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The Effects of Cigarette Smoking Phuoc Nguyen

General Purpose: To inform Specific Purpose: At the end of my speech, the audience will be able to explain two major effects of cigarette smoking. Thesis: Studies have indicated that cigarette smoking is a significant risk factor for developing chronic disorders.

I. Introduction A. Each year, an estimate of a half a million Americans die from smoking related diseases. That is more than AIDS, drug abuse, car accidents, and murder combined (Life Extension, 2003) 1. Understanding the effects of cigarette smoking can influence a persons choice to smoke or not. 2. As college students, you are usually faced with the pressure of cigarette smoking; therefore, it is important to realize the effects of smoking. After studying this topic for the past week, I have gathered information that you will find very interesting. Studies have indicated that cigarette smoking is a significant risk factor for developing chronic disorders. Today I am going to discuss two major effects of cigarette smoking, which are emphysema and coronary heart disease.

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Emphysema is defined as the over-inflated and eventual destruction of the tiny air sacs in the lungs called alveoli (Life Extension, 2003). 1. During the respiratory process, the alveoli expand and contract in unison as air is inhaled and exhaled. In emphysema patients, these chambers lose their elasticity, becoming more and more like a balloon that is flabby from overuse. To compensate for their inefficiency, the air sacs over expand and may rupture and form cysts (Life Extension, 2003). a. When the chambers become damaged, the carbon dioxide cannot be expelled completely. It therefore, accumulates as stagnant air, interfering with the ability of the lungs to achieve a full intake of oxygen. Shortness of breath results, and as breathing requires more effort, the muscles of the neck, chest, and abdomen have to work much harder to get enough oxygen into the bloodstream. The over development of these muscles results in the barrel-chested look of the emphysema patient (Life Extension, 2003). Other symptoms include: weight loss, memory loss, insomnia, chronic cough with thick mucus, morning headaches, and cyanosis.

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There are about three million emphysema patients in the United States. It is more common in males than females and is manifested between the ages of 50 and 60. Emphysema is irreversible, but there are treatments to reduce symptoms. a. Antibiotics, bronchodilators, exercise, quitting smoking, eating a balanced and nutritious diet, avoiding areas that are dusty and polluted, flu and pneumonia vaccines, surgery, and lung transplants are some treatments used with emphysema patients.

Emphysema not only damages your lungs, but can also harm your heart, an illness known as coronary heart disease. B. Coronary Heart disease is a condition caused by an interrupted or diminished blood flow through the coronary arteries to the heart muscle (American Heart Association, 2002). 1. The most common way that this flow of oxygen-rich blood becomes reduced is by the build up of fatty deposits or the formation of a blood clot in the arteries. When the blood supply to the heart is interrupted it sometimes causes a severe chest pain known as angina. When the blood supply is cut off completely, a heart attack occurs (American Heart Association, 2002). 2. The number one risk factor for coronary heart disease is cigarette smoking, which can also lead to other risk factors. a. High blood pressure, high cholesterol, physical inactivity, obesity and overweight, diabetes, and alcohol are other risk factors (American Heart Association, 2002). The nicotine in cigarettes makes your body release adrenaline. Adrenaline causes your blood vessels to constrict and your heart to beat faster, which raises your blood pressure (American Heart Association, 2002). In addition, carbon monoxide inhaled through smoking robs the bodys needed oxygen, since the red blood cells are quicker to attach on the poisonous gas than oxygen (American Heart Association, 2002).

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A cigarette smoker has two or three times the risk of having a heart attack than a nonsmoker. Males who are 65 and older are more susceptible to the disease. Studies have also shown that women who smoke and use oral contraceptives greatly increase their risk of coronary heart disease compared with nonsmoking women who use oral contraceptives (American Heart Association, 2002). There are no cures for coronary heart disease, but medications and surgery are available to suppress the symptoms.

6. III. Conclusion A. B.

Finally, I do not completely understand why cigarettes are still on the market, when they are harmful to ones health. Studies have indicated that cigarette smoking is a significant risk factor for developing chronic disorders. 1. The results indicated that cigarette smoking can lead to emphysema, which is a case that progresses slowly and persistently, gradually reducing the patients ability to breathe and ultimately leading to death. The primary factor of coronary heart disease is cigarette smoking, which can lead to other factors, and cause the patients to experience angina and unfortunately a heart attack.

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Over 40,000 medical studies detail the evidence that smoking causes diseases and death. Each year, an estimated half million Americans die from smoking related diseases. That is more than AIDS, drug abuse, car accidents, and murder combined (American Heart Association, 2002)

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