table below shows the values of some bond energies, measured in kilojoules per mole. Bond F-F Br-Br H-H H-F H-Br i) the answer. Bond energy (kJ/mol) 158 193 436 565 365

Which of the bonds listed above is the strongest? Explain how you deduce

ii) Calculate the enthalpy change for the reaction involving fluorine and hydrogen bromide. F2 + 2HBr 2HF + Br2

iii) Draw a labelled energy profile diagram for the reaction between fluorine and hydrogen bromide.

17. Ammonium alum is prepared by mixing aqueous solutions of ammonium sulfate and aluminium sulfate. Ammonium alum is a double salt with the formula (NH4)2SO4.Al2(SO4)3.24H2O a) What is the percentage by mass of water of crystallization in the alum?

Salts & Revision b) 500 cm3 of an aqueous solution contains 18.12 g of dissolved ammonium alum. Calculate the concentration (in mol/dm3) of sulfate ions.

18. a) Sulfur burns in oxygen to form an oxide, SOx. A molecule of SOx has equal percentages by mass of sulfur and oxygen. i) Find the value of x.


State one use of SOx


b) SOx can be oxidized to form SOy. In a molecule of SOy, the mass ratio of S:O is 2:3. Find the value of y.

Salts & Revision 19. An experiment was carried out to find the relative atomic mass of an element M by a precipitation reaction. M sulfate (aq) + barium chloride (aq) M chloride (aq) + barium sulfate (s) The following mixtures were prepared in 5 different test tubes using 1.00 mol/dm3 aqueous M sulfate and 1.00 mol/dm3 aqueous barium chloride. Test tube Volume of M sulfate/cm3 Volume of barium Volume of water/cm3 chloride/cm3 1 1.0 1.0 8.0 2 1.0 2.0 7.0 3 1.0 3.0 6.0 4 1.0 4.0 5.0 5 1.0 5.0 4.0 The test tubes were centrifuged and the heights of the precipitates formed were measured and recorded. A graph of precipitate height against volume of aqueous barium chloride added is shown below.

a) What was the volume of aqueous barium chloride that reacted with 1.0 cm3 of aqueous sulfate? _____________________________________

b) How many moles of barium chloride reacted with 1 mole of M sulfate?

c) Write an equation for the reaction.

Salts & Revision d) 1 mole of sulfate weighs 392 g. What is the relative atomic mass of the metal M?

20. When 1.45 g of sodium nitrate, NaNO3, is strongly heated, it gives 1.17 g of a pale yellow solid and 204 cm3 of a colourless gas which relights a glowing splint. [Gas measurement was conducted at room temp and pressure.] a) Calculate the number of moles of sodium nitrate being heated.

b) Calculate the number of moles of gas evolved.

c) Use your answers in (a) and (b) to complete and balance the equation for the decomposition of sodium nitrate on heating.

Salts & Revision d) The experiment was repeated under different conditions to check whether the gas evolved obeys the ideal gas law. At 110C and a pressure of 5 atm, strong heating of 1.45 g of sodium nitrate produces 25 cm3 of the colourless gas. Check, by performing calculations, whether the colourless gas obeys the ideal gas law at the stated conditions. Take R to be 8.31 JK-1mol-1

e) Under what conditions would the colourless gas behave ideally? ____________________________________________________________________