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1 M R . PA S T O R Y, PA R E S T I C O . P H D . C A N D I D AT E UDSM 2013


Process of change of a political system from a non-democratic toward a democratic one.

Non/Undemocratic regimes Do not adhere to democratic principles Political power concentrated in single individual or few persons exercising unlimited authority over the society: Examples: Totalitarian, Authoritarian, military regimes etc.

Democratization: Transition

Has two Parts: Democratic transition democratic consolidation.

Democratic transition
A process of regime change towards a democratic regime Involves building and strengthening of democratic institutions May take various modes:

Democratization: transition cont.

Stradiotto, G. A & &Guo, S (2010), Bratton, M & Nicholas, W (1997

Transition Modes Conversion Regime led reform* Military oligarchies eg. Bukinafaso, Ghana, Burundi,Guinea, Mauritania, Lethoto, Nigeria, Uganda Single party democracies eg Tz, Kenya, Zambia Cooperative A negotiated transition/pact/compromise Result of joint action by incumbent gvt. & opp. Groups
SA, Zbwe, Namibia, Angola and Mozambique

Democratization: Transition cont.


Collapse (Opp. Led/overthrow/change from

below) mass Involvement and support of the public Military unwillingness to defend old regime Egypt, Tunis, . Benin ,Congo and Niger Foreign intervention May take various forms I. Foreign military interference II. Sanctions,

Democratization: Consolidation

Democratic Consolidation
A successful democratic transition/an institutionalized/ consolidated democracy Measures for assessing democratic development/consolidation

Democratic Consolidation: Measures


Mukandala (2001) has analyzed and discussed various measures 1. The second election test. 2. Alternation of power hypothesis 3. Longevity test 4. 4.Democracy as the only game in town All these measures except the fourth have been proven false

Democratic Consolidation: Measures


Dahl/Held/Sorensens model High level of political competition High level of political participation Guarantee of civil & pol. Liberties Afrobarometer Model (2009)

When a balance between demand and supply for democracy is sustained*

Democratic Consolidation: Measures


Bakari & Mushi (2006) They suggest 6 indicators of a consolidated democracy 1. Presence

of formal structure of liberal democracy political pluralism: multiparty constitution, several political parties &CSOs 2. A civil society engaged with the state: Civil society state-relationship

Democratic Consolidation: Measures


3. Presence of a struggle for democracy by civil society groups, political parties etc. Is there a pro-democracy movement? 4. Strength of political parties, their power basis and relations with CSOs 5. Consensus of basic rules of the game 6. State toleration of pluralism. state must recognize and accept pluralism in its various forms*

Democratic Consolidation: Measures


IDEA Framework ( I thought it should be here rather than placing it after assessment of the state of democracy . I have not yet gone through the reading other than the summary you sent me. However we can still skip it and introduce it later and ask students to examine whether it is providing a good framework for analyzing the quality of democracy compared to the other measures discussed before.

Democracy in Africa
12 T H E S TAT E O F D E M O C R A C Y I N A F R I C A

An Overview of Democratization Process in Africa


When did democratization start? What were the forces? What were the key features of regime transition in Africa? What is the state of democratization today? Has the transition process advanced/consolidated/back-slided or is it at a cross road?

What are the challenges?

Democratization Process in Africa


Transition to Democracy in Africa began during the Third Wave*

Broad and pronounced political change (in SSA) began in 1990 Transition to democracy was mainly rationalized along two major lines
Overcoming Political instability Promoting Development

Democratization process in Africa cont.


Predominant political arrangements before liberalization (Bratton, M & Nicholas, W 1997


Plebiscitary one-party system (16) Military oligarchy (11) Competitive one-party system (13) Settler oligarchy (2) The multiparty system (5)

Democratization process in Africa 16 cont.

Fig3. Predominant political arrangements in the post colonial Africa

Source: Bratton,

M & Nicholas, W 1997 Chp.2

Democratization Process in Africa cont.


Key Features of regime transition in Africa Political instability

Resistance of incumbency to accept defeat Resistance to open-up for democratic reforms

Rapid transitions without institutionalization of procedures of popular governance

Eg. 35 Cs btn. 1990-94, key political events taking roughly 1yr In Many countries constitutions remained largely the same

Democratic reversal & Military intervention

Institutional and election manipulation Military intervention eg 1:4* countries since 1989-2002,

The State of Democracy in Africa cont.


Mukandala, 2001 There still numerous undemocratic practices in many Cs

In most cases elections have been characterized by unequal playing fields in which the ruling party hold all critical resources

Elections are governed by bad constitutions and laws, managed by partisan and subjective electoral commissions, Characterized by vote ringing and violence

New regimes behaving like old one-wanting to serve longer periods than constitutionally allowed A case of Wades Senegal? No one can guarantee regime change to occur very easily even in those Cs it has occurred before eg. Kibakis Kenya In most countries the quality of democracy is diminished by one party dominance
Pastory_Parestico MUCE2012

The State of Democracy in Africa cont.


Afrobarometer study (2008),

No consolidated democracies in Africa. It is characterized by:
A diversity of political regimes Most of the regimes are unconsolidated hybrid systems; (ie. citizens demand more democracy than what they get) eg. Kenya, Zimbabwe, Zambia) and, Some political regimes are consolidating, but not always as democracies (eg. Botswana, Ghana).

The State of Democracy in Africa cont.


Larry, 2010 Between 1990-2005 six presidents including Museven succeeded to lift term limits (Larry 2010)
Africa remains the most badly governed regions in the world

Most countries suffering a concentration of power in the office of the president A limited guarantee of Civil liberties, weak opposition rights, elections riddled with malpractices

Pastory_Parestico MUCE2012

The State of Democracy in Africa: General Conclusions


Implementation of liberal democratic project is not fairing well in Africa Democracy is not yet the only game in town Africa still has a long way to go to achieve liberal democratic aspirations The transition process in many countries is at the cross-road Very few Countries considered doing better Ghana, SA, Botswana, Mali
Pastory_Parestico MUCE2012

The State of Democracy in Africa cont.


Positive developments Attitudes towards support of democracy in Africa is increasing, Most countries have adopted presidential term limits, a number have successfully resisted efforts by incumbents to lift them. End of one party rule-Electoral democracy is now taking place though characterized by many fouls.

Pastory_Parestico MUCE2012

Democratization in Africa: Challenges


Why is Democracy not fairing well in Africa? Contradiction between formal institutions and traditional norms
Neo-patrimonialism (Larry, 2008; Bratton &Walle, 1997)

Historical legacies esp. colonial legacy (Mukandala, 2001)

Preferring non-threatening politics Seperation of political movement form social movements

The nature of democracy being implemented (liberal democracy) is not suitable for Africa (Ake, 1993, Mukandala Ibid.)
Pastory_Parestico MUCE2012

Democratization in Africa: Challenges cont.


Democratizing while struggling development (Ake, 1993)



Building democracy through donor financing (dependent) choice vs conditions

Democratization in Africa: A way Forward


According to Claude Ake, Democracy is not only a question of desirability or even necessity but also feasibility. Africa require more than liberal democracy. It requires: Democracy in which people have some real power of decision making and above the formal consent of electoral choice.
A powerful legislative Decentralization of power to local democratic institutions Development of institutions of interest articulation and aggregation
Pastory_Parestico MUCE2012

LU8&9 The State of Democracy in Africa


A social democracy that places emphasizes on socialpolitical and economic rights as opposed to liberal emphasizes on abstract political rights
Democracy that invests heavily in improvement of peoples health, education and capacity to participate effectively

A democracy that emphasizes on collective rights as it does on individual rights Democracy of incorporation of mass organization in legislature- special representation-youth, women labour movements
Pastory_Parestico MUCE2013