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Devender Mahajan

Table of Contents
Internet.................................................................................................................................. 3

How the Internet Began ........................................................................................................ 3

What’s on the Internet? ......................................................................................................... 3

Servers and Clients ............................................................................................................... 4

Web Server and Web Browser .............................................................................................. 4

Protocol................................................................................................................................. 4

Web Pages and HTML .......................................................................................................... 5

HTML Reference................................................................................................................... 6

Frames................................................................................................................................ 17

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Internet

The Internet is a computer network that connects millions of computers globally and provides world-
wide communications to businesses, homes, schools, and governments.
The Internet has grown explosively in the 1990s. There are now more than twelve million server
computers on the Internet, each providing some type of information or service. Perhaps the most
popular Internet service, the World Wide Web, has accelerated the growth of the Internet by giving it
an easy to use, point and click, graphical interface. Users are attracted to the World Wide Web
because it is interactive, because it is easy to use, and because it combines graphics, text, sound,
and animation into a rich communications medium.

How the Internet Began


The beginning of Internet technology ca be traced to 1969, when the Advanced Research Projects
Agency, funded by the U.S. Department of Defense, conducted research on networking. Their goal
was to design a network that allowed computers on different types of networks to communicate with
each other.
The Internet was designed to interconnect the different types of networks and allow information to
move freely among users, regardless of the machines or networks they used. It did this by adding
special computers, called routers, to connect LANs and WANs of different types. The connected
computers needed a common protocol, a shared set of rules describing how to transmit data. The
new networking protocol was called TCP/IP. Together, TCP/IP and the system of connected networks
formed the Internet.
What’s on the Internet?
Here are some of the popular services on the Internet:
FTP FTP (File Transfer Protocol)is an Internet service that transfers files from one
computer to another.
Electronic Electronic mail is the postal system of the Internet. It lets you send text messages to
mail any recipient that has an e-mail address.
Bulletin Bulletin boards, also called newsgroups or discussion groups, work similarly to
boards electronic mail. However, instead of writing messages to individual users, participants
in a bulletin board post their messages to a news server.
Gopher Gopher is an Internet browsing service organized as a series of menus. Gopher menu
items can be files on the current server or they can point to menus on other Gopher
servers.
World Wide The World Wide Web is the most popular and fastest growing Internet service. It uses
Web hypertext links called hyperlinks to locate and retrieve pages from World Wide Web
servers. World Wide Web pages combine sound, graphics, animation, text, and
software programs into dynamic documents.
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Servers and Clients
Every computer program that communicates on the Internet is either a server or a client.
A server offers a service to other machines on the network. For example, a file server contains files of
interest to users around the network — the service it offers is the storage and retrieval of the files.

A client requests a service from a server. Most services are designed so that specialized client
software must be running to interact with the server. For example, to get a file from a file server, a
client program on your machine must format and send the request to a program running on the
server.
Web Server and Web Browser
Web server A computer that is maintained by a system administrator or Internet service provider
(ISP) and that responds to requests from a user's browser.
Web browser: A client application that fetches and displays Web pages and other World Wide Web
resources to the user. Microsoft Internet Explorer and Netscape Navigator are two most popular Web
browsers.
Protocol
Protocol is a set of rules and conventions for sending information over a network. These rules govern
the content, format, timing, sequencing, and error control of messages exchanged among network
devices.
TCP/IP
TCP/IP is the software used on the Internet to pass information from machine to machine and from
network to network. It contains two components, Internet Protocol (IP) and Transmission Control
Protocol (TCP).
IP breaks up information and puts it into software packets that can move across networks. A
computer that wants to send information on the Internet uses IP to divide the information into packets.
A computer that receives information reassembles it from the packets it receives.
TCP works with the IP protocol to guarantee that information is transmitted correctly across the
Internet. The TCP software makes sure that the packets of information get properly reassembled
when they reach their Internet destination. TCP also requests that lost or damaged packets be resent
to the destination computer.
IP Addressing
Each computer on the Internet is assigned a unique numerical address, called its IP address. Each
packet moving around the Internet contains the IP addresses of the sender computer and the
destination computer. Using the IP addresses, the routers move the packets across the Internet until
they reach their destination machines.
URLs
A Uniform Resource Locator (URL) gives the location of a file on the World Wide Web and also
identifies the Internet service, such as FTP or the World Wide Web that will handle the file. When a
hyperlink is inserted on a page, the destination of the hyperlink is encoded as a URL.

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 The first part of a URL is the protocol, which tells a Web browser the Internet service that will
handle the file. Some of the protocols are:
ftp This indicates that the file is on an FTP server. A sample ftp URL is
ftp://ftp.microsoft.com/file.doc
mailto This indicates a person’s e-mail address. A sample mailto URL is
mailto:someone@microsoft.com. When a user clicks a mailto URL, the Web
browser opens an e-mail form addressed to the specified person.
file This indicates that the file is in the file system of a computer on the network. A
sample file URL is which indicates that the file is on the network computer
sample.host. The URL file:///dir/file.doc does not specify a computer. It indicates
that the file is on the same computer as the Web browser.
file://sample.host/file.doc
http This indicates that the file is on a World Wide Web server. A sample http URL is
http://www.microsoft.com/index.htm
 The second part of an http URL is the network location, which is a unique name that identifies
an Internet server. A network location has two or more parts, separated by periods, as in
www.microsoft.com
 The third part of an http URL is the path. The path identifies the folders containing the file. If a
file is stored in the root folder of a server, its URL will not have a path.
 The fourth part of an http URL is the file name. If there is no file name, the Web browser looks
for a default page, usually named index.htm
 After the file name, an http URL can have a bookmark (A named location on a page that can
be the target of a hyperlink). When a Web browser hyperlinks to a bookmark, it displays the
page starting at the location of the bookmark. In a URL, a bookmark is preceded by a hash
(#) sign character
Any URL can be absolute or relative. An absolute URL is the full Internet address of a page or file,
including the protocol, network location, and optional path and file name. For example,
h t t p : / / w w w . m i c r o s o f t . c o m / n e w s . h t m is an absolute URL.
A relative URL is a URL with one or more of its parts missing. Web browsers take the missing
information from the page containing the URL. For example, if the protocol is missing, the Web
browser uses the protocol of the current page.
Web Pages and HTML
The basic document of the World Wide Web is a page. Pages are written in an evolving language
called HTML (Hypertext Markup Language).
HTML stands for HyperText Markup Language. It is a simple markup language used to define the
structure and organization of a document in order to create documents which are portable from one
environment to another. Tags are used to mark each separate element in a document. Usually
there will be a start tag and an end tag for each element. Tags are enclosed by angle brackets
< t a g n a m e > and end tags also include a forward slash < / t a g n a m e > . Along with describing the
structural relationships among page elements, some HTML tags also contain attributes. Attributes
provide details about a particular tag. The tags are used by browsers to format and present the
document on screen and in a printed format.
Every HTML document consists of
 The HTML identifier < H T M L > which includes
 A header < H E A D > tag to contain tags which identify information about a document such as its
title, author, usage etc.
 A body < B O D Y > tags to contain tags which hold the text and graphics of a document.

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Structure of Web Page
<HTML>
<HEAD>
<TITLE>document title</TITLE>
</HEAD>
<BODY>
<! -- Body -- >
</BODY>
</HTML>
The < T I T L E > tag specifies the title of the document that will be show on the title bar of web browser.
If omitted, the complete filename is printed on the title bar.
Sample Web Page
<HTML>
<HEAD>
<TITLE>Sample Web page</TITLE>
</HEAD>
<BODY>
<H1>Welcome to Web page designing</H1>
<P> The basic document of the World Wide Web is a page. Pages
are written in an evolving language called HTML (Hypertext
Markup Language). </P>
<P>HTML stands for HyperText Markup Language. It is a simple
markup language used to define the structure and organization
of a document in order to create documents which are portable
from one environment to another. <B><I>Tags are used to mark
each separate element in a document. </B></I> </P>
</BODY>
</HTML>
The output of above HTML list may look like:

HTML Reference
Top Level Document Tag
 <HTML> Tag
The < H T M L > tag identifies that the document contains HTML elements; it is required for all HTML
documents. It usually contains only the HEAD and BODY elements.
<HTML>
</HTML>

Tags Used To Describe A Document


 <HEAD> Tag (Document Head)
The head contains tags which identify information about a document such as its title, usage etc. The
head must contain a T I T L E but all other head elements are optional.
Syntax
<HEAD>
</HEAD>

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The following tags are valid in this element:
BASE Specifies an explicit URL used to resolve links and references to external sources such
as images and style sheets
Syntax
<BASE HREF=url TARGET=win_name|_blank|_parent|_search|_self| _top>
LINK Enables the current document to establish links to external documents.
Syntax
<LINK DISABLED HREF=url ID=value MEDIA=SCREEN|PRINT|ALL
REL=STYLESHEET REV=STYLESHEET TITLE=text>
META Conveys hidden information about the document to the server and the client.
Syntax
<META CONTENT=description HTTP-EQUIV=response NAME=text>
SCRIPT Specifies a script for the page that is interpreted by a script engine.
Syntax
<SCRIPT EVENT=eventname FOR=elementID=value
LANGUAGE=JAVASCRIPT|JSCRIPT|VBSCRIPT| SRC=url>
</SCRIPT>
The S C R I P T element requires a closing tag
STYLE Specifies a style sheet for the page.
Syntax
<STYLE DISABLED MEDIA = SCREEN|PRINT|ALL> </STYLE>
The S T Y L E element should appear in the H E A D section of an HTML document. The
S T Y L E element is a block element and requires a closing tag.
TITLE Contains the title of the document.
Syntax
<TITLE> string </TITLE>
Remarks
Any text between the opening and closing T I T L E tags displays in the browser title bar.
The T I T L E element is a block element and requires a closing
The HEAD element requires a closing tag.
Example: A HEAD section of a web page might look this:
<HEAD>
<TITLE>Explore Your Mind</TITLE>
<META NAME="Description" CONTENT="Confidential Report">
<META NAME="Keywords" CONTENT="Knowledge, education, Intelligence ">
</HEAD>

Tags Used For the Contents of a Document


 <BODY> (Body)
The body contains tags, which hold the text and graphics of a document. Container tags like headings
and paragraphs must contain all text within the body. Following attributes could be set for < B O D Y > tag.
Syntax
<BODY att_list>
</BODY>
Attributes
ALINK="#rrggbb|color" Sets the color of all active links.
BACKGROUND="url" Sets the background picture tiled behind the text and graphics
on the page.
BGCOLOR="#rrggbb|color" Sets retrieves the background color
BGPROPERTIES="Fixed|Scroll" Sets the properties of the background picture.
LINK="#rrggbb|color" Sets the color of the document links
TEXT="#rrggbb|color" Sets the text (foreground) color for the document body.
VLINK="#rrggbb|color" Sets the color of links that have already been visited.

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Example: In following example BODY tag will set background color as ‘beige’ and text color as
‘brown’:
<BODY bgcolor = „beige‟text = „brown‟>
<H1>Hello World</H1>
</BODY>

 <Hn> (Heading Tag)


The <Hn> tag renders text in heading style. Use H1 through H6 to specify different sizes and styles of
headings.
The Hn element is a block element and requires a closing tag.
Syntax
<Hn ALIGN=CENTER|LEFT|RIGHT|JUSTIFY ID=value STYLE=style
TITLE=text>Heading</Hn>
Attributes
ALIGN Sets the alignment of the <Hn> relative to the display or table.
ID Sets the string identifying the <Hn>.
TITLE Sets advisory information (a ToolTip) for the <Hn>.
Example: This example uses the H 1 element to apply a level-1 heading style to the contained text.
<H1>Welcome to Internet Explorer! </H1>

Text Block Elements


 <P> (Paragraph Tag)
The < P > tag indicates a paragraph in a doument. The <P> element is a block element and does not
require a closing tag.
Syntax
<P ALIGN=CENTER|LEFT|RIGHT|JUSTIFY ID=value TITLE=text>paragrap h-text</P>
Attributes
ALIGN Sets the alignment of the <P> relative to the display or table.
ID Sets the string identifying the <P>.
TITLE Sets advisory information (a ToolTip) for the <P>.
 <BR> (Line Break tag)
The <BR> tag inserts a line break in continuous text and prevents text alignment around images.
Syntax
<BR CLEAR=ALL |LEFT | RIGHT ID=value TITLE=text >
Attributes
CLEAR Sets the side on which floating objects are not to be positioned when a line break
is inserted into the document.
ID Sets the string identifying the <BR>.
TITLE Sets advisory information (a ToolTip) for the <P>.
 <ADDRESS> (Address tag)
The < A D D R E S S > tag specifies information, such as address, signature, and authorship, of the current
document. The < A D D R E S S > element is a block element and requires a closing tag
Syntax
<ADDRESS ALIGN=CENTER|LEFT|RIGHT ID=value TITLE=text>address</ADDRESS>
Attributes
ALIGN Sets the alignment of the <ADDRESS> relative to the display or table.
ID Sets the string identifying the <ADDRESS>.
TITLE Sets advisory information (a ToolTip) for the <ADDRESS>.
Example: This example uses the ADDRESS element to italicize text.
<ADDRESS>This text will be italic</ADDRESS>

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 <BLOCKQUOTE> (Blockquote tag)
The < B L O C K Q U O T E > tag sets left and right indentation of a quotation in text and is useful for quoting a
direct source within a document. The < B L O C K Q U O T E > element is a block element and requires a
closing tag.
<BLOCKQUOTE ID=value TITLE=text>quote-text</BLOCKQUOTE>
Attributes
ID Sets the string identifying the <ADDRESS>.
TITLE Sets advisory information (a ToolTip) for the <ADDRESS>.

Font Style Elements


 <FONT> (Font Tag)
The < F O N T > tag specifies a new font, size, and color to be used for rendering the enclosed text. The
< F O N T > element requires a closing tag.
Syntax
<FONT COLOR=color FACE=font SIZE=n>text</FONT>
Attributes
COLOR Sets the color to be used by the <FONT>.
FACE Sets the current typeface family.
SIZE Sets the font size of the <FONT>.
 Misellaneous Formatting tags
TAGS DESCRIPTION
<B> (Bold tag) Specifies that the text should be rendered in bold. The <B> element
Syntax: is an inline element and requires a closing tag.
<B>text</B>
<I> (Italics tag) Specifies that the text should be rendered in italics. The <I> element
Syntax: is an inline element and requires a closing tag.
<I>text</I>
<U> (Underline) Specifies that the text should be rendered in underline. The <U>
Syntax element is an inline element and requires a closing tag.
<U>text</U>
<SUB> (Subscript) Specifies that the enclosed text should be displayed in subscript,
Syntax using a smaller font than the current font. The < S U B > element is an
<SUB>text</SUB> inline element and requires a closing tag.
<SUP> (Superscript) Specifies that the enclosed text should be displayed in superscript,
Syntax using a smaller font than the current font. The < S U P > element is an
<SUP>text</SUP> inline element and requires a closing tag.
<S> (Strike through) Specifies that the enclosed text should be rendered text in strike-
Syntax through type. The < S > element is an inline element and requires a
<S>text</S> closing tag. You can use < S T R I K E > tag for the same purpose.

<BIG> (Big print) Specifies that the enclosed text should be displayed in a larger font
Syntax than the current font. The < B I G > element is an inline element and
<BIG>text</BIG> requires a closing tag.

<SMALL> (Small print) Specifies that the enclosed text should be displayed in a smaller font.
Syntax The < S M A L L > element is an inline element and requires a closing
<SMALL>text</SMALL> tag.

<PRE> (Preformatted Text) Specifies that the enclosed text should be rendered text in fixed-
Syntax width font. The < P R E > element is an inline element and requires a
<PRE>text</PRE> closing tag.
<TT> (Teletype) Specifies that the enclosed text should be rendered text in fixed-

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Syntax width font. The < T T > element is an inline element and requires a
<TT>text</TT> closing tag.
<EM> (Emphasis) Specifies that the enclosed text should be rendered text in italics.
Syntax The < E M > element is an inline element and requires a closing tag.
<TT>text</TT>
<STRONG> (Strong) Specifies that the enclosed text should be rendered text in bold. The
Syntax < S T R O N G > element is an inline element and requires a closing tag.
<STRONG>text</TT>
Example: This example use <FONT> tag to set new font of the selection
<FONT FACE = “Arial” SIZE = 3>Arial font with size no. 3</FONT>

PLACING PICTURES/VIDEO
 <IMG> (Image Tag)
The <IMG> embeds an image or a video clip in the document. The IMG element is an inline element
and does not require a closing tag.
Syntax:
<IMG ALT=text BORDER=n HEIGHT=n ID=value LOOP=n LOWSRC=url SRC=url WIDTH=n
ALIGN=ABSBOTTOM|ABSMIDDLE|BASELINE|BOTTOM|LEFT|MIDDLE|RIGHT|TEXTTOP|TOP>
Attributes
ALIGN Sets how the < I M G > is aligned with adjacent text.
ALT Sets a text alternative to the < I M G > .
BORDER Sets the width of the border to be drawn around the < I M G > .
HEIGHT Sets the height of the < I M G > .
LOOP Sets the number of times a sound or video clip will loop when activated.
LOWSRC Sets a lower resolution image to display.
SRC Sets a URL to be loaded by the < I M G > .
WIDTH Sets the calculated width of the < I M G > .
Example: This example uses the IMG element to embed a bitmap image (.bmp file) on a page
<IMG SRC=mygraphic.bmp>

List Elements
 <OL> (Ordered List tag)
The < O L > tag draws lines of text as a numbered list. The <OL> element is a block element and
requires a closing tag
Syntax
<OL START=n TYPE= stype >
Attributes
START=n Sets the starting number for an ordered list.
TYPE=stype Sets the style of the list
1 Associate numbers with each item in an ordered list.
a Associate lowercase letters with each item in an ordered list.
A Associate uppercase letters with each item in an ordered list.
i Associate Roman numerals with each item in an ordered list.
I Associate Roman numerals with each item in an ordered list.
Example: This example uses the < O L > element to create a numbered list.
<OL>
<LI>This is the first item in the list.
<LI>And this is the second item in the list.
</OL>

<OL START=3>
<LI>This is item number 3.
</OL>

<OL TYPE=A>
<LI>This is item A.
</OL>

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 <UL> (Unordered List tag)
The < U L > tag draws lines of text as a bulleted list. The < U L > element inherits its line-height from the
height of the font attribute for the BODY. The < U L > element is a block element and requires a closing
tag
Syntax
<UL imagesrc = url TYPE=DISC|CIRCLE|SQUARE>
Attributes
IMAGESRC=url Sets the url as picture bullet for the list
TYPE=stype
Sets the style of the list
DISC Associate solid disc with each item in an ordered list.
CIRCLE Associate hollow circle with each item in an ordered list.
SQUARE Associate solid square with each item in an ordered list.
Example: This example uses the UL element to create a bulleted list.
<UL>
<LI>This is the first bulleted item in the list.
<LI>And this is the second bulleted item in the list.
</UL>

 <LI> (List Item tag)


The < L I > tag denotes one item in a list and is used with < O L > and < U L > tags.
Syntax: < L I T Y P E = t y p e >
The < L I > element is an inline element and does not require a closing tag.
 <DL> (Definition List tag)
The < D L > tag denotes a definition list.
Syntax: < D L T I T L E = t y p e >
The < D L > element is a block element and requires a closing tag.
 <DT> (Definition Term tag)
The < D T > tag Indicates a definition term within a definition list.
Syntax: < D T T I T L E = t e x t >
The DT element is a block element and does not require a closing tag.
 <DD> (Definition Description tag)
The < D D > indicates the definition in a definition list. The definition is usually indented in the definition
list. The < D D > element is a block element and does not require a closing tag
Syntax: < D D N O W R A P T I T L E = t e x t >
Attributes
NOWRAP Sets the browser automatically performs wordwrap.
TITLE Sets advisory information (a ToolTip) for the <DD>
Example: This example uses the <DL> element with the <DD> and <DT> elements to create a
definition list.
<DL>
<DT>Cat
<DD>A small domesticated mammal.
<DT>Lizard
<DD>A reptile generally found in dry areas.
</DL>

Information Type Elements


Tag Description
<CITE> (Citation) Indicates a citation by rendering text in italic. A citation is a reference to a
Syntax: book, paper, or other published source material. The <C I T E > element is
<CITE>text</CITE> an inline element and requires a closing tag
<CODE> (Code) Specifies a code sample. The < C O D E > element is an inline element and
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Syntax: requires a closing tag
<CODE>text</CODE>

<DFN> (Definition) Indicates the defining instance of a term. The <DFN> element is an inline
Syntax: element and requires a closing tag
<DFN>text</DFN>
<KBD> (Keyboard) Renders text in a fixed-width font. The <KBD> element is an inline
Syntax: element and requires a closing tag
<KBD>text</KBD>
<Q> (Short Quote) Sets apart a quotation in text. The <Q> element is an inline element and
Syntax: requires a closing tag
<Q>text</Q>
<SAMP> (Sample) Specifies a code sample. The <SAMP> element is an inline element and
Syntax: requires a closing tag
<DFN>text</DFN>

Tables
 <TABLE> (Table)
The < T A B L E > specifies that the contained content is organized into a table with rows and columns.
Syntax
<TABLE ALIGN=CENTER|LEFT|RIGHT BACKGROUND=url BGCOLOR=color
BORDER=n BORDERCOLOR=color CELLPADDING=n CELLSPACING=n
COLS=n HEIGHT=n RULES= ALL|COLS|GROUPS|NONE|ROWS WIDTH=n >
The following tags are valid within a table: < C A P T I O N > , < C O L > , < T B O D Y > , < T D > , < T F O O T > ,
< T H > , < T H E A D > , and < T R > . The TABLE element is a block element and requires a closing tag.
Attributes
ALIGN Sets or retrieves the table alignment.
BACKGROUND Sets the background picture tiled behind the text and graphics in the < T A B L E > .
BGCOLOR Sets the background color behind the < T A B L E > .
BORDER Sets the width of the border to be drawn around the < T A B L E > .
BORDERCOLOR Sets the border color of the < T A B L E > .
CELLPADDING Sets the amount of space between the border of the cell and the content of the cell.
CELLSPACING Sets the amount of space between cells in a table.
COLS Sets the number of columns in the table.
HEIGHT Sets the height of the < T A B L E > .
RULES Sets which dividing lines (inner borders) are displayed.
WIDTH Sets the calculated width of the < T A B L E > .
 <CAPTION> (Caption tag)
The < C A P T I O N > specifies a brief description for a table. The < C A P T I O N > element should be a child of
the TABLE element. The CAPTION element is a block element and requires a closing tag
Syntax:
<CAPTION ALIGN=BOTTOM|CENTER|LEFT|RIGHT|TOP VALIGN=BOTTOM|TOP>
The CAPTION element is a block element and requires a closing tag.
 <COL> (Column Tag)
The < C O L > specifies column-based defaults for the table properties.
Syntax
<COL ALIGN=CENTER|LEFT|RIGHT SPAN=n BGCOLOR = color
VALIGN=BASELINE|BOTTOM|MIDDLE|TOP WIDTH=n>
The < C O L > element is a block element and does not require a closing tag

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Attributes
ALIGN Sets the alignment of the < C O L > relative to the display or table.
BGCOLOR Sets the background color behind the < C O L > .
VALIGN Sets the vertical alignment of the contents within the < CO L > .
WIDTH Sets the calculated width of the < C O L > .
 <TBODY> (Table body tag)
The < T B O D Y > designates rows as the body of the table.
Valid tags within the < T B O D Y > element include: < T D > , <T H > and < T R >
Syntax
<TBODY ALIGN=CENTER|LEFT|RIGHT SPAN=n BGCOLOR = color
VALIGN=BASELINE|BOTTOM|MIDDLE|TOP >
Attributes
ALIGN Sets the alignment of the < T B O D Y > relative to the display or table.
BGCOLOR Sets the background color behind the < T B O D Y > .
VALIGN Sets the vertical alignment of the contents within the < TB O D Y > .
This element is exposed for all tables, even if the table does not explicitly define a TBODY element.
The < T B O D Y > element is a block element and requires a closing tag
 <TR> <TH> <TD> (Table CellTag)
 The < T R > specifies a row in a cell
 The < T H > specifies a header column. Header columns are centered within the cell and are
bold
 The < T D > specifies a cell in a table.
Syntax
<TR|TH|TD ALIGN=CENTER|LEFT|RIGHT BACKGROUND=url BGCOLOR=color BORDER=n
BORDERCOLOR=color COLUMSPAN=n HEIGHT=n ROWSPAN=n WIDTH=n
VALIGN=BASELINE|BOTTOM|MIDDLE|TOP >
The < T R > , <TH> and <TD> element are block element s and require closing tag.
Attributes
ALIGN Sets the cell alignment.
BACKGROUND Sets the background picture tiled behind the text and graphics
BGCOLOR Sets the background.
BORDER Sets the width of the border to be drawn around.
BORDERCOLOR Sets the border color.
COLSPAN Sets the number columns in the TABLE that the cell should span.
HEIGHT Sets the height.
ROWSPAN Sets how many rows in a TABLE the cell should span.
WIDTH Sets the calculated width.
VALIGN Sets the vertical alignment of the contents.

xample: This example uses the < T A B L E > element with < T H E A D > , <TR>, and < T H > to create a table
with three rows and two columns.
<TABLE BORDER=1 WIDTH=80%>
<THEAD>
<TR>
<TH>Heading 1</TH>
<TH>Heading 2</TH>
</TR>
</THEAD>
<TBODY>
<TR>
<TD>Row 1, Column 1 text.</TD>
<TD>Row 1, Column 2 text.</TD>
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</TR>
<TR>
<TD>Row 2, Column 1 text.</TD>
<TD>Row 2, Column 2 text.</TD>
</TR>
</TBODY>
</TABLE>

Forms
A form is a collection of form fields on a page along with a form handler, a method of collecting
information from the form. Forms are a key to making your FrontPage web interactive.
Forms enable client-side users to submit data to a server in a standardized format. The creator of a
form designs the form to collect the required data using a variety of controls, such as I N P U T or
S E L E C T . Users viewing the form fill in the data and then click the Submit button to send the data to the
server. A script on the server then processes the data.
Each control element's N A M E attribute must be defined if the data is to be submitted with the form. An
element in a form can be referenced by the N A M E property or the I D property, or through the elements
collection.
The uses of forms on the World Wide Web are always evolving. Some typical uses are:
To collect names, addresses, telephone numbers, e-mail addresses, and other information to
register users for a service or event.
 To collect feedback about a Web site.
 To gather information for the purchase of an item or service.
 To moderate a discussion forum about a topic of your choice
 <FORM> (Form)
The < F O R M > tag specifies that the contained controls take part in a form.
Syntax
<FORM ACTION=url METHOD=GET|POST NAME=name>
The < F O R M > element is a block element and requires a closing tag
Attributes
ACTION Sets the URL to which the FORM content is to be sent for processing.
Sets how to send the form data to the server.
GET Append the arguments to the action URL and open it as if it
METHOD
were an anchor.
POST Send the data through an HTTP post transaction
NAME Sets the name of the control, bookmark, or application.
 <INPUT> (Form Input)
The < I N P U T > tag creates a variety of form input controls.
Syntax
<INPUT ALIGN=LEFT|CENTER|RIGHT ALT=text DISABLED
MAXLENGTH=n NAME=name READONLY SIZE=n
TYPE=BUTTON|CHECKBOX|FILE|HIDDEN|IMAGE|PASSWORD|RADIO
|RESET|SUBMIT|TEXT
VALUE=value>
The < I N P U T > element controls are inline elements and do not require a closing tag.
Example: This example uses the INPUT element to create different types of input controls.
<FORM ACTION="http://intranet/survey" METHOD=POST>
<P>Name</P>
<BR><INPUT NAME="CONTROL1" TYPE=TEXT VALUE="Your Name">
<P>Password</P>
<BR><INPUT TYPE="PASSWORD" NAME="CONTROL2">
<P>Color</P>
<BR><INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="CONTROL3" VALUE="0" CHECKED>Red
<INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="CONTROL3" VALUE="1">Green
<INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="CONTROL3" VALUE="2">Blue
<P>Comments</P>
<BR><INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="CONTROL4" SIZE="20,5" MAXLENGTH="250">
<P><INPUT NAME="CONTROL5" TYPE=CHECKBOX CHECKED>Send receipt</P>
<P><INPUT TYPE="SUBMIT" VALUE="OK"><INPUT TYPE="RESET" VALUE="Reset"></P>

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</FORM>
Attributes
DISABLED Sets the status of a control or style.
MAXLENGTH Sets the maximum number of characters that the user can enter into a text control.
NAME Sets the name of the control, bookmark, or application.
READONLY Sets whether the content of the object is read-only.
SIZE Sets the size of the control.
TYPE Sets the type of intrinsic control represented by the <INPUT type=text>.
VALUE Sets or retrieves the value of the <INPUT type=text>.
TYPE
The T Y P E attribute of < F O R M > tag sets the type of intrinsic control represented by the object
Button Creates a button control.
checkbox Creates a checkbox for simple Boolean attributes or for attributes that can take
multiple values at the same time. The default value is on.
File Creates a file upload object.
Hidden Creates a control hidden from the user, but the value of the value property is sent
with the submitted form.
password Creates a control similar to the text control, except that text is not displayed as the
user enters it.
Radio Creates radio buttons used for mutually exclusive sets of values. Each radio
button control in the group should be given the same name. Radio buttons require
an explicit value property.
Reset Creates a button that resets the form's controls to their specified initial values.
Submit Creates a button that submits the form’s data in a name/value pair format.
Text Creates a single-line text-entry control. Use the value in conjunction with the size
and maxLength properties.
 SELECT (Option tag)
The < S E L E C T > tag denotes a list box or drop-down list.
Syntax
<SELECT DISABLED MULTIPLE NAME=name SIZE=n>
The < S E L E C T > element is an inline element and requires a closing tag.
Attributes
DISABLED Sets the status of a control or style.
MULTIPLE Sets whether multiple items can be selected from a list.
NAME Sets the name of the control, bookmark, or application.
SIZE Sets the size of the control.

 OPTION (Choices tag)


The < O P T I O N > denotes one choice in a S E L E C T element.
Syntax
<OPTION SELECTED VALUE=value>
The < O P T I O N > element does not require a closing tag
 <TEXTAREA> (Multiline text box control)
The < T E X T A R E A > tag specifies a multiline text input control.
Syntax
<TEXTAREA COLS=n DISABLED NAME=name READONLY ROWS=n WRAP=OFF|HARD|SOFT>

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Attributes
COLS Sets the width of the <TEXTAREA>.
ROWS Sets the number of horizontal rows contained in the <TEXTAREA>.
WRAP Sets how to handle wordwrapping in the <TEXTAREA>.

Hyperlinks
A hyperlink is a pointer from a World Wide Web page to another file on the World Wide Web. The
destination of the hyperlink is most often another World Wide Web page, but it can also be a
multimedia file or even a program.
 <A> (Anchor)
The < A > tag designates the start or destination of a hypertext link.
Syntax
<A HREF=url NAME=name >
The < A > (anchor) element requires the h r e f or the n a m e property to be specified. Both text and
images can be included within an anchor. An image that is an anchor has a border whose color
indicates whether the link has been visited. The < A > element is an inline element and requires a
closing tag.
Attributes
HREF Sets or retrieves the destination URL or anchor point.
NAME Sets or retrieves the name of the control, bookmark, or application.
Example: The following examples use the A element to link files, open a file, include an image as
part of a link, define an anchor, and invoke a function.
<-- Link to a server. -->
<A HREF="http://www.microsoft.com">Microsoft home page.</A>

<-- Link to a file in the same directory. -->


<A HREF="home.htm">home.htm</A>

<-- Open a file in the window specified by TARGET. -->


<A TARGET="viewer" HREF="sample.htm">Open in window</A>

<-- Include an IMG element as a part of the link. -->


<A HREF="http://www.microsoft.com"><IMG SRC="images/bullet.gif">link</A>

<-- Link to an anchor. -->


<A HREF="#anchor">anchor</A>

<-- Define an anchor. -->


<A NAME="anchor">

<-- Invoke a JScript function -->


<A HREF="javascript:window.open()">link</A>

Miscellanoeus Tags
 <DIV> (Division)
The < D I V > element is used to represent different kinds of containers in a document such as chapter,
section, abstract, appendix, etc.
Syntax
<DIV ALIGN=CENTER|LEFT|RIGHT TITLE=text>
Attributes
ALIGN Displays the element left flush, right flush, or centered relative to the
display or table.
TITLE Used to provide advisory information.
The < D I V > element is a block element. Both the start and end tags are required.
Example: This example uses two < D I V > elements to align two sections of text differently.
<DIV>
This text represents a section.
</DIV>
<DIV ALIGN=CENTER>
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This text represents another section, and its text is centered.
</DIV>
 <HR> (Horizontal Rule)
The < H R > tag draws a horizontal rule. The HR element is a block element and does not require a
closing tag.
Syntax
<HR ALIGN=CENTER|LEFT|RIGHT COLOR=color NOSHADE SIZE=n WIDTH=n>
Attributes
ALIGN Sets the alignment of the <HR> relative to the display or table.
COLOR Sets the color to be used by the <HR>.
NOSHADE Sets whether the horizontal rule is drawn with 3-D shading.
SIZE Sets the height of the HR object.
WIDTH Sets the calculated width of the <HR>.
 HTML comment
This tag prevents any enclosed text or HTML source code from being parsed and displayed in the
browser window.
Syntax:
<!-- comment- -->
Comments can contain other HTML elements. Comments do not nest. Start and end tags are
required.
Frames
A frames page is a special kind of HTML page that divides the browser window into different areas
called frames, each of which can display a different page. Frames pages are often used for catalogs,
lists of articles, or any other kind of page where clicking a hyperlink in one frame displays a page in
another frame. Authors use frames pages because they contain built-in navigation and present a
consistent user interface (that is, the structure and layout of frames).
For example, a frames page created by using the Banner and Contents frames page template
contains three frames: Banner, Contents, and Main.

A frames page itself contains no visible content: It's just a container that specifies which other pages
to display and how to display them. When you click a hyperlink on a page displayed in one frame, the
page pointed to by that hyperlink typically is displayed in another frame, called the target frame
 <FRAMESET> (Frameset Tags)

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The < F R A M E S E T > tag specifies a frameset, which is used to organize multiple frames and
nested framesets. The < F R A M E S E T > element is a block element and requires a closing tag
Syntax
<FRAMESET BORDER=pixels BORDERCOLOR=color COLS=col-widths
FRAMEBORDER=NO|YES|0|1 FRAMESPACING=spacing ROWS=row -heights>
Attributes
BORDER Sets the space between the frames, including the 3-D border.
BORDERCOLOR Sets the border color of the < F R A M E S E T > .
COLS Sets the frame widths of the object.
FRAMEBORDER Sets whether to display a border for the frame.
FRAMESPACING Sets the amount of additional space between the frames.
ROWS Sets the frame heights of the object.
Example: This example uses the FRAMESET element to define three columns of rectangular frames
on a page.
<FRAMESET COLS="25%, 50%, *">
<FRAME SRC="contents.htm">
<FRAME SRC="info.htm">
<FRAME SCROLLING="NO" SRC="graphic.htm">
</FRAMESET>

 <FRAME> (Frame Tags)


The < F R A M E > specifies an individual frame within a <FRAMESET> element. The FRAME element is a
block element and does not require a closing tag.
Syntax:
<FRAME BORDERCOLOR=color FRAMEBORDER=NO | YES | 0 | 1 HEIGHT=n
MARGINHEIGHT=pixels MARGINWIDTH=pixels
NAME=window_name|_blank|_parent|_self|_top NORESIZE=NORESIZE|RESIZE
SCROLLING=AUTO | NO | YES SRC=url WIDTH=n >
Attributes:
BORDERCOLOR Sets the border color of the < F R A M E > .
FRAMEBORDER Sets whether to display a border for the frame.
HEIGHT Sets the height of the < F R A M E > .
MARGINHEIGHT Sets the top and bottom margin heights before displaying the text in a frame.

MARGINWIDTH Sets the left and right margin widths before displaying the text in a frame.
NAME Sets the window or frame name.
NORESIZE Sets whether the user can resize the frame.
SCROLLING Sets whether the frame can be scrolled.
SRC Sets a URL to be loaded by the < F R A M E > .
WIDTH Sets the calculated width of the < F R A M E > .
Example: This example uses the < F R A M E > element to define properties of the frame, including the
location of the page loaded by the frame.
<FRAME FRAMEBORDER=0 SCROLLING=NO SRC="sample.htm">

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